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LOGGING 



THE 

PRINCIPLES AND GENERAL METHODS 

OF OPERATION IN THE 

UNITED STATES 



BY 

RALPH CLEMENT BRYANT, F.E., M.A. 

IklANTJFACTURERs' ASSOCIATION PROFESSOR OF LUMBERING 
YALE UNIVERSITY 



SECOND EDITION THOROUGHLY REVISED AND RESET 
TOTAX. ISSUE, SEVEN THOUSAND 



NEW YORK 

JOHN WILEY & SONS, Inc. 

London: CHAPMAN & HALL, Limited 

1923 



Copyright, 1913, 1923, 

BY 

RALPH CLEMENT BRYANT 



Stanbope iPrcss 

TECHNICAL COMPOSITION COMPANY 

F. H. GILSON COMPAKY 

BOSTON, U. S. A. 



TO 

THE MEMBERS OF THE NATIONAL LUMBER MANUFACTURERS' 

ASSOCIATION IN APPRECIATION OF THEIR INTEREST 

IN FORESTRY EDUCATION 



PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION 

The marked development, during the past decade, in power 
logging machinery and methods has made it desirable to revise 
the first edition. A chapter has also been added on the use of 
crawler tractors in logging work because their rapid adaptation 
to the loggers' needs indicates the extensive adoption of this form 
of equipment. This chapter has been prepared by A. Koroleff, 
a Russian forest engineer, who has spent much tune in studying 
the use of this kind of equipment on logging operations in the 
United States. 

The subject matter has been rearranged, in part, to better 
meet the needs of the teacher and student and much of the text 
has been rewritten. 

Acknowledgment is here made to those whose constructive 
criticisms and suggestions relating to the revision of the first 
edition have proved invaluable, and also to all others who have 
aided in the preparation of the text. 

R. C. BRYANT 

New Haven, Conn. 
September, 1923. 



PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION 

This volume has been prepared as a text-book for use in Forest 
Schools, The subject is broad in scope and an attempt has 
been made to cover only the more important features of opera- 
tion; hence the innumerable variations in equipment and method 
which are pecuUar to different forest regions are not included. 
Of the many minor industries related to logging, only two of 
the more important are treated, turpentine orcharding and tan- 
bark harvesting. 

One of the most difficult and costly features of a logging opera- 
tion is the movement of the timber from the stump to the manu- 
facturing plant and the chief facilities and methods for doing this 
are discussed at length, especially logging railroads. The greatest 
emphasis is laid on features about which there is not much written 
material available, while engineering subjects such as road surveys 
and the measurement of earth-work and rock-work are omitted 
because they are treated in numerous other text-books. 

In preparing this volume the author has consulted freely 
many of the Imnber trade journals, especially The Timberman 
and the American Lumberman; the various publications of the 
U. S. Forest Service; "Earthwork and Its Cost," by Gillette; 
articles in numerous periodicals, especially the Forestry Quar- 
terly; and unpublished nianuscripts. 

Many of the photographs and drawings are original; the others 
have been secured from various sources and credit for them has 
been given whenever their origin was known. The data on 
timberland ownership are from a report on the Lumber Industry 
by the Bureau of Corporations of the Department of Commerce 
and Labor. The log rules in the Appendix were taken chiefly 
from the Woodsman's Handbook, by Graves; two tables of cubic 
contents are from the Forestry Quarterly, and one from the Manual 
for Northern Woodsmen, by Cary. 

The author wishes to acknowledge his indebtedness to all who 



viii PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION 

have aided him in any way in the preparation of this volume, 
particularly to Prof. Samuel J. Record, who assisted in the cor- 
rection of the manuscript. 

R. C. BRYANT 
New Haven, Conn. 
April, 1913. 



CONTENTS 



PART I 
GENERAL 



Page 

Chapter I. Forest Resottrces 3 

Forest Area of United States 3 

Stand of Saw Timber in United States 4 

Ownership of Saw Timber by Regions 4 

Commercial Species 6 

Chapter II. Logging Methods 22 

Summary of Logging Methods 24 



PART II 
PREPARING LOGS FOR TRANSPORT 

Chapter III. Forest Labor 41 

Length of Employment 41 

Character 42 

Methods of Employment and Payment 42 

Payment for Services 49 

Factors which influence Wages 50 

Efficiency 51 

Unions 53 

Organization 56 

Medical Attention 58 

Chapter IV. Camps 60 

Camp Location 60 

Types of Camps 61 

Boarding Department 71 

Camp Hygiene 73 

Chapter V. Woodworker's Tools and Equipment 82 

Axes 82 

Saws 83 

Power Felling Machines 90 

Power Log-making Machines 90 

Wedges 91 

Mauls and Sledges 92 

ix 



X CONTENTS 

Page 

Spring Boards 92 

Kilhig or Sampson 93 

Tree Faller .* 94 

Gun Stick 94 

Measuring Sticks 95 

Peavey 96 

Cant Hook 96 

Pickaroon 97 

Undercutter 97 

Use of Kerosene 97 

Chapter VI. Felling and Log-Making 98 

Season 98 

Deadening 100 

Direction of Fall 100 

Organization of Crews 101 

Cutting Areas 104 

Notching ' 105 

Felling 106 

Stump Heights 107 

Log-making 108 

Waste in Log-making 113 

Barking or Rossing 116 

Sniping 117 



PART III 
LAND TRANSPORT 

Chapter VII. Transportation 121 

Secondary Transportation 123 

Primary Transportation 126 

Chapter VIII. Animal Draft Power 129 

Oxen 129 

Horses 131 

Mules 132 

Rations 132 

Water Requirements 134 

Chapter IX. Skidways and Storage Sites 136 

Log Storage in the Forest 136 

Chapter X. Hand Logging and Animal Snaking 144 

Hand Logging 144 

Snaking with Animals 145 

Snaking Equipment 149 

Crews and Daily Output 153 



CONTENTS XI 

Page 

Chapter XI. Sleds and Sled-IIauli^g 157 

The Go-devil , 157 

The Lizard * 158 

Yarding Sleds 158 

The Bob .' 161 

The Jumbo 161 

The Two-sled 161 

Sled Roads 164 

Log Haulers 178 

Chapter XIL Wheeled Vehicles 184 

Two-wheeled Vehicles 184 

Wagons 189 

Traction Engines for Wagon Haul 196 

Motor Trucks 198 

Chapter XIIL Tractors 204 

Chapter XIV. Power Skidding 214 

Cableway or Overhead Skidding System 214 

The Snaking System 229 

The Slack-rope System 232 

Swinging and Roading 245 

Fuel Requirements 249 

Spark Arresters 251 

Electric Drive 252 

Chapter XV. Aerial Tramways 255 

Chapter XVI. Timber Slides and Chutes 262 

Types 262 

Grades 271 

Curves 272 

Operation 273 



/ 



Chapter XVII. Forest Railroads 278 

Pole Roads 278 

Stringer Roads 281 

Steel-rail Roads 283 

Advantages of Railroad Transportation 283 

Choice of Gauge 285 

Rights-of-way 286 

Location 287 

Chapter XVIII. Railroad Construction 293 

Clearing the Right-of-way 293 

Fills and Cuts 294 

Movement of Earth 297 



Xll CONTENTS 

Page 

Rock Excavation 304 

Blasting 304 

Explosives 306 

Stump Blasting 311 

Timber Work 313 

Track Supplies 322 

Steel Laying and Removal 326 

Chapter XIX. Inclines 334 

Chapter XX. Motive Power and Rolling Stock 341 

Locomotives 341 

Hauling Ability of Locomotives 346 

Fuel for Locomotives 349 

Spark Arresters 350 

Water 352 

Cars 352 

Narrow Gauge 352 

Broad Gauge 353 

Rolling Stock and Motive Power Equipment 356 

Chapter XXI. Loading and Unloading Cars 360 

Loading Cars 360 

Special Loading Devices 366 

Unloading Log Cars 372 



PART IV 

WATER TRANSPORT 

Chapter XXII. Floating and Rafting 383 

Disadvantages 383 

Requirements for a Driveable Stream 387 

Dams 389 

Sluice Gates 393 

Log Carriers 398 

Improvement of the Stream Bed and Banks 398 

Storage and Sorting Facilities 402 

The Drive 407 

Log Marks and Brands 409 

Species that float 412 

Labor 413 

Conduct of the Drive 414 

Rafting on Streams 419 

Ocean Rafting 427 

Log Barges 430 

Sunken Logs 430 



CONTENTS Xlii 

Page 

Chapter XXIII. Flumes and Log Sluices 433 

Type of Box 433 

Trestles '. . . 438 

Terminals 441 

Location 442 

Construction 445 

Operation 447 

Appendix 

Bibliography 455 

Terms used in Logging 469 

Logging Camp Kitchen Utensils 521 

Animal Rations 525 

Wolff-Lehmann Feeding Standards 525 

Dry Matter and Digestible Food Ingredients 526 

Rations fed to Animals 528 

Weight of Feeding Stuffs 529 

Index 531 



PART I 
GENERAL 



LOGGING 



\/ioRl 



CHAPTER I 



OREST RESOURCES 

The original forested area of the United States was 822,238,000 
acres and contained approximately 5,200 billion board feet of 
timber. The present area is about 463,461,000 acres and the total 
stand is estimated to be 2,215 billion board feet. The original 
and present areas, by regions, are shown in Table I and the pres- 
ent estimated volume of saw timber in each region is shown in 
Table II. 



Table I 
FOREST AREA OF THE UNITED STATES BY 



REGIONS! 



Region 




Area 




Original 


Per cent 
of total 


Present 


Per cent 
of total 


Total 


822,238,000 
38,908,000 
69,610,000 
103,680,000 
170,560,000 

170,240,000 
128,400,00a 


100.00 
4.73 

8.46 
12.60 
20.75 

20.75 
15.61 
7.75 
9.35 


463,461,000 
24,708,000 
28,678,000 
57,100,000 
56,682,000 

99,000,000 
78,865,000 
60,842,000 
57,586,000 


100.00 


New England 

Middle Atlantic 

Lake 


5.33 
6.20 
12.32 


Central 


12.23 


South Atlantic and 
East Gulf.... 


21.36 


Lower Missis.sippi 


17.02 


Rocky Mountain 

Pacific Coast 


63,720,000 
77,120,000 


13.12 
12.42 







1 Based on data from " Timber Depletion, Lumber Prices, Lumber Exports, and Concen- 
tration of Timber Ownership." Report on Senate Resolution 311. Forest Service, U. S. Dept. 
of Agriculture, Washington, 1920. 

The region west of the Great Plains has less than 26 per cent 
of the total forested area, yet it contains 61 per cent of the 
timber remaining in the United States. The New England and 

3 



LOGGING 



Middle Atlantic regions, in which nearly one-third of the lumber 
produced in this country is consumed, contain only 4 per cent 
of the saw timber while the entire area east of the Rocky Moun- 

Table II 
STAND OF SAW TIMBER IN THE UNITED STATES BY REGIONS^ 



Region 


Saw timber 
area 


Total saw timber 


Softwood.^ 


Hardwoods 


Thousands 
of acres 


Million 
board feet 


Per 
cent 


Million 
board feet 


Million 
board feet 


Total 


249,652 
10,761 

11,455 
24,030 
30,451 

46,200 

41,035 

41,059 
44,661 


2,214,893 
49,799 

44,857 
110,110 
144,470 

220,577 

280,908 

223,141 
1,141,031 


100 
2 

2 
5 

7 

10 

13 

10 
51 


1,755,218 
38,480 

15,353 
40,760 
11,318 

130,827 

148,308 

223,141 
1,141,031 


459 675 


New England. . 
Middle Atlan- 
tic 

Lake 


11,319 

29,504 
69 350 


Central 

South Atlantic 
and East Gulf 

Lower Missis- 
sippi 

Rocky Moun- 
tain 


133,152 
83,750 
132,600 


Pacific Coast. . 





' Data from Senate Resolution 311. 

tains, which consumes nearly 90 per cent of the lumber output 
of the country, has only 39 per cent of the saw timber. 
The ownership of the saw timber is shown in Table III. 

Table III 
OWNERSHIP OF SAW TIMBER BY REGIONS (millions of board feet)' 





Tota 


Federal 


State and 
Municipal 




Region 


Total 


National 
Forest 


Private 


Eastern 
United States 
Rocky Moun- 
tains 

Pacific Coast 


850,721 

223,141 
1,141,031 


8,184 

157,618 
434,300 


4,184 

145,449 
348,000 


10,000 

9,791 
39,000 


832,537 

55,732 
667,731 


Total 


2,214,893 


600,102 


497,633 


58,791 


1,556,000 







' Based on data contained in Senate Resolution 311. 

Private interests control 70.3 per cent of the total, the Federal 



FOREST RESOURCES 5 

Government 27.1 per cent and states and municipalities 2.6 per 
cent. A Bureau of Corporation report' states that approximately 
46 per cent of the private holdings are in the Pacific Northwest, 
29.1 per cent in the southern pine region, 4.5 per cent in the Lake 
States and 20.4 per cent in other regions. 

The ownership of the timber lands in the Pacific Northwest 
is concentrated in a comparatively few hands. Three interests 
in 1913, the date of the report, controlled 11 per cent, eight 
holders 15.6 per cent, twenty-two holders 20.8 per cent, and one 
hundred and ninety-five holders 38 per cent of the total private- 
ly owned stumpage in the United States. 

In the South the holdings have not been so large because the 
stand of timber per acre is lower than on the Pacific Coast, and 
there have not been the large land grants which were common 
in the West; consequently the timber has been held by a greater 
number of companies. Twenty-nine interests owned 16 per cent 
of the total standing timber in the region; sixty-seven holders, 
24 per cent; one hundred and fifty-nine owners, 33 per cent; and 
five hundred and fifty-eight holders, approximately 50 per cent. 
The sixty-seven largest interests controlled 39 per cent of the 
longleaf, 19 per cent of the loblolly and shortleaf, 29 per cent of 
the cypress and 11 per cent of the hardwood stumpage. In 
1912 it was estimated that only 1,200,000 acres of yellow pine, 
containing 18,000,000,000 board feet were not held by manu- 
facturers. ^ 

In the Lake States, six interests controlled 54 per cent of the 
white and Norway pine stumpage, 16 per cent of other conifers 
and 2 per cent of the hardwoods, and thirty-three interests con- 
trolled 77 per cent of the white and Norway pine. 

The timber in other regions is di\aded among many owners, 
controlling a limited acreage. Few holdings in the Northeast 
aggregate more than 100,000 acres. 

The chief logging regions previous to 1870 were the New Eng- 
land and Middle Atlantic States, but about 1880 the Lake States 
showed a larger production than any other section. Although 

1 See The Lumber Industrj% Part I, Standing Timber. Bureau of Cor- 
porations, Dept. of Commerce and Labor, Washington, 1913. 

2 Estimat<» by James D. Lacey and Co., Chicago, Illinois. See Official 
Report Tenth Annual Convention National Lumber Manufacturers' Asso- 
ciation, May 7 and 8, 1912, p. 94. 



6 LOGGING 

they still ranked first in 1899 a rapid decline soon began and the 
center shifted to the southern states which have ranked first 
since that time, although the output on the Pacific Coast is rapidly 
approaching that in the South. Before the close of the next 
decade the center of production will move to the West Coast 
wliich contains the greater part of the reserve supply of saw timber 
in this country. 

COMMERCIAL SPECIES 

Softwoods comprise approximately 71 per cent of the total saw 
timber in the United States, 61 per cent of which is found in the 
Pacific Coast forests. Douglas fir represents the largest volume 
of softwoods, namely, 34 per cent, southern yellow pine 14.6 
per cent, western yellow pines 14.2 per cent, western hemlock 
5.4 per cent, the true firs 5.4 per cent and redwood 4.1 per cent. 
The remainder is represented by many species of which western 
white pine, sugar pine, western red cedar, lodgepole pine, western 
spruce, eastern spruce and eastern hemlock are the more impor- 
tant from the standpoint of volume. 

The commercial hardwoods are all found in the eastern forests, 
and among them oak is the most important representing 33 per 
cent, birch, beech and maple 16.3 per cent, and red gum 9.6 per 
cent. The remainder includes many species among the more 
important of which are chestnut, hickory, cottonwood, ash and 
yellow poplar. 

The stand by species and by regions is shown in Table IV. 

SOFTWOODS 

Douglas fir. — This species (Pseudotsuga taxifolia) also known 
as Oregon pine, is the most important tree on the Pacific Coast 
from which lumber is produced. The largest manufacturing 
plants are located on Puget Sound, the Columbia River and har- 
bors along the Pacific Ocean in Washington and Oregon. A major 
part of the log supply for these mills is carried by railroads to 
tide water or to large streams where it is rafted and towed to the 
manufacturing plants. The lumber is marketed locally, in the 
prairie regions both west and east of the Mississippi River and an 
extensive market is being developed along the Altantic Seaboard, 
shipments coming chieflj^ via the Panama Canal. The export 
trade also provides an outlet for a relatively large volume of lumber 



FOREST RESOURCES 



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8 LOGGING 

which is shipped to Europe, Asia, the South Sea Islands and the 
western coast of South America. 

y^'Douglas fir grows in dense, ahiiost pure stands in the Pacific 
Coast region yielding an average of from 35,000 to 00,000 board 
feet of merchantable timber per acre, with from 150,000 to 250,000 
feet in the better stands. Single trees have scaled 60,000 feet. 
The maximum reported yield per acre of Douglas fir is 585,000 
feet. This timber grew on the north shore of Puget Sound. 

The cut of Douglas fir in 1920 was 6,960,000,000 board feet. 

Southern Yellow Pine. — There are three species of yellow pine 
of commercial importance in the southern region; namely, long- 
leaf {Pinus palustris), shortleaf (P. echinata), and loblolly {P. 
tceda). The lumber manufactured from them is often marketed 
under the trade name of southern yellow pine, although it is 
customary for manufacturers in the longleaf region to sell all 
species under the name of " longleaf," while in parts of Arkansas 
and Louisiana loblolly is marketed as "soft shortleaf." In the 
Coastal Plain region of Virginia and the Carolinas where loblolly 
predominates the product is sold under the trade name of "North 
Carolina Pine." In some of the large eastern markets like New 
York and Philadelphia southern yellow pine often is sold under 
the trade name of "longleaf," or of "shortleaf," the distinction 
being based on the physical character of the wood. The term 
longleaf is applied to timbers and lumber having narrow annual 
rings, while coarse-grained lumber is called shortleaf. 
I Longleaf is preferred for timbers and flooring when maxi- 
mum strength or wearing quality is desired, while loblolly and 
shortleaf are used chiefly for finish and for general construction 
purposes. 

The annual production of yellow pine reached its maximum in 
_1909. Operators estimate that many of the largest mills will 
be cut out during the next ten years. 

The yellow pine forests are now the source of most of the lum- 
ber consumed in the South, and much of that used in the prairie 
regions of the Middle West. Southern yellow pine products 
are also shipped to New England, Canada, nearly all countries 
of Europe, to many parts of eastern South America and to the 
West Indies. They also have been the chief source of the rail- 
road lumber supplies of the East and South. 

The longleaf forests for many years have furnished a large 
part of the world's supply of naval stores. 



FOREST RESOURCES^ \) 

The manufacture of by-products, such as pulp, and products 
of distillation from mill waste and forest refuse is growing in 
importance. 

Longleaf grows chiefly in pure stands which run from 5000 to 
25,000 board feet per acre; shortleaf which seldom exceeds 6000 
feet per acre occurs with hardwoods on richer soils; virgin lob- 
lolly in southern Arkansas is associated with shortleaf in nearly 
pure pine forests ranging from 5000 to 30,000 feet per acre, the 
former comprising from 60 to 80 per cent of the total stand. 
The average stand over large areas does not exceed 10,000 feet. 
In the Coastal Plain region the second-growth forests of loblolly 
average from 5000 to 6000 feet per acre with a maximum of 15,000 
feet. The choicest longleaf stumpage is found in Calcasieu 
Parish in southwestern Louisiana. Logging has become more 
intensive during recent years and loggers now get from three 
to five times more timber per acre than formerly. 

The lumber cut in 1920 was 11,091,000,000 board feet. 

Western Yellow Pine. — Western yellow pine {Pinus ponderosa) 
is one of the more important merchantable species in the Rocky 
Mountain region. Its market is chiefly confined to the territory 
in which it grows where it is used for general construction purposes 
and for mining timbers. 

The stand in the Sierras, where it grows in mixture with sugar 
pine, Douglas fir, incense cedar and firs, ranges from 2000 to 
22,000 board feet per acre with an average of about 8000 feet. In 
Arizona and New Mexico it ranges from 3500 to 15,000' feet per 
acre and in the Black Hills of North Dakota about 6,000 feet. 
Maximum stands of 40,000 feet per acre have been reported. 

The cut of western yellow pine for 1920 was 2,290,000,000 
board feet. 

White Pine. — White pine {Pinus strobus) is of less importance 
in our lumber markets than formerly. Its manufacture is now 
chiefly confined to the state of Minnesota which contains the 
greater part of the remaining stumpage. 

Intensive utilization is practised, because of the high value 
of the better grades of lumber and the extensive demand for low 
grades for box board material for which this species is especially 
adapted. 

The virgin stands of white pine in Michigan averaged from 
10,000 to 75,000 board feet per acre, although a yield of 25 000 
feet was considered good. 



10 LOGGING 

The cut of eastern white pine is decreasing each year, the 
records for 1920 showing a total of 1,500,000,000 board feet. 

Western white pine {Pinus monticola) grows in Idaho, Mon- 
tana and Washington and is now being substituted in the mar- 
kets for eastern white pine. This timber is sold largely outside 
of the home territory, because Douglas fir and other woods can 
undersell it in the local markets. 

The tree rarely occurs in pure stands, but is associated with 
western larch (Larix occidentalis), western red cedar {Thuja 
plicata) and other firs {Abies sp.). It reaches its best develop- 
ment in Idaho, where in mixed stands of the above species rang- 
ing from 25,000 to 70,000 board feet per acre it comprises from 60 
to 70 per cent of the total. An occasional acre contains 130,000 
board feet. A single tree has yielded 29,800 board feet of lumber. 

The lumber cut in 1919 was 297,421,000 board feet. 

Hemlock. — There are two species now on the market known 
as eastern hemlock {Tsuga canadensis), and western hemlock 
{T. heterophylla) . 

It is only within the last thirty years that eastern hemlock 
has been regarded as of much value except for its bark, and even 
to-day the latter often commands as high a price as the 
timber. 

Hemlock grows both in pure forests and associated with other 
conifers. In Pennsylvania pure stands run as high as 15,000 
board feet per acre. The average in northern Michigan is 9000 
feet. In West Virginia, where hemlock occurs in a mixed forest, 
the average is from 2000 to 3000 feet per acre. The heaviest 
stands in the Appalachians range between 25,000 and 40,000 
feet per acre. 

The lumber cut in 1919 was 1,415,238,000 board feet. 

The western hemlock grows in the Pacific Coast forests, asso- 
ciated chiefly with Douglas fir and western red cedar. The lumber 
is superior to that of eastern hemlock. The bark is richer in tannin 
but it is not used extensively, because there are not many tanning 
establishments in the region and extract plants have not been de- 
veloped because high freight rates to eastern points limit the 
available market. The timber is used for general construction 
purposes and, to a limited extent in Oregon, for the manufacture 
of paper pulp. 

The yield per acre ranges from 7000 to 30,000 board feet. 



FOREST RESOURCES 11 

The lumber cut for 1919 was approximately 339,760,000 board 
feet. 

Redwood. — The redwood {Sequoia sempervirens) is confined to 
a narrow belt from 10 to 30 miles wide near the Pacific Coast, 
extending southward from southern Oregon to San Luis Obispo 
County in California. It is associated with Douglas fir, tanbark 
oak {Quercus densifiora), western red cedar and western hemlock. 
The chief commercial stands are in Humboldt and Del Norte 
Counties in the northern part of California. 

The average yield per acre is from 60,000 to 75,000 board feet, 
although 100,000 feet per acre is not uncommon. Single acres 
are said to have yielded 1,500,000 feet of sawed lumber, and 
individual trees have contained 480,000 board feet of merchantable 
timber. The highest stand so far reported is 2,500,000 feet per 
acre, but the yield in merchantable material was reduced 40 
per cent through breakage and other losses. The waste in log- 
ging redwood is enormous, because of the massive size of the trees 
and the brittle character of the timber. 

The trees average 6 or 7 feet in diameter, although from 10 
to 14 feet is not uncommon, with a maximum of about 20 feet. 
The clear length ranges from 100 to 200 feet. 

The lumber is marketed along the Pacific Coast, in the Far 
East, and some high grade lumber is shipped to the central 
and eastern parts of the United States. It furnishes wide boards 
of excellent quality for panels and interior finish. In the West 
it is used extensively for tanks, flume boxes, house construction, 
fence posts, shingles and shakes. 

There is very little redwood stumpage on the market, because 
the greater part of the timber is held by companies which are 
now exploiting it. 

The lumber cut^ in 1920 was approximately 476,500,000 feet. 

Cypress. — The commercial range of cypress (Taxodium 
distichum) is confined to a narrow strip of swampy land extend- 
ing along the Atlantic seaboard from North Carolina to Florida, 
along the Gulf Coast in Florida, Louisiana and western Missis- 
sippi, and up the Mississippi River to southern Arkansas. 

The average stands range from 5000 to 8000 board feet per acre, 
the better ones containing from 15,000 to 20,000 feet while an 
occasional acre in Louisiana reaches a maximum of 100,000 
' This includes the cut of the bigtree {Sequoia Washingtonia). 



12 LOGGING 

feet. It is a swamp species wherever it occurs in commercial 
quantities and its exploitation presents numerous problems not 
found in dry-land logging. 

It has been stated that at least one-third of the standing 
cypress is affected with a fungous disease, which causes holes 
in the wood from j to 1 inch wide and often several inches long. 
Timber so affected is called "pecky" or "peggy" cypress. The 
disease is caused by a species of Daedalia which also atacks the 
incense cedar of the Pacific Coast. Decay stops as soon as the 
tree is cut and manufactured into lumber. Cypress timber on 
knolls just above the level of the water is usually unsound and 
the trees are fewer in number than on the wet lands. Sound 
timber occurs in patches in the forest without apparent regularity. 
It is difficult to distinguish pecky trees before they are cut. The 
trees in the Atchafalaya River basin are of larger size and less 
defective than those in the Mississippi River bottoms. 

Cypress is an extremely durable wood and is epecially esteemed 
for greenhouse construction, certain forms of cooperage, silos, 
tanks, shingles, interior and exterior finish for buildings, and all 
purposes where resistance to decay is important. 

The lumber cut in 1920 was approximately 625,000,000 
feet. 

Eastern Spruces. — There are three species which are found 
chiefly in Maine, northern New Hampshire, Vermont, New York, 
West Virginia and North Carolina. They are the white spruce 
(Picea canadensis), red spruce (P. rubra) and the black spruce 
(P. mariana). The present stand is estimated at 31 billion board 
feet, a large part of which i§ in New England and New York. 

Spruce occurs in pure stands on the higher elevations, and in 
mixture with beech, birch, hard maple and eastern hemlock on 
the lower elevations. It reaches its best form in the mountains 
of West Virginia at an elevation of from 3000 to 4000 feet. Bal- 
sam fir (Abies balsamea) is associated with spruce in the northern 
part of its range and is now marketed with it for pulpwood, 
without distinction as to price. 

Spruce is one of the most valuable species for the production 
of paper pulp and several million cords of Canadian and domestic 
spruce are consumed annually for this purpose. It also is used 
for house timbers, clapboards and general construction purposes 
although the production of spruce lumber has greatly declined 



FOREST RESOURCES 



13 



during recent years owing to the higher profits made from con- 
verting spruce stumpage into pulpwood. 

The chief home markets are in New England and the Northern 
tide-water ports. 

The following shows the approximate stands in the various 
states : 



New York 

Maine 

New Hampshire 

Vermont 

West Virginia 



Stands per acre 



Board feet 

2000- 3000 
3000- 4000 
3000- 4000 
3000- 4000 
6000-10.000 



Board feet 
If), 000 
15,000-20,000 
40,000 
15,000 
00,000 



The cut of lumber in 1919 was 534,685,000 board feet. 

Western Cedars. — The cedars of the Pacific Coast which are 
of the greatest commercial importance are the western red cedar 
(Thuya plicata), the yellow cypress (Chamcecyparis nootkatensis) 
Port Orford cedar (C. lawsoniana) and the incense cedar {Liho- 
cedrus decurrens). 

Western red cedar is the most important shingle wood in the 
United States, and is also cut extensively for telephone and 
telegraph poles. When cut into lumber it is used for car siding 
and roofing, weather-boarding, pattern-making, boat building, 
cabinet manufacture and a variety of other purposes where 
strength is not required. 

It seldom occurs in pure stands, but is associated with Douglas 
fir, western hemlock, western larch (Larix occidentalis) , several 
species of firs and redwood. The average stand per acre over 
large areas, is from 9000 to 10,000 board feet, with maximum stands 
of 40,000 feet. 

Yellow cypress which is less widelj^ known in the market, is 
used for boat building, vcabinet work, cigar boxes, lead pencils 
and interior finish. 

It is associated with Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis), western 
hemlock, and other species of minor importance. It occurs 
singly, or in small groups and, in Alaska, runs from 500 to 2500 
board feet per acre. Single acres are said to contain 40,000 feet. 



14 LOGGING 

Port Orford cedar is limited in amount and is not marketed 
extensively. It is a favorite wood for ship building, and is also 
used for interior finish, outside trim, match wood and cabinet 
work for which it is especially fitted. It is usually associated 
with western red cedar, Sitka spruce, western hemlock and 
Douglas fir. It occurs as single trees, rarely in groups. 

Incense cedar is not cut into lumber to any extent, because 
of the excessive taper of the bole, and also because a large per- 
centage of the tiinber is attacked by a fungus {Daedalia vorax) 
which excavates galleries throughout the wood similar in char- 
acter to the "peck" in cypress. The timber is used chiefly for 
fence posts, laths, shingles, cigar boxes, pencil stock, and the 
best grade lumber for furniture and for mining and irrigation 
flumes. 

It is associated with western yellow pine, sugar pine, Douglas 
fir, western white pine and white fir {Ahies concolor). The stand 
per acre in California ranges from 500 to 2000 board feet per 
acre. 

The lumber cut of western cedars in 1919 was 332,234,000 
feet of lumber. 

Sugar Pine. — Sugar pine (Pinus lamhertiana) is found chiefly 
in southern Oregon and in California where it is an important 
commercial tree. It occurs in mixed stands associated with 
western yellow pine, incense cedar and Douglas fir on the lower 
limits of its range; and with white fir, red fir {Abies magnijicd) 
and the bigtree on the higher elevations. The jaeld in the 
Sierras ranges from 2000 to 15,000 board feet per acre with a 
maximum of 60,000 feet. An occasional tree contains 54,000 
feet. 

Sugar pine is especially prized for the manufacture of "shakes" 
or split shingles, and is also extensively used for fruit boxes, 
match wood, sash, doors, and blinds, ship decking and interior 
trim. The lumber is often substituted for that of eastern white 
pine. The greater part is marketed locally, but it is also 
shipped as far East as New England. 

The cut in 1919 was 133,658,000 feet. 

Lodgepole Pine. — This tree (Pinus contorta) is found from 
Alaska to California and east to Colorado, and is used for mine 
timbers, fence posts, lumber and crossties. The timber is small 
and knotty and lumber sawed from it is suitable only for general 



FOREST RESOURCES 



15 



construction purposes. It is not in demand for interior finish 
except in the vicinity of the region where it is manufactured. 

YIELD PER ACRE IN BOARD FEET, GALLATIN COUNTY, 
MONTANA' 

(Cutting to a diameter breast high of U inches.) 



Type 


I.odgepole pine 


Creek . 


Board feet 
5900 
7200 
3800 
7000 


Eastern Slope 


Western Slope 

Northern Slope 





YIELD PER ACRE IN BOARD FEET, MEDICINE BOW 
NATIONAL FOREST, WYOMINQi 

(Cutting to a diameter breast high of 11 inches.) 



Type 



Pine forest: 
Quality I... 
Quality II. . 
Quality III, 

Spruce forest . 



Lodgepole pii 



Ties, 6 

inches by 8 

inches by 8 

feet 



Number 

200 
1.30 

50 

55 



1100 



240 
230 



3000 
1100 
5.50 
700 



Spruce 
lumber 



1000 

200 

60 

4700 



Average for tract. 



108 



500 



1100 



500 



1 From Forest Tables — Lodgepole Pine. Circular 126, U. S. Forest Service, 1907, pp. 23-24. 

Lodgepole pine often occurs in dense pure stands in the 
Sierras. At high elevations it is frequently associated with 
Douglas fir, alpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) and other firs. 

Lodgepole in pure stands ranges between 4000 and 30,000 
board feet per acre, the average over large areas being about 
8000 feet. 

The cut in 1919 was 16,281,000 board feet. 

Western Spruce. — The spruces of importance in the western 
part of the United States are the Engelmann spruce (Picea 
engelmanni) and the Sitka spruce. 



16 LOGGING 

Engelmann spruce grows at high altitudes often in pure forests. 
It is frquently associated with alpine fir, western larch, lodgepole 
pine and western yellow pine. 

The timber is sawed into lumber and dimension stock for 
local construction purposes. 

On moist flats and along streams Engelmann spruce and lodge- 
pole pine form stands containing from 40,000 to 50,000 board feet. 
On the Pike National Forest the maximum stands are 35,000 feet 
and the average stands 5000 feet. In the Sopris National Forest 
in Colorado, the stands of Engelmann spruce and associated 
species range from 4000 to 20,000 feet per acre from 35 to 
75 per cent being Engelmann spruce. 

Sitka spruce is the chief commercial species of Alaska and is 
also found in large quantities in Washington and Oregon. It 
is seldom found in pure stands, except on areas of from 1 to 3 
acres on which the stand ranges from 10,000 to 90,000 board 
feet per acre. Individual trees have been reported which contain 
25,000 feet. On the lower elevations which is the only place it 
grows to commercial size it is usually associated with western 
hemlock, western red cedar and yellow cypress. 

The product from the West Coast forest is used for finish, 
siding, factory stock, box boards and laths. It is also highly 
prized for airplane construction. In Alaska it is used chiefly 
for box shooks for the salmon industry and for building material. 

The lumber cut of the western spruces in 1919 was approximately 
445,283,000 feet, the greater part of which came from Washing- 
ton and Oregon. 

Other Conifers. — Among the conifers cut in small quantities 
are the eastern larch {Larix americana) now often sold with 
Norway and white pine, and also made into crossties, posts and 
poles; the western larch (L. occidentalis) manufactured into 
dimension lumber, ties and posts; eastern red cedar (Juniperus 
virginiana) used chiefly for pencil wood, posts and poles; and a 
number of pines found in the western part of the country which 
are of local importance only. 

HARDWOODS 

The hardwood forests extend south from northern New York 
through the Appalachian Mountains and from central Wis- 
consin and Michigan through the valleys of the Mississippi and 



FOREST RESOURCES 17 

Ohio Rivers to central Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama, and 
west to the Great Plains. The chief commercial species are the 
oaks, sugar maple, yellow poplar, red gum, chestnut, beech, 
birch, bass wood, hickory, elm, ash and cotton wood. 

The lumber cut in 1919 of the above hardwoods was 6,872, 
576,000 board feet or 20.3 per cent of the total lumber cut of the 
country. 

Yellow Poplar. — One of the more valuable hardwoods is the 
yellow poplar {Liriodendron tidipifera) which occurs, chiefly, in 
the rich hardwood forests of Virginia, West Virginia, Tennessee, 
North Carolina and Kentucky. It is used chiefly for weather- 
boarding, interior finish, furniture, bodies of automobiles and 
carriages, wagon boxes, woodenware, box boards and paper 
pulp. Wide boards command a high price for panels and shelving. 

The average stand per acre is seldom more than 2000 board 
feet. 

The cut in 1920 was 350,000,000 board feet. 

Oaks. — White oak (Quercus alba) is the most valuable of the 
numerous oaks and the best timber comes from the Appalachian 
region. The wood is used chiefly for high grade furniture, coop- 
erage stock, car frame material, flooring, interior finish, agri- 
cultural implements, and crossties for railroads. 

Several species belonging to the white oak group are now 
marketed as white oak, although but few show the fine radial 
markings of Quercus alba. 

'The red and black oaks are indigenous to the same region as 
the white oaks and are now used extensively for cooperage, 
interior finish, car frame material, furniture and many other 
uses where strength is essential. They are not as durable as 
the white oaks but large quantities are treated with preservatives 
and used for crossties. 

The cut of oak lumber of all kinds in 1920 was 2,500,000,000 
board feet. 

Maple. — Lumber is manufactured from several species, 
namely, the hard maple (Acer saccharum), the black maple {A. 
nigrum), the red maple {A. rubrum), the silver maple (A. sac- 
charinum) and the Oregon maple {A. macrophyllum) . The hard 
and the black maples produce the most valuable lumber, which 
is cut chiefly in Pennsylvania, the Lake States, New York, West 
Virginia, Ohio, Indiana and some of the southern and New 



18 LOGGING 

England States. The lumber is prized for flooring and furniture 
and is also used for woodenware and gunstoeks. Large quan- 
tities of the rough wood are utilized in destructive distillation. 

The lumber cut of maple in 1920 was 875,000,000 feet. 

Red Gum. — The red gum (Liquidambar styraciflua) is largely 
a tree of the lowlands and is found in the best form and in the 
heaviest stands along the Mississippi river bottoms in Arkansas, 
Mississippi, Missouri, Tennessee and Kentucky. 

Missouri virgin bottom lands contain about 5500 board feet 
per acre of merchantable timber and those in South Carolina 4000 
feet, but second-growth bottom land stands run as high as 
13,000 feet per acre. The maximum stands in the Mississippi 
river bottoms seldom exceed 15,000 board feet per acre. 

Red gum has become an important factor in the hardwood 
market and it is used extensively for furniture, tobacco boxes, 
fruit packages, and slack cooperage and other forms of containers. 

The lumber cut in 1920 was 850,000,000 board feet. 

Chestnut. — Chestnut {Castanea dentata) is widely distributed 
over the Central hardwood region, although 62 per cent of the 1919 
cut was manufactured in West Virginia, Pennsylvania, North 
Carolina and Virginia. The wood is extensively used for furni- 
ture, interior finish, shingles, fencing, telephone poles, veneer 
backing, slack cooperage and for the production of tannin extract. 

Chestnut grows in mixed forests of oak and other hardwoods 
but the sprout forests are largely pure. The stand per acre is 
extremely variable, averaging from 2000 to 6000 board feet. 

During the year 1920 475,000,000 feet of lumber was manu- 
factured from this species. 

Beech. — Beech (Fagus americana) is found chiefly in the 
northern and Appalachian forests associated with maple and 
birch. The centers of lumber production are in Indiana, Mich- 
igan, Pennsylvania, New York, Ohio and Kentucky. 

The chief uses of beech are for tool handles, clothes pins, 
flooring, slack cooperage, veneers and woodenware. Large 
quantities of rough wood are used for the production of wood 
alcohol and other products of distillation. 

The lumber cut in 1920 was 325,000,000 feet. 

Birch. — The commercial distribution of birch is largely con- 
fined to the states of Wisconsin, Michigan, New York, Vermont 
and Maine where it is associated chiefly with maple and beech, in 



FOREST RESOURCES 19 

stands running from 3000 to 8000 feet per acre. Paper birch 
(Betida papyrifera) in Maine averages about two cords, with a 
maximum of fifty cords per acre. 

The yellow birch (B. lutea) and sweet birch {B. lento) are used 
chiefly for furniture, vehicle hubs, tool handles, flooring, interior 
finish, veneers, cooperage, spool stock and novelties. The paper 
birch of Maine is used chiefly for spool stock, shoe pegs and 
shanks, toothpicks and novelty work. 

The lumber cut of birch in 1920 was 405,000,000 board feet. 

Bassivood. — This tree {Tilia americana) is associated with 
hemlock and other hardwoods in the northern and Appalachian 
forests. It is manufactured extensively into siding, rotary-cut 
veneer, car lining, heading, excelsior, baskets, slack cooperage, 
furniture backs, carriage bodies, and pulpwood. Although not 
durable it is one of the more valuable hardwoods because of its 
light weight, and the odorless character of the wood. 

The lumber cut in 1920 was 195,000,000 feet. The chief 
center of manufacture is Wisconsin where nearly 40 per cent of 
the total output is produced. 

Hickory. — The present commercial stands of hickory are 
found in the Appalachian and the Mississippi river regions. 
There are four species of commercial importance, namely, the 
big shellbark (Hicoria laciniosa), the shagbark {H. ovata), the 
pignut (H. glabra) and the mockernut (H. alba). The strongest 
and toughest one is the pignut, although the shagbark is but 
slightly inferior to it. The big shellbark is of medium quality 
only, while the mockernut is lacking in toughness, although it 
is strong. 

The manufacture of hickory lumber centers in Arkansas, Ten- 
nessee, Kentucky, West Virginia, Indiana and Mississippi. These 
States now produce about 72 per cent of the total cut. 

Hickory occurs singly among other hardwoods. The stands 
over large areas frequently range from 200 to 400 board feet 
per acre. 

About 65 per cent of the hickory cut is used for vehicle stock, 
10 per cent for tool handles, 9 per cent for heavy wagons, 8 per 
cent for agricultural implements, and the remainder for novelties 
of various kinds. About 1,000,000 cords are used annually for 
fuel. Saplings are sometimes split into barrel hoops, but this 
practice is less common than formerly. 



20 LOGGING 

The lumber cut in 1919 was 170,013,000 feet. 

Elm. — There are three elms commercially important in the 
United States, the rock elm {Ulmus racemosa), slippery or red 
elm (U. puhescens) and the white elm (U. americana) , all of 
which grow in the rich bottom lands along streams. Over one- 
half of the output is from the States of Wisconsin, Michigan and 
Indiana. Elm wood is used for hubs, bicycle rims, slack cooper- 
age, coiled hoops, basket splints and other purposes where an 
elastic wood is essential. 

The cut in 1920 was 225,000,000 feet. 

Ash. — There are several species of ash in the United States, 
but about 60 per cent of the lumber cut is white ash (Fraxinus 
americana), and 30 per cent Ijlack ash (F. nigra). The greater 
part of the lumber output is manufactured in the states bordering 
on the Ohio and Mississippi rivers. More than one-half of the 
output is produced in Arkansas, Louisiana, Wisconsin, Indiana 
and Tennessee. 

It is especially adapted for poles and shafts of wagons and 
carriages, sporting goods, agricultural implements, hoops and 
staves for pork barrels, packages and tool handles. 

In the lower Mississippi bottoms the stand ranges from 
2000 to 5000 board feet per acre. 

The lumber cut in 1919 was 154,931,000 feet. 

Cottonwood. — Several species {Populus sp.) are found in 
abundance and of large size in the bottom lands of the Mis- 
sissippi River. The greater part of the annual production comes 
from the States of Arkansas, Minnesota and Mississippi. It is 
in demand for boxes, wood pulp, lining for refrigerator cars, 
excelsior, woodenware and cheap furniture. 

The cut in 1919 was 143,730,000 board feet which is the lowest 
reported output. 

Other Hardwoods. — There are many other hardwoods placed 
on the market among them tupelo or bay poplar (Nyssa aquat- 
ica), which is manufactured into flooring, interior finish, plank- 
ing, and box boards in Louisiana and other Southern States; 
the cucumber tree (Magnolia acuminata) sold largely as yellow 
poplar; the buckeye (/Fscidiis glabra) manufactured into pulp, 
interior finish and woodenware; sycamore (Platanus occiden- 
talis) used for furniture and plug tobacco boxes; black walnut 
(Juglans nigra); cherry (Prunus serotina^- and other valuable 



FOREST RESOURCES 21 

cabinet woods. The above species, with the exception of tupelo, 
are common to the South Central and Appalachian regions 
and are associated with the other hardwoods. 

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE TO CHAPTER I 

Allen, E. T.: The Western Hemlock. Bui. No. 33, U. S. Bur. For., 1903. 
Betts, H. S. : Properties and Uses of Southern Pine. Cir. 164, U. S. Forest 

Service, 1909. 
BoisEN, Anton T., and Newlin, J. A.: The Commercial Hickories. Bui. 80, 

U. S. For. Ser., 1910. 
Bureau of Census, Dept. of Commerce: Lumber, Lath, and Shingles. 

Fourteenth Census of the United States. Forest Products: 1919. Washing- 
ton, 1922. 
Chittenden, Alfred K., and Hatt, W. Kendrick: The Red Gum. Bui. 58, 

U. S. Bur. For., 1905. 
Dana, S. T.: Paper Birch in the Northeast. Cir. 163, U. S. For. Ser., 1909. 
Fisher, Richard T.: The Redwood. Bui. No. 38, U. S. Bur. For., 1903. 
Forest Service, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture: Timber Depletion, Lumber 

Prices, Lumber Exports, and Concentration of Timber Ownership. Report 

on Senate Resolution 311, Washington, 1920. 
Foster, H. D., and Ashe, W. W.: Chestnut Oak in the Appalachians. Cir. 

135, U. S. For. Ser., 1907. 
Frothingham, E. H.: Douglas Fir; A Study of the Pacific Coast and Rocky 

Mountain Form. Cir. 150, U. S. For. Ser., 1909. 
Frothingham, Earl H. : Second-growth Hardwoods in Connecticut. Bui. 96, 

U. S. For. Ser., Washington, D. C, 1912, pp. 24-29. 
Greeley, W. B., and Ashe, W. W. : White Oak in the Southern Appalachians. 

Cir. 105, U. S. For. Ser., 1907. 
Hall, William L., and Maxwell, Hu: Uses of Commercial Woods of the 

United States; XL Pines. Bui. 99, U. S. For. Ser., 1911. 
Hall, WilHam L., and Maxwell, Hu: Uses of Commercial Woods of the 

United States; I. Cedars, Cypresses and Sequoias, Bul. 95, U. S. For. 

Ser., 1911. 
Hoffman, Bruce E. : Sitka Spruce of Alaska. Proc. of the Society of American 

Foresters, Vol. VII, No. 2., pp. 226-238. 
MoHR, Charles: The Timber Pines of the Southern United States. Bul. 

No. 13, U. S. Div. of For., Washington, D. C, 1897. 
Record, Samuel J.: Suggestions to Woodlot Owners in the Ohio Valley 

Region. Cir. 138, U. S. For. Service, p. 9, Washington, D. C, 1908. 
Spaulding, V. M.: The White Pine. Bul. No. 22, U. S. Div. of For., Wash- 
ington, D. C, 1899. 
The Lumber Industry. Report of the Bureau of Corporations, Department 

of Commerce and Labor. The American Lumberman, Chicago, Illinois, 

February 18, 1911. 
The American Lumber Industry. Official Report Tenth Annual Meeting 

National Lumber Manufacturers Association, Chicago, Illinois, 1912. 



CHAPTER II 
LOGGING METHODS 

The logging i ndustry co mp^rises both the preparation of the wood 
products of the forest for the manufacturing plant and their 
transportation to it or to market. The products of the log- 
ging industry are saw logs, pulpwood, acid-wood, stave and shingle 
bolts which are re-manufactured after they are removed from the 
forest, and hewed crossties, rived shingles, shakes, poles, posts, 
and piling which are marketed by the logger ready for use. 

The work of preparing a given class of products for removal 
from the forest is similar in all regions, although there may be 
some minor differences in technique which have come into local 
use. The form in which the raw material is taken from the 
forest depends not only on the purpose for which it is ultimately 
to be used, but also upon the size of the bole and the method of 
transportation. Thus an adequate number of logs must be 
at least long enough to make the maximum board lengths desired, 
but if the form of transportation permits, the logs may be double 
or triple the board lengths or the entire merchantable bole may 
be moved in one piece. Saw log and pulpwood operators often 
do not remove other forest products but confine their operations 
to one class of material. The various by-products, therefore, 
may be removed by others. 

The early logging operations were carried on near settlements 
on areas where the topographic conditions were most favorable 
for easy logging and from which the haul to the mill was compar- 
atively short. The work was done largely by settlers who cut 
a limited number of logs during the late fall and winter, when agri- 
cultural activities w^ere slack, and hauled the timber to the mill or 
to some stream down which the logs could be floated to destination. 
The equipment required was limited and required but little 
financial outlay. Logging became a distinct industry to which 
individuals devoled a large part or all of their time, only when 
lumber manufacture assumed a national character. 

22 



LOGGING METHODS 23 

There has been but Httle change, since the early days, in logging 
teehniqi^e in the Northeastern part of the United States where 
the wii^ers are favorable for sled transportation and there are 
many streams down which coniferous timber may be floated; 
however, marked engineering skill has been displayed in the 
improvement of streams for log floating purposes and the per- 
fection of sleds and sled roads for the movement of heavy loads. 
The power log hauler, either gasoline or steam, has replaced 
animal draft on some operations and flumes and log slides have 
been used to some extent but the original plan of operation has 
not been greatly modified. Individual logging units are, in general, 
limited in output. The aggregate cut of some pulpwood com- 
panies in this region is as great as that of large operators else- 
where, but it is the product of many medium- or small-sized 
operations rather than of one large one. 

The early development of logging practice in Pennsylvania 
and the Lake States was based upon the methods of the Northeast 
because climatic and other conditions were similar and the pioneer 
loggers were from the New England section. The most important 
improvements in logging technique were developed in the Lake 
States in order to overcome adverse conditions. For example, 
logging railroads were introduced in the Lake States in the late, 
"seventies" by a logger who was unable to haul his timber on 
sleds to water transportation, owing to the absence of sufficient 
snow. Power skidding methods also were first devised in this 
region in the early "eighties" to get logs out of glacial "pot holes" 
which could not be profitably brought out by animals. There 
is no indication, however, that railroad transportation gained an 
important place in logging in the Lake States imtil many years 
later, and power logging has never been used to any great extent 
to yard logs in that region. 

The development of the modern systems of power logging and 
the adaptation on a large scale of the railroad to logging purposes 
came with the shifting of the center of lumber manufacture from 
the Lake States to the South and to the West. The inability 
to use animals in the cypress forests was one of the main factors 
which led to the improvement of power logging systems which 
were early recognized by southern yellow pine and West Coast 
operators as applicable to dry land conditions. The need for a 
large continuous output early indicated the use of some form 



h. C. State Colkft€ 



24 LOGGING 

of logging railroad, and this form of transportation has reached 
a high state of development in every region except the Northeast. 

Logging and lumber manufacture have developed as a single 
enterprise in most forest regions. However, in certain parts of 
the Pacific Northwest especially in the regions tributary to Puget 
Sound, and the Columbia River, logging has been conducted as 
a business apart from lumber manufacture, the log output being 
placed on the general market or sold under contract to manu- 
facturers who have no logging facilities. The tendency in this 
region, however, is towards a consolidation of logging and lumber 
manufacturing interests. 

Contract logging is practiced to some extent in every region 
but it has not proved a satisfactory method on many of the largest 
operations in the South and the Northwest because the extensive 
transportation improvements which are needed to take logs 
from the stump to the mill or to market require the investment 
of a large amount of capital and there are relatively few logging 
contractors who are able to finance a large enterprise. 

The major part of the log output of the country is now produced 
by the professional logger, yet small operations still constitute 
a large per cent of the total number. They are most common 
in the forest regions east of the Cascade Mountains, especially 
in sections culled by large operators, where they serve a most use- 
ful purpose in the utilization of stands which the large logger 
cannot harvest profitably. Even in the Northwest nearly 60 
per cent of the manufacturing plants have an annual output of 
one-half million board feet or less. 



SUMMARY OF LOGGING METHODS IN SPECIFIC REGIONS 
A. PORTABLE MILL OPERATIONS 

The annual cut of a portable mill ranges from several hundred 
thousand to a few million board feet, however, the industry is 
of importance because of the large number of plants in operation 
many of which handle timber in regions where large mills are 
not feasible. 

Portable operations in New England are conducted as a side 
line by men engaged in the retail lumber business; by contractors 
who can use their idle teams during the winter season; by men 
who engage in lumbering as a speculation when an opportunity 



LOGGING METHODS 25 

presents itseK; by small wood- working plants which are able 
to secure occasional stands of timber suitable for their needs; 
and also by those who engage more or less continuously in logging 
and manufacture. There has been a tendency in recent years 
towards more specialization and larger annual output on the 
part both of individuals and firms, since the mill products can 
be marketed to better advantage. Contract work both in logging 
and manufacture is common and the product is sold to railroad 
companies in the form of crossties and structural timbers; to 
retail lumbermen in the form of lumber; to telephone and tele- 
graph companies in the form of poles; and to various wood- 
working industries. The business is more active during the fall 
and winter months when agricultural and other outdoor oc- 
cupations are slack, because labor and teams are more plentiful 
and a snow bottom reduces the logging expense, especially for 
skidding. 

On the National Forests of the West the tendency is for port- 
able mill operators to conduct their operations more or less 
continuously, except for interruptions due to climatic conditions. 
These operations are chiefly in virgin forests often several miles 
from a railroad and under conditions that are unfavorable for 
the development of large plants. The products of these mills 
are used locally by settlers, and by mines and other industrial 
enterprises. 

Portable plants are common in the southern yellow pine region. 
They are sometimes located on small isolated tracts of virgin 
timber but, as a rule, they follow large plants operating on the 
lightly-culled lands, and old-field stands. Although a portion 
of the product is marketed locally, large quantities are sold 
through the larger operators, or through wholesalers and com- 
mission men. 

LOGGING METHODS — NEW ENGLAND^ 

The operations in New England are conducted chiefly on 
woodlots containing from fifty to several hundred thousand 
board feet. An operation may be confined to manufacturing the 
stumpage on a contract basis for the owner, or a sawmill man 
may buy the timber outright. 

1 See "Second Growth Hardwoods in Connecticut," by Earle H. Frothing- 
ham. Bui. 96, U. S. Forest Service. 



26 LOGGING 

A common practice in logging virgin timber is to go over the 
tract several times, removing certain products at a given cut- 
ting. Telephone, telegraph and electric light poles are taken 
out first. Piles are often cut from the tops of pole timber, if 
there is a market for this class of material. If there is large oak, 
ship timbers are next removed, being cut in long logs which are 
later sawed into flitches at the mill. The remaining timber is 
then converted into saw logs, the trees being utilized down to a 
6-inch top diameter. 

Crossties, which are cut in 8-foot lengths in the woods and 
sawed into squared and pole ties, are made in large quantities 
from short-bodied trees and large limbs. 

The cutting of cordwood follows the removal of the saw log 
material. The residue, down to limbs 1^ inches in diameter, 
may then be cut up into material for charcoal manufacture. 
Practically all of the wood is utilized, except small l^ranches, 
when favorable markets are close at hand. 

The sawmill plant is set up in the immediate vicinity of the 
operation where an open space can be secured for log and lumber 
storage and where a water supply for the boiler is convenient. 
Camps are seldom established. 

The felling crews, which work several days in advance of skid- 
ding, are composed chiefly of foreigners and from one to two 
saw crews of three men each are required. A three-man crew 
consists of a spotter and two fallers. The spotter selects the 
trees to be felled and notches them, lays off lengths on the felled 
timber, and aids the fallers in swamping. Saws and axes are 
used for felling. A three-man crew will fell from 4000 to 5000 
board feet daily. 

Pole cutting may be done by contract at a given price per run- 
ning foot for felling and peeling. Peeling can be done more readily 
in summer and pole-cutting contracts can be let at that season 
for about 25 per cent less than at other periods of the year. 
Some buyers, however, refuse to take summer-cut timber because 
of the greater liability of insect attack. 

Hewed ties are seldom made because of the waste in manufac- 
ture. Cordwood is cut and piled by contract. 

The logs are snaked on steep slopes, and then hauled on a 
log-boat, or on a "scoot" to the mill. These are used on short 
hauls even when there is no snow on the ground. A log-boat is 



LOGGING METHODS 27 

about 6 feet long, 3 feet wide, and has a flat bottom made of 
heavy planks which are upturned in front. A bunk is placed 
about 4 feet from the front and on this the fore end of the log 
is loaded and bound with chains, while the rear drags on the 
ground. The horses are hitched to a chain which passes through 
the upturned nose and is attached to the bunk. A tongue is 
not used. The scoot is a sled having two runners about 12 feet 
long, with a 4-foot gauge, a forward and rear bunk, and a standard 
length tongue. It is especially serviceable for short logs which 
are loaded on the sled. Wagons are not used to transport logs 
to the mill unless the haul is greater than |-mile. 

The usual log requirements of a portable mill are from 5000 to 
7000 board feet daily and on short hauls two teams can bring 
in this amount. The average day's work on an |-mile haul is 
about 3500 board feet per team. 

COLORADO 

The portable mill operations in this state are taken as a type 
of small operations on the National Forests. The mills are 
often several miles from a village at rather high elevations in 
the forests where the topography is rugged and the snow is 
deep during the winter season. 

The stand is chiefly small-sized timber, with logs averaging 
from 10 to 12 inches in diameter at the small end, and from 
three to four and one-half 16-foot logs per tree, when cut to a top 
diameter of 6 inches. 

The closeness of utilization depends largely on the local mar- 
kets, and the purpose for which the timber is used. When 
waney-edge boards can be used for packing cases and other 
rough work there is very little waste, but when the demand is 
for lumber only, the mill waste is large. 

The logging season depends upon the climatic conditions and 
the character of bottom. Felling and skidding usually begin some- 
time between the middle of June and the first of August and 
continue until the first or the middle of January when snow 
becomes too deep for profitable work. HauHng on some opera- 
tions begins at the time of felling, the logs being handled on 
wagons, carts or go-devils up to the time snow falls, and after 
that sleds are used until the end of March or the middle of April. 
On other operations logs are hauled only in winter. 



28 LOGGING 

Camps are of log or board construction and comprise a cook 
shanty, a bunk house, and a stable. Labor is chiefly local. 

Felling ajid Log-making. — The methods employed are similar 
to those in other regions, the ax being used to notch the timber 
and the saw for felling. The work is done both by day labor 
and by contract. Efficient crews of two men cut about 5000 
board feet daily. When the fallers work singly at felling and 
bucking each may average from 2000 to 2500 board feet daily. 

Swamping is usually done by a member of the skidding crew, 
one man being assigned to each team. The cost of brush disposal 
on small operations depends chiefly on the species, the depth of 
snow, the amount of dead material and young growth, the 
steepness of the slopes and the character of the bottom. Tim- 
ber with many limbs such as Engelmann spruce and lodgepole pine 
necessitate more cutting and handling than most other species, hence 
brush disposal is more expensive. Snow from 18 to 24 inches 
deep makes brush disposal difficult, and seriously hampers the 
work. Where dead material occurs among young growth the 
piles must be made where reproduction will not be injured dur- 
ing brush burning and where down timber will not be ignited. 
Men are hampered in getting around on steep slopes and rough 
ground and brush disposal is more costly under these conditions. 
The swamping and piling during the summer and fall is sometimes 
done by the fallers. 

Skidding. — The movement of the logs from the stump to the 
mill is performed either in one or two operations. On good 
bottom and short hauls the logs are either skidded directly to the 
mill or else hauled on sleds or carts over inexpensive roads. 
About 500 board feet constitute a load under the latter con- 
dition. The choice of methods depends on the season of the 
year. In rough sections and for distances greater than |-mile 
the logs usually are yarded to skid ways and then hauled on 
wagons or sleds to the mill. On rough and steep places a single 
horse is used for skidding, while on favorable bottoms two horses 
are employed. 

B. NORTHEAST 

Period of Logging. — Operations are usually confined to a 
period of from twenty-six to thirty-two weeks, beginning in the 
late summer and closing during the early spring. Where rail- 
road transport is used summer logging is practiced. 



LOGGING METHODS 29 

l,ahor. — The labor is composed chiefly of French Canadians 
and Europeans. The men generally are employed by the month 
and are furnished board and lodging for which a charge is made. 
Some operators employ men on the day basis. The average 
camp crew on the larger operations comprises about sixty men. 
Operators frequently contract for their log input, in whole or 
in part, with "jobbers" who maintain independent camps. Con- 
tract operations are often of much smaller size than company 
camps. 

Camps. — The buildings are log or board structures the largest 
camps housing from fifty to sixty men, and from twenty-five to 
forty horses. They are used for two or three seasons and then 
abandoned or else used as storehouses. Board camps are used 
chiefly on railroad operations. Supplies are hauled in on sleds 
or wagons where rail transport is not available. Workmen do 
not bring their families into camp. 

Topography and Bottom. — The topography of the region 
ranges from rolling to rough, and the bottom often is covered with 
a heavy growth of underbrush. The steep slopes are rocky. 
The rolling land provides a good bottom for animals. Swamps 
are common in the region and are logged during the winter sea- 
son. 

Climate. — The winters are long and severe with a minimum 
temperature of from 25 to 40 degrees F. below zero. There are 
relatively long periods when thaws are uncommon. The average 
snowfall throughout the region varies from 60 to 90 inches. Winter 
conditions are ideal for the maintenance of snow and iced roads 
for sled hauling. 

Felling and Log-making. — The practice is to fell the timber 
with the saw and ax. The boles are cut into standard lengths for 
saw logs, and into long logs when the timber is to be manufac- 
tured into pulp wood, although occasionally pulp wood timber is 
cut into 2- or 4-foot lengths for ease in handling. The fallers 
work in crews of two or three men and cut and make into logs 
from 5000 to 8000 board feet of timber, daily. Spruce pulpwood 
is sometimes peeled in the forest. 

Skidding. — Animal logging predominates in the region, al- 
though a few cableway skidders have been used in New England 
on difficult logging chances. Snaking machines have been 
employed to a very limited extent in the mountains of northern 



30 LOGGING 

New York. Yarding, on operations where a sled haul is used, 
begins in the late summer or early fall and continues until the 
snow gets too deep for profitable felling, which is usually during 
the latter part of December. Logs are decked on skidways along 
two-sled roads and are either dragged to the yard by a single 
animal or a team, or else hauled on a yarding sled. A skidding 
and a felling crew of seven men can cut and skid from 5000 to 
7000 board feet daily on a ^-mile haul when a team and yarding 
sled are employed for moving the timber. 

Chutes and log slides are occasionally installed to bring logs 
down steep slopes. 

Transportation. — Logs are transported from the skidways to 
a landing on a stream on a two-sled drawn by two or four horses, 
or on a yarding sled when the haul does not exceed 1^ miles. 
Steam or gasoline log haulers are frequently substituted for ani- 
mal draft on long hauls. The logs are floated out of the small 
streams during the early spring freshets and are driven down the 
large streams during the summer. 

Railroad operations are not common but where rail transport 
is used logs are yarded and hauled on sleds to the railroad during 
the winter months, and yarded directly to the railroad during 
the summer. 

Flumes have been used in a few instances for bringing pulp- 
wood from the forest to a stream down which it is driven. 

The common form of transporting logs to the mill is by float- 
ing. Rafting is practiced only after the logs are assorted on the 
lower stretches of the stream. Drives are conducted largely by 
incorporated companies. 

C. LAKE STATES — WHITE PINE 

Period of Logging. — Railroad operations are conducted 
throughout the year unless suspended on account of snow. When 
logs are transported on sleds to streams down which they are 
driven, the season is from thirty to thirty-six weeks long, be- 
ginning in the late summer and ending with the termination of 
hauhng. 

Labor. — The laborers are chiefly Swedes, Norwegians, Finns, 
Austrians and Poles. Foremen are often native-born Americans. 
The wage basis of payment is common. 

Camps. — On railroad operations camps often are board 



LOGGING METHODS 31 

structures although log buildings are also used. The latter are 
employed almost exclusively on operations where the logs are 
hauled on sleds and floated down streams. Workmen are boarded 
and housed by the operator. 

Topography and Bottom. — The topography varies through- 
out the region. In some sections the land is flat, more often it 
is rolling and "pot holes," which present difficult logging prob- 
lems, are common. The brush is often dense in the forest where 
the pine is mixed with hardwoods, while in pure stands of pine 
the undergrowth is usually scanty. 

Climate. — The winter season is long with low temperatures 
and abundant snowfall throughout most parts of the region. 
Conditions are favorable for sled transportation to streams, 
although logging operations in some sections have now been pushed 
back into regions where log driving is impracticable. 

Felling and Log-making. — This work is performed by a crew 
of two or three men who operate under the direction of a saw 
boss. Low stumps are cut and the bole is taken to a top diam- 
eter of about 4 inches. Logs are generally cut into standard 
lengths. The daily output of a crew of two men is from 6000 
to 10,000 board feet, depending on the size of the timber. 

Skidding. — Animal logging is predominant. Several meth- 
ods are used for bringing logs to the skidway which is either 
along a railroad or a sled road. For small logs and for distances 
of from 300 to 400 feet snaking is common while for large logs 
and rough bottom go-devils are used. Logs are snaked for 
500 or 600 feet on snow bottom. High wheeled carts are used 
by some operators for logging to a railroad in summer, when 
hauling for distances from j- to |-mile. On winter logging 
swamps are crossed and often hauls of |-mile are made by 
means of a jumbo dray, the logs being snaked out to the roads 
and then hauled directly to the skidway along the railroad. 
Steel-spar cableway skidders are now used on some hardwood 
and hemlock operations. 

Transportation. — Railroads are the chief form of transport. 
During the spring, summer and fall the logs required daily are 
yarded directly to the railroad and loaded on cars. The winter 
supply of logs is either decked along the railroad or else yarded 
at more remote spots and then hauled to the railroad on two- 
sleds. There are only minor interruptions of railroad traffic 



32 LOGGING 

due to snowfall. The use of two-sleds for hauling logs to a stream 
down which they are floated is less common than formerly, 
because of the high value of the white pine stumpage and the 
large amounts of heavy hardwoods which are now being logged. 
Steam and gasoline log haulers are common in the Lake States 
on sled hauls, sometimes bringing the logs directly to the mill. 



D. SOUTHERN YELLOW PINE 

Period of Logging. — The year round. 

Labor. — White and colored. The former provide the more 
skilled labor and the latter the unskilled, although colored laborers 
occasionally occupy positions of responsibility. On some opera- 
tions in the northern part of the region, whites are employed 
exclusively. 

Camps. — They are chiefly portable houses in which the loggers 
and their families reside. A general store, church, Y. M. C. A., 
and school house are often provided. Car camps may be used 
when families are not furnished accommodations. 

Topography and Bottom. — In the southern part of the region 
the country is flat or rolling, while on the northern edge it is 
usually broken. The bottom in the longleaf forests is generally 
free from brush, while in the loblolly and shortleaf forests there 
is often a heavy undergrowth. 

Climate. — A period of heavy rainfall occurs during the winter 
months which often causes the cessation of logging operations 
due to bad bottom. Snowfall is very scanty or lacking. Freez- 
ing temperatures occur in the northern part of the region for short 
periods. 

Felling and Log-making. — This is customarily done by a 
two-man crew who use the saw and ax. The daily output is 
from 7500 to 15,000 board feet, depending on the size of the 
timber and the stand per acre. Contract work prevails. Where 
animal skidding is used logs are cut in standard lengths, while 
where power skidding is employed they are cut in lengths rang- 
ing from 24 to 48 feet. Sometimes the entire bole is brought to 
the mill and there cut into logs. 

Skidding. — Animal logging is still used throughout the region, 
although the power snaking system is common in the flat pineries, 
and the rehaul system in brushy sections. Occasionally a cable- 



LOGGING METHODS 33 

way skidder is used. The favorite metliod of animal logging is 
to "snake" the timber for short distances, and to move distant 
logs with bummers, high carts, or wagons. When standard 
length logs are handled bummers are a favorite vehicle for the 
shorter distances, and 4-, 6-, or 8-wheeled wagons for long distances. 
High-wheeled carts are preferred for long logs, and are often 
used for short ones on hauls of 800 feet or less. 

Transport. — The ahnost universal form of long distance trans- 
port of logs from the forest to the mill is by railroad, because of 
the continuous operation of the plant, lack of suitable streams 
for driving, and the heavy weight of the timber. Where streams 
are available, floating is practiced to a limited extent by small 
operators; however, the loss from sunken timber is from 25 to 
33 per cent. 



Period of Logging. — The year round. 

Labor. — The unskilled labor is composed of negroes, Creoles, 
and Mexicans, and the skilled labor of whites. Contract work 
prevails. 

Camps. — Floating camps built on scows are used on pullboat 
operations, and permanent board camps on railroad operations. 

Character of Bottom. — The bottom on many of the swamps is 
covered with water during a portion of the year, although there 
are many "islands" and other extensive areas which are seldom, 
if ever, submerged, where railroad camps may be located. The 
timber grows both on the wet ground and on the higher eleva- 
tions. The bottom is too soft for animal logging. 

Felling and Log-making. — The timber which is girdled or 
deadened some weeks or months in advance of felling and log- 
making is felled and made into logs with the ax and saw. Work- 
men are paid by the log, tree, or thousand board feet cut. A crew 
of two men will fell and make into logs from 7500 to 10,000 feet 
of timber, daily. Timber is cut to a minimum diameter of 8 
inches in the top. 

Skidding. — Two methods are used. 

(1) Pullboat Logging. — A slack-rope skidding device is 
mounted on a scow and moored in a canal, bayou, or lake to 
which logs are dragged for distances of from 3500 to 5000 feet. 



34 LOGGING 

They are then rafted and towed to the mill. The daily output 
is from fifty to seventy-five logs. 

(2) Cableway Skidding and Rail Transport. — A cableway 
skidder is placed by the side of a spur or main line track and 
logs are yarded to the railroad from distances of 600 or 800 feet. 
They are then loaded upon cars and transported to the mill. 
The daily output is from 30,000 to 40,000 board feet per skidder. 

Trans'port. — Floating and railroading are the two methods 
used. 

(1) Floating. — The logs arc made into cigar-shaped units 
about 125 feet long and several of them are joined together into 
a raft and towed to a mill. 

(2) Railroad. — Main lines in the swamps are usually built 
on piling. Spur roads, which are located approximately |-mile 
apart are "dunnage" roads. Light-weight engines and skeleton 
cars are employed. Logs are loaded on cars by a special device 
on the skidder. 

r. NORTHWEST 

Period of Logging. — The year round. 

Labor. — Logging is highly specialized and requires a relatively 
large number of skilled men among whom are found natives, 
Swedes, Norwegians and other foreigners. Unskilled labor is 
foreign and consists of the nationalities mentioned and also 
men from southern Europe, 

Camps. — Either car camps, board camps, or portable houses 
are used to shelter the men. Families seldom reside in camp. 
Laborers are housed and boarded by the logger. 

Topography and Bottom. — The region ranges from rolling to 
rugged and in many sections difficult logging problems are en- 
countered. Underbrush is heavy in the coast forests where 
rainfall is abundant. 

Felling and Log-making. — Felling and log-making are done by 
separate crews. Fallers who work in crews of two may or may 
not do the notching. Two log buckers who work alone are 
required for each crew of fallers. Logs are cut in lengths of 
26 feet or longer. 

Yarding. — Power logging is now almost universal, the slack- 
rope system being the predominant form although many ca])le- 
way skidders are in operation for handling small- and medium- 



LOGGING METHODS 35 

sized timber and for "swinging" logs from the yarding engines 
to the railroad. 

Animal logging is found only on small operations where the 
"chance" is favorable and the output limited. 

Transport. (1) Road Engine. — A road engine sometimes 
takes logs from the yarding engine to a stream or railroad. This 
practice is less common than formerly. 

(2) Railroad. — The yarding engines are placed at points 
accessible to the logging railroad. Intermediate transportation 
such as swing donkeys or road engines, however, may be installed 
between the yarding engine and the railroad. Logs are loaded 
on flat or skeleton cars or log trucks and hauled to the mill, to 
a driveable stream, or to tide-water. When yarding engines 
are used cars are loaded with a gin-pole, or some overhead loading 
system, and when the cableway skidder is used the logs are 
loaded with a guy line or swinging-boom device provided for that 
purpose. Cars are unloaded by hand methods, log dumps, 
or other special unloading devices. 

(3) Raftimj. — Logs l)rought to tide-water are rafted and towed 
to the mill. 

(4) iPtumes. — These are frequently used for l)ringing logs 
from the forest to the railroad or some stream. 

(5) jCJiutes. — Chutes and slides are used in some sections 
for bringing logs down steep slopes and for handling logs on bot- 
toms that cut up badly in dry weather. Three-pole and five- 
pole chutes are in most common use. 

(6) Aerial Tramways. — These are used to bring logs from 
high elevations to lower ones, especially on very rough ground. 

(7) Motor Trucks. — The timber from small or isolated tracts 
is often hauled to the sawmill on heavy motor trucks. 

G. MOUNTAIN LOGGING IN WEST VIRGINIA* 

Period of Logging. — The year round. 

Labor. — The foremen are usually Americans, and the remain- 
ing laborers are chiefly foreigners, such as Italians, Austrians, 
Poles, and Hungarians with a small percentage of other na- 
tionalities. 

Camps. — The camps are chiefly board structures built along 

1 See Cost of Mountain Logging in West Virginia, by Henry H. Farquhar. 
Forestry Quarterly, Vol. VII, pp. 255-269. 



36 LOGGING 

the logging railroad. They accommodate from fifty to seventy- 
five men and from twenty-five to thirty-five horses. Board and 
lodging are provided by the operator. Families seldom reside 
in camp. 

Topography arid Bottom. — The region in which extensive 
operations are now conducted is rugged with narrow valleys 
and steep slopes, covered in many places with massive boulders 
that are a hinderance to logging. Mountain laurel is abundant 
throughout the forest and necessitates heavy swamping. 

Felling and Log-making. — On operations where hemlock bark 
and logs are utilized the bark peelers fell, bark, and cut the 
boles into logs during the months of May to August, inclusive. 
During the remainder of the year the felling crews, each having 
a chopper and two sawyers, go through the forest felling and 
cutting the remaining spruce and hemlock trees into logs. The 
hardwoods are cut after the softwoods to avoid the loss through 
breakage which would occur if all of the timber were felled at one 
time. Trees are cut to a stump diameter of 10 inches and the 
boles to a top diameter of 8 inches for saw logs, and 4 inches 
for pulp wood. A crew of two men will fell and make into logs 
from 15,000 to 20,000 board feet of spruce and hemlock, daily. 
Two knot cutters are often members of the felling crew. Their 
duty is to snipe the ends of the logs and to remove the limbs from 
them. 

Skidding. — Skidding is done chiefly with animals. Roads 
or trails are cut from the valleys up to the tops of the ridges and 
the logs are dragged down in tows either over skipper roads or 
pole slides. A team on a skipper road will handle from 5000 to 
6000 board feet daily on a haul of j-mile. Slides are common 
in some sections and are built from a few hundred feet to 1 mile 
or more in length. 

The cableway system of power logging is in occasional use on 
rough chances and on some operations single-line snaking machines 
are employed for dragging logs for distances as great as 2500 
feet. 

Transportation. — On many operations the logs are hauled to 
the mill on narrow- or standard-gauge railroads. The narrow- 
gauge roads are sometimes of the stringer type. The railroad is 
usually built up the main "draws" or valleys. Spurs are sel- 
dom constructed because of the heavy expense. 



LOGGING METHODS 37 

Inclines are common and occasionally aerial trams are em- 
ployed. 

Logs are loaded both by hand and with power loaders of sev- 
eral types. 

Water transport is used in regions where suitable streams 
are available. The logs are hauled to the stream and placed in 
the channel awaiting a freshet to carry them down stream. 



PART II 
PREPARING LOGS FOR TRANSPORT 



CHAPTER III 
FOREST LABOR 

The successful conduct of forest operations depends in a large 
measure on the character, supply and efficiency of labor, factors 
which are influenced by the economic conditions of the country. 
In prosperous times work is abundant and capable men are not 
attracted by the average wage paid for forest work. This means 
a restless woods force, a portion of which constantly shifts from 
camp to camp. Business depression is quickly felt in the lumber 
industry because in hard times railroad companies and other 
large consumers of forest products reduce their purchases of 
lumber, crossties and other material. The dull market prompts 
the lumberman to cut down expenses, and one of the first steps 
taken is to reduce the labor charge since this is one of the chief 
items in the cost of lumber production. 

The agricultural interests of different regions also may have 
a decided influence on labor supply during certain seasons. 
This is illustrated in the cypress region of Louisiana, where 
sugar production is an important industry and where Creoles and 
negroes prefer to work in the fields and sugar mills during the 
cane-harvesting season. 

LENGTH OF EMPLOYMENT 

The length of time forest laborers are required each year is 
governed by the character of the operation. In the northeastern 
part of the United States, in some parts of the Lake States and 
in the Inland Empire there is a demand for the maxunum number 
of laborers only from eight to nine months of the year; in the 
southern pine, cypress and Pacific Coast forests, where rail- 
roading replaces sled haul and water transport, loggers operate 
the year round. 

41 



42 LOGGING 



CHARACTER 



During the early years of the industry, the woods force in the 
North and East was recruited chiefly from the native agricultural 
element, but to-day only 40 per cent of the loggers in New England 
and 15 per cent of those in the Lake States are Americans. The 
remainder include French Canadians, Finns, Swedes, Poles, and 
natives of Southern Europe. French Canadians come across the 
border during the fall and winter months to secure a "stake, " and 
return when the logging season is over. Many Swedes and Nor- 
wegians, who are among the best woods workers from Europe, are 
employed in the Lake States and also on the Pacific Coast. Finns 
and Poles work chiefly in the Lake States. In all these sections, 
native whites generally occupy the more responsible positions. 

About 60 per cent of the forest labor in the Pacific Northwest 
is American, the remainder consisting of Scandinavians, Canadians, 
Finns, Austrians, Germans and a few Japanese. Americans 
comprise about 28 per cent of the forest labor in northern Idaho 
and western Montana, 31 per cent in the California redwood 
region, and 50 per cent in the California pine region, and native 
whites and negroes 100 per cent in most parts of the southern 
yellow pine region. 

The labor in the Appalachians consists largely of natives, 
some of whom combine agriculture with logging while others 
follow logging as their sole occupation. 

Creoles and Mexicans are common in the Louisiana cypress 
swamps, and many Mexicans are employed in Texas, especially 
around the mills and on railroad construction work. The South- 
ern whites often are agriculturists who work at logging only for 
a portion of the year, while the negroes, except in the sugar 
country, follow the industry the year round with frequent shifts 
from one camp to another. Owing chiefly to the climate, the 
laborers are, on the whole, less energetic than those in northern 
regions. The color line usually is drawn on logging operations and 
mixed crews are not the rule. Creoles and Mexicans work with 
colored laborers, although Mexicans are inclined to be clannish. 

METHODS OF EMPLOYMENT AND PAYMENT 

riie usual methods of paying labor on logging operations are : 
(1) A straight hour, day, or monthly wage basis; (2) piece- 
work basis; (3) contract basis. 



Wage basis: — The wage basis prevailed for many years in all 
parts of the country and is still in common use to-day in the 
Northeast, the Lake States, the Aj^palachians, the South, the 
Inland Empire and on the Pacific Coast, although the piece-work 
and the contract basis have been extensively introduced in recent 
years. Formerly the wage included board, but in most regions 
laborers are now charged for board and in some cases for lodgings 
when superior accommodations are offered. Workmen are now 
seldom paid for lost time that is due to bad weather or to sickness. 
The straight wage system has come into disfavor because it tends 
toward inefficiency and waste, since there is little incentive for 
the average laborer to do more than is necessary to hold his job. 
Where it is still in use, the hour system is the more common, 
only skilled employees being hired by the month. Various sub- 
stitutes for the straight wage system have been devised, in order 
that workmen may be paid on the basis of the amount of work 
actually and satisfactorily performed. 

Piece work : — This method of paying employees has been ex- 
tensively adopted by the lumber industry in all parts of the United 
States. In logging work it has been applied to felling and log- 
making, skidding and yarding, hauling, and laying and taking 
up steel on logging railroads. A form of bonus or premium 
plan has been introduced into the piece-work system in some parts 
of the country, especially in the Pacific Northwest. The most 
common application of this principle has been to yarding, 
although some firms apply it to nearly all forms of logging work. 
Most of these schemes have been founded on the general basis 
of a guaranteed minimum wage for a specified amount of work 
performed, called the "base," and the payment of a premium or 
bonus for all work over and above the base. 

In some camps the bonus plan is applied only to a few employees 
who are acting in a supervisory capacity. While this tends to 
make those to whom the bonus is offered more diligent in their 
efforts to increase output and reduce operating costs, it neglects the 
necessary stimulus to those who are ineligible. Such a system, 
therefore, seldom appeals to the workmen, because the ultimate aim 
is to secure more work from thorn without any pecuniary benefit. 

One bonus system^ whicl\ has been used for several years is 

^ Known as the Brown's Bay System because it was first advocated on the 
West Coast by the Brown's Bay Logging Co. of Seattle, Washington. 



44 



LOGGING 



based on the establishment of a monthly (26 days) base output 
for each yarding crew, for which a guaranteed wage is paid. The 
crew then receive a bonus, per thousand board feet, for each 50,000 
board feet logged over and above the base during the 26-day period. 
This bonus is distributed among the members of the yarding 
crew in the proportion that each worker's guaranteed wage bears 
to the guaranteed wage of the entire crew. In some cases the 
bonus takes the form of payment of so many cents per thousand 
feet, log scale. The general scheme of distribution is shown in 
the following table : 

BROWN'S BAY BONUS SYSTEMi 

(Yarding Crew of 14 men.) 





Total 
bonus at 
75c per M 


Total 


Cost per 
M incl. 
bonus 


5 men at 


2 men at 


4 men at 


1 man at 


2 men at 


Per mo. 


monthly 


$2.25 per 


$2.50 per 


$2.75 per 


$3.00 per 


$3.50 per 


of 26 days 


pay of 
crew incl. 


day, 6 
per cent 


day, &i 
per cent 


day. 7i 
per cent 


day, 8 
per cent 


day, n 
per cent 


800 M 




S968 50 


SI. 210 












850 M 


$37.50 


1006 00 


1.183 


$2 25' 


$2.44 


.$2.81 


$3.00 


$3.56 


900 M 


75.00 


1043 50 


1 159 


4 50 


4.88 


5.62 


6.00 


7.12 


950 M 


112.50 


1081.00 


1 . 138 


6 75 


7 32 


8 43 


9.00 


10.68 


1000 M 


150.00 


1118.50 


1.118 


9,00 


9.76 


11.24 


12.00 


14.24 



1 If the guaranteed work of the crew of 14 men for a twenty-six-day period and an 800,000 board 
foot base is $968.50, then the wage of a man receiving $2.25 per day is 6 per cent; that of one receiv- 
ing $2.50 per day 65 per cent. 

2 This represents the bonus for the twenty-six-day period to which a workman receiving $2.25 
per day was entitled. 

The criticism of this system is that it applies only to a portion 
of the logging crew, although in practice the greater efficiency 
secured from the yarding crew and the efforts made by them to 
earn a bonus affected nearly every man in the camp. Cooks 
have more lunches to put up, pump men must put in extra hours, 
and train crews are called on to handle additional tonnage. This 
method of applying a bonus is also subject to criticism unless 
the base is changed for each new set of conditions, because the 
topography, stand of timber, and general operating conditions 
often vary widely in different logging ''chances," and a crew 
might find it difficult to log even the base if adverse conditions 
were encountered on a given "show." This difficulty has been 
overcome by a modification of this system, introduced by some 
western operators, in which a standard output, or base, is deter- 
mined for each rollway which is logged. Each "show" is ex- 



FOREST LABOR 45 

amined separately by the superintendent, foreman, and the 
hooktender, who write on a slip of paper their judgment as to 
what the base should be for that particular rollway. These 
figures are then averaged to determine the base. For all output 
over and above this base, each member of the yarding crew receives 
a bonus, payable at the end of the month, subject to certain general 
rules previously established. The rules of one company governing 
the payment of a bonus are as follows : 

GENERAL RULES 

1. "No employee will receive a premium for a fractional month's work. 

2. "The daily wage received when you enter our employ will be your 
wages for the year. 

3. "The scale of logs will be according to the scale rule we have used here 
in the past. The logs will be scaled by our scaler, but the employees have 
the right to call in a scaler if not satisfied. If these two cannot agree, they 
can select the third man whose decision must be final. The expense of the 
last two men must be borne by the employees. Any lost loads along our 
railroad will not be counted. 

4. "Allowance will be made for lost time for delays beyond our control 
when they exceed one-half a day but no credit will be given for any short 
delays that occur in any logging operations; * * * . 

5. "No premium on overtime will be allowed except when yarder is in 
actual operation; the amount of overtime to be allowed is at the option of 
the foreman. 

6. "The crews must go out when ordered by the foreman; if not the day 
will be charged up against them as a yarding day. 

7. "The premium will apply to all men handling logs from the time the 
logs are hitched to in the woods until they are dumped in the water to be shipped 
to market. It will not apply to construction men, shop men or any men that 
are not connected with the yarding or train crews. A different system of 
premiums will be applied to fallers and buckers. 

STANDARD OF PREMIUMS^ 

"Men receiving the following pay per day will receive the premium per 
thousand feet opposite the respective amount. 

"$5.00 per day 9c per thousand feet 

"$4.75 " 8^c 

"$4.50 " 8c 

"$4.00 " 7c 

1 This method of distributing premiums is ba.sed on a principle similar to 
that used in the Brown's Bay System. The chief difference is that the pre- 
mium paid is stated in cents per thousand feet, log scale, while the Brown's 
Bay System allots the premium on the basis of percentages. 



46 LOGGING 

"$3.75 " 6|c per thousand fset 

"$3.50 " 6c 

"$3.25 " 5^c 

"$3.00 " 5c 

"$2.75 " 4^c " " 

"$2.50 " 4c " " 

"$2.25 " 3^c " " 

"$2.00 " 3c " " 

"To illustrate: If the standard for yarder No. 1 is 1500 thousand feet 
for the month of April and this yarder puts in 1700 thousand feet, then all 
of the men who have complied with the above requirements will receive in 
addition to their wages the premium on 200 thousand feet of logs, or, for in- 
stance, if a man receives $3.00 per day, he will get $10 premium in addition 
to his wages. 

"The train crews wiU receive their premiums on the above basis of one 
yarder; if they haul for two yarders their proportion will be one-half of the 
above scale; if for three yarders, one-third, etc., * * * ." 

Some bonus plans used by the logging industry determine the 
volume on which the premium shall be paid in much the same 
manner as above, but instead of paying a bonus of a certain number 
of cents per thousand feet log scale for all timber over the base, 
the premium is determined by increasing the guaranteed daily 
wage 1 per cent for each 10,000 feet log scale, monthly average, 
above the base. Thus, if the daily average of the crew during 
the month was 20,000 feet log scale above the base, then an em- 
ployee would receive a 2 per cent bonus on his daily wage. 
Thus a workman whose daily guaranteed wage was $5 would re- 
ceive a total of $5.10 per day. 

When the bonus system has been fairly applied it has produced 
results which, in general, have been satisfactory to the employer 
and the employees, because the former has secured greater out- 
put from a given amount of equipment at a reduced cost and the 
latter has been able to earn a higher wage than was possible under 
the hour or day basis. One firm reported an increase of 40 per 
cent in the output of yarding crews after the introduction of a 
bonus system with an average bonus to workmen of 20 per cent 
of their wage. One drawback to the system which was apparent 
on some operations was that the workmen, in their zeal to earn 
a high bonus, put in long hours and within a period of a few months 
were forced to lay off in order to recuperate. This disrupted the 
crews, since the best men were the ones who were forced to cease 
work. This objection possibly may be overcome by setting a 



FOREST LABOR 47 

maximum standard for a day's work, above which a bonus will 
not be paid. In this manner the workmen will be encouraged 
to do a good day's work, but will not have an incentive to overtax 
themselves physically. 

Felling and log-making bonus systems on the Pacific Coast have 
been developed along lines quite different from those for yard- 
ing and transporting logs. One system has taken as a base for 
daily output a given number of square feet cross-section of cuts 
made. This method is more equitable than payment' on the 
basis of the number of feet log scale cut, since it eliminates the 
lengths of logs into which the bole is divided. The general 
procedure is to establish a certain number of square feet of end 
area as a day's work, for which a standard wage is paid, and to 
pay for all output above this base at a rate per square foot equal 
to one-half that paid for the base output. Thus, if the daily 
base is 70 square feet, the daily guaranteed wage $2.80, and the 
daily average output 85 square feet, the faller or backer would 

receive ^ ^ '— or 30 cents per day bonus. The work of 

each crew or man is scaled daily and the output, in square feet, 
calculated from the data obtained. The results have proved 
satisfactory, since inefficient workmen who cannot earn a bonus 
soon leave, greater output per man or crew is secured, and the 
workmen make a higher wage than is possible under a straight day 
system. 

Objections to a bonus system for felling timber have been raised, 
because there is a tendency towards increased speed which often 
causes more breakage and waste, since output, rather than quality, 
is the goal.^ 

The common form of payment for certain forms of logging 
work, such as felling and log-making, in some parts of the country, 
especially in the South, is on the basis of the thousand feet, log 
scale. Where this method is not used the basis may be the log, 

* A novel suggestion for the elimination of the waste due to breakage and 
other causes is the payment of a bonus to the fallers for all timber saved over 
and above the average amount. For example, if the average feUing loss due 
to breakage is 10 per cent of the merchantable volume of the stand, the felling 
crew will be paid 1 per cent of the stumpage value for all stumpage saved 
below the base. Thus, if a crew had .5 per cent lo.ss only, their bonus would 
be 5 per cent of the stumpage value of the timber saved. See Canada Lumber- 
man and Wood Worker, Toronto, Ontario, Jan. 1, 1916, page 36. 



,/ 



if, C. State Collets* 

48 LOGGING 

tree, number of saw cuts made, or the "task." These methods 
do not stimulate close utilization, because quantity rather than 
quality is the goal. There may be a conscious effort to avoid cut- 
ting rough top logs which require much swamping, and often tops 
may be broken in felling in order to obviate the necessity of cut- 
ting top logs of small diameter, especially when the log scale used 
penalizes the workman by giving him too low values for small 
logs. The remedies for this condition are close supervision and 
the establishment of the felling and log-making both on a quantity 
and a quality basis. 

The so-called "task" system is applied to certain forms of 
logging work, such as laying and taking up steel on logging rail- 
roads. The principle of this system is the payment of a given 
wage for a given amount of work, at the conclusion of which the 
workmen are free to use their time as they see fit. For work other 
than the standard, the workmen receive additional pay. Other 
forms of work which are sometimes done by the task system are 
skidding with animals, and loading logs upon cars, for which 
weekly standards of work are established. The workmen then 
have such free time at the end of the week as remains after their 
task is completed. 

Contract basis. ^ Contract work is common in many parts of 
the country, especially east of the Rocky Mountains. It is a 
satisfactory method where labor is inefficient or where liability 
laws are unfavorable to the employer. The system in some 
regions covers the entire field of mill stocking, although usually 
it is applied only to felling and log-making, skidding, hauling, 
and railroad grade construction. The last is almost invariably 
a single contract, but the others may be handled together. For 
instance, one contractor may agree to deliver the logs along a 
railroad or on' the banks of some stream or other body of water. 
The common basis of payment for contract work is the thousand 
feet, log scale. Lumbermen may furnish the contractors with 
tools, supplies and all facilities needed, although this is not a 
common practice. Log-cutting by contract is rarely satisfactory 
for forests under management, since the log-cutters will not go 
into the tops because of the swamping required and also because 

1 For legal decisions which have reference to logging contracts see The 
Essentials of American Timber Law, by J. P. Kinney. John Wiley & Sons, 
Inc., New York, 1917. 



FOREST LABOR 49 

the small top logs give a low scale when measured by most log 
rules. 

Minor contracts are usually verbal, but those involving an ex- 
tensive amount of work are in written form. A certain per cent 
of the contract price often is witheld until the work is satisfactorily 
completed. 

A form of contracting which has become more or less common 
during recent years in the Inland Empire is known as "Gipo" 
logging. A crew of from four to eight men contract to put logs 
on the skidway on the thousand foot log scale basis. This method 
has proved a success, especially during periods when labor is 
scarce and wages high, since the output per man is often nearly 
twice as great as that of men working on day-wage basis. 

Loggers who contract the major part of their work often find it 
advantageous to maintain small crews of their own, in order that 
they may have a basis for determining what is a fair contract price 
for logging under their conditions. Company crews also tend to 
prevent the arbitrary dictation of prices by contractors, since the 
company is prepared to do a portion of its work, and has the nucleus 
of a logging organization which may be expanded readily, if 
necessary. 

A written contract stating the exact conditions of labor, es- 
pecially with reference to terms of employment, hours of labor, 
wages, pay days, charges for board and medical attention, and 
the equipment furnished, have proved desirable in some cases. 

PAYMENT FOR SERVICES 

Many lumber companies operate commissaries or general 
stores in connection with their logging work. Since it is to their 
advantage to have the trade of their employees, cash usually is 
disbursed only on specified pay days. ]\Ieanwhile, employees 
may obtain metal trading checks or coupon books, usually the 
latter, to the value of their credit, which are accepted at face 
value at the company store. Checks or coupons are rarely 
honored when presented by those who are not employees or mem- 
bers of their families, the company in this manner preventing the 
acceptance of the coupons by other merchants. 

Weekly or semi-monthly payments are the rule in most regions^, 

' During the war, when labor was scarce, some companies solicited labor 
on the basis of "everyday a payday"; that Ls, any employee might draw, 
daily, the full amount due him for wages. 



50 LOGGING 

for many states have passed laws specifying the period which 
may elapse between pay days. In some regions where logging 
operations are remote from settlements, payment of wages due 
may be deferred until the close of the season or until the workman 
leaves the employ of the company. Settlement is then made 
by check or by order on the head office or on some store or bank 
located at the nearest accessible point to the operation^ 

FACTORS WHICH INFLUENCE WAGES 

The wage paid for forest work depends largely on the following 
factors : 

(1) The amount of labor available. As in all industries, the 
labor cost fluctuates with the abundance or scarcity of labor. 
Although some features of logging require workmen with a special 
knowledge of their trade, the demand is chiefly for more or less un- 
skilled labor. In any case, loggers, both skilled and unskilled, 
easily adjust themselves to various other forms of industrial 
work; therefore, the logging industry, in times of a general labor 
shortage, finds it necessary to raise its wage standards in line 
with that of other industries. 

(2) The degree of skill required. There is marked difference 
in the degree of skill required of loggers in the various forest 
regions, depending chiefly upon the extent to which machinery 
is used to move the timber from the stump to the main trans- 
portation system which carries it to market. Where animal 
logging prevails, a high degree of mechanical skill is not required, 
while on operations where machinery is used, skilled mechanics 
are necessary to operate and maintain the machines, and a rea- 
sonable degree of mechincal skill is essential for the members of 
the yarding crew. Consequently, the average wage commanded 
by power loggers often is greater than that received by those 
who are employed on operations where machinery is not used 
extensively. 

(3) The conditions under which labor is performed. Laborers 
1 The laws of many states include statutes giving a lien on logs to those 

who may perform labor in connection with the preparation, and the transpor- 
tation to market, of forest products. These so-called statutory liens do not 
imply possession of the logs at the time labor was performed, but do neces- 
sitate the attachment of the property before the lien can be enforced. For a 
comprehensive discussion of this question see The Essentials of American 
Timber Law, by J. P. Kinney. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1917. 



FOREST LABOR 51 

prefer to work near settlements, and may demand higher wages 
on remote operations, and also where low stumps, brush disposal 
and other restrictions demand the exercise of greater care and effort 
than usual. 

(4) The perquisites offered. A better class of labor can be 
secured, with a minimum of turnover, when camp conditions 
and surroundings are made attractive for the laborers and their 
families, and when adequate hospital, accident insurance, school, 
church, and amusement facilities are provided. High-grade 
workmen seek permanent employment under attractive conditions, 
in preference to a higher wage gained by working where the phys- 
ical welfare of employees is neglected. 

EFFICIENCY 

The efficiency of labor is measured by the number of one-man 
hours taken to perform a given task. The conditions under which 
logging is carried on are so diverse that there is a wide range in 
the labor requirements even in a given region; consequently, 
there is no standard for the industry as a whole. 

Among the factors influencing the labor required are the fol- 
lowing : 

(1) Topography. The more unfavorable the ground condi- 
tions under which men must perform their labor, the greater the 
labor expended in accomplishing a given task, other things being 
equal. A level or gently rolling country, with a smooth solid 
bottom free from underbrush and windfalls, offers the most 
advantageous condition. Swampy or rough bottom, heavy under- 
brush, and rugged topography necessitate added labor to perform 
a given task. 

(2) Climatic conditions. Extremes of heat or cold and an 
undue precipitation of rain and snow reduce the output of forest 
laborers, and thus increase the amount of one-man hours required 
to perform a given task. 

(3) Stand of timber per acre and size of timber. Light stands 
of timber often require more labor, to harvest a unit of timber, 
than stands running from medium to heavy, because less timber 
can be logged in a given time by a given crew. The labor cost of 
primary transportation also may be greater, because of the limited 
amount of timber available to a given set of improvements. 

(4) Size of the timber. Small timber is more expensive to 



52 LOGGING 

log than medium-sized or large timber, since a greater number 
of pieces are required to scale one thousand board feet, and various 
operations connected with the preparation of the logs and their 
movement to the primary transportation system are functions of 
the piece, rather than of volume. 

Studies made in California showed that on the operations in- 
vestigated "it costs three times as much per M. B. M. to make 
logs from 18-inch as from 48-inch trees, and that below that 
diameter the costs undoubtedly rise rapidly with each further 
decrease in size. "^ Studies made in the Appalachian region 
indicate that the time required to skid logs with animals for a 
distance of 1000 feet, increases very rapidly with a decrease in 
the log size. Thus, to skid 6-inch logs requires 5.5 times, and 
12-inch logs 2.5 times as many hours per thousand feet log scale 
as 24-inch logs.^ 

Very large logs cannot be handled by an operator equipped to 
move medium-sized timber, except at an additional cost for labor, 
since the size of such logs often necessitates the loss of much time 
in adjusting the equipment to do the work. 

(5) Form of the trees. Short boles and heavy tops require 
extra labor in log-making, because it may only be possible to 
secure one log as a result of the felling operation, and the labor 
involved in swamping limbs often is equal in amount to that 
expended on a tree of longer bole from which several logs could 
be cut. 

(6) Conservative logging requirements. The enforcement of 
low stump, top lopping, brush piling, brush burning, and other 
conservative logging regulations may cause an increase in the 
amount of labor required to produce one thousand board feet 
of logs. There are conditions, however, in which brush disposal 
in dense stands of white pine has facilitated the skidding opera- 
tions, so that the cost of the brush disposal has been more than 
offset by cheaper skidding. 

Studies of the productivity of labor in the logging industry 
were made in 1915, covering supervision and general expense, 
felling and log-making, skidding, yarding and loading, transpor- 

^ See The Relative Cost of Making Logs from Small and Large Timber, 
by Donald Bruce. Bui. 339, College of Agriculture, Agricultural Experiment 
Station, Berkeley, California, 1922. 

'^ See Cost of Cutting Large and Small Timber, by W. W. Ashe. Southern 
Lumberman, Dec. 16, 1916, p. 91. 



FOREST LABOR 53 

tation and unloading, and maintenance of transportation.^ For 
the items mentioned there was a variation among different opera- 
tions ranging from 5.9 one-man hours on a white pine operation 
to 25.24 hours on a hardwood operation. The distribution of 
total time by processes, on individual operations, showed minor 
differences only. In other words, the amount of total time re- 
quired from tree to pond may vary within wide limits in various 
operations, and in the different regions, yet each process requires 
about the same proportion of the total time expended. 

On eleven operations, an average of 68 per cent of the total time 
was devoted to the movement of the logs from stump to pond, 
including skidding, yarding, loading, unloading, and maintenance 
of transportation. Mixed hardwoods showed the lowest per- 
centage, namely 58.8, of time devoted to this work, while for 
mixed pine and hardwoods the percentage was the highest, 
namely 81.9. Felling and log-making operations were lowest in 
Douglas fir, 18 per cent, highest in redwood, 42.2 per cent, with 
an average for the eleven operations of 28.49 per cent. Supervision 
ranged from 1.8 per cent in shortleaf pine to 5.1 per cent in 
mixed pine and hardwoods, with an average for all of 3.05. 

The data for operations in various regions, weighted on the basis 
of the log scale production, is shown in Table V. 

Since the exact conditions under which the data were secured 
are not stated, the figures in the table may be taken as suggestive 
only, but they are of value as indicating in a relative way the 
varj'ing conditions in the several regions and the proportion of 
the time usually devoted to each process. 

The marked differences in the time required are due to various 
factors, outside of the efficiency of the labor employed, among 
which are the size, character, and stand of timber, and the topog- 
raphy, all of which vary widely with the species shown in the 
table. 

UNIONS^ 

The chief center of organized labor in the logging industry is 

* See Wages and Hours of Labor in the Lumber, Millwork, and Furniture 
Industries, 1915. U. S. Dept. of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bui. No. 
225, 1918. 

2 See Lumber: Its Manufacture and Distribution, by Ralph C. Bryant. 
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, for a more comprehensive discussion of 
labor unions in the lumber industry. 



54 



LOGGING 



Q 

2 

o 

H 

w g 

Pi '^ 

^ -S 

I £ 

§■ I 

S g 

;:d .sp 

O ^ 

K - 







-^2,0 


f^ s s s s? 


o 




1 


li 


6 3.0 

28.4 

4 49.4 
4 7.5 
2 11.4 


1 




<« 


1 o 


1 § s i 1 


i 






S5^ 


d (N ^' d -i 


d 




t3 

IS 


1^- 

■g CI 
o i d 


5715 2.263 
8043 38.834 

6305 34.185 

0621 12.128 

1785 12.590 


1 

i 




S 


^^^ 


O Oi «; TO TO 


o 








U5 « O U5 U-, 






tl, 


ardwoods 
operation) 
e-man hrs 

0. % 


574 5.11 
622 12.91 

243 34.74 

869 21.95 

194 25.27 


1 












g -S 


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FOREST LABOR 



55 



L 



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s 






^i 



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56 



LOGGING 



in the territory west of the Rocky Mountains, especially in the 
Inland Empire and in the Northwest. Various sporadic efforts 
to unionize loggers in other sections have been unsuccessful. The 
Loyal Legion of Loggers and Lumbermen (4 L's), first organized 
in 1917, is the dominating labor organization in the logging 
industry on the Pacific Coast and in the Inland Empire. 



ORGANIZATION 

The division of responsibility on a typical logging operation 
on the Pacific Coast is shown on page 55, that for a southern yellow 
pine railroad operation on page 56, and for an operation in the 
Northeast on page 56. Various modifications of the above may 
be found on individual operations, but in general the scheme of 
organization is as outlined. 

ORGANIZATION OF A SOUTHERN RAILROAD LOGGING 
OPERATION 





' Location en- Grading contractors 


Laborers 




gineer (main 






line railroad) 






Woods fore- 


Team boss 


Teamsters 




man 




Swampers 






Felling contractor 
Camp blacksmith 


Woods sawyers 








General 




Barn man 




Manager 




Grading boss (spurs) 


Laborers 






Loader foreman and 


Loader crew 




Train master 


engineer 








Steel crew foreman 


Steel crew 






Train conductors 


Train crews 






Section boss 


Section crews 




[Shop foreman (mill) 


Shop crew 


ORGANIZ 


ATION OF A NORTHERN LOGGING OPERATION 






Scaler and clerk 


Sawyers 






Saw boss 








Saw filer 








Road foreman 








Toters 






Woods fore- 


Cook 


Flunkies 




man 






General 






Teamsters 


Manager 




Skidding foreman 
Road repair crew 


Swampers 
Skidwaymen 
Barn man 






Landing boss 


Landing crew 




Drive foreman Log drivers (small 






streams) 





FOREST LABOR 57 

workmen's compensation acts 

For many years the responsibility of compensating laborers 
injured in the performance of their work was regulated by Em- 
ployers' Liability Laws. These held the employer liable for 
accidents which occurred by reason of his failure to conform to 
the laws. Lawsuits were frequent and usually proved expensive 
to all concerned, often resulting, on the one hand, in a denial by 
the courts of compensation to parties to whom it was due, and 
on the other, in granting heavy damages to those who were not 
entitled to them. 

The employers protected their interests through liability 
insurance companies, but a great waste of money resulted since 
only from 29 to 50 per cent of the premiums paid reached the 
injured employees or their dependents and fully 40 per cent of 
this was expended by the injured party for attorneys' fees. 

Compensation through liability laws has tended to create an 
antagonistic feeling between employer and employee, and for 
many years this method of settlement was regarded as unsatis- 
factory. 

Many states have abolished the liability laws and have passed 
Workmen's Compensation Acts, which provide, without trial by 
court or jury, for the pa3aTient of specified sums for injuries re- 
ceived. The injured workman secures a definite compensation 
without legal expense and without regard to the cause of the 
accident, provided his injury was not self-inflicted. In return, 
he waives all rights to the common law defences of "contributory 
negligence," "assumption of risk," and the "fellow servant 
rule," which were prominent features in litigation under the lia- 
bility laws. 

A further advance in accident prevention has been the passage, 
by some states, of State Safety Laws, which provide for the es- 
tablishment of standards for the various industries, such as, 
(1) a safe place in which the employee may work, (2) the proper 
safeguarding of machinery, (3) the education of the employee 
by safety engineers in order that laborers may be fully aware of 
the dangers incident to their occupation. 

The importance of the educational feature has received much at- 
tention in recent years. It is stated by some authorities on accident 
prevention, that three-fourths of all deaths and serious injuries 
in industry are preventable, but that more than one-half of this 



58 LOGGING 

reduction must be accomplished through other than mechanical 
means, chiefly through organization and education. 

There has been a marked advance, in recent years, in "First 
Aid" facilities in all forest regions. This has taken the form of 
training one or more men in each crew in first aid procedure and 
in giving general instruction to all workmen at occasional inter- 
vals. "First aid" medical kits also are provided on most opera- 
tions, and an injured employee now receives some form of simple 
surgical treatment pending his transfer to a point where skilled 
help may be secured. 

MEDICAL ATTENTION 

Many logging companies now provide medical service for their 
employees and, in some cases, hospital facilities, especially when 
the logging operations are within reach of the manufacturing 
plant. The latter practice is quite universal where the operator 
is both a logger and manufacturer, and controls the town in which 
the manufacturing plant is located. 

The medical service is supported wholly or partially by fees 
which are collected from the employees. These fees provide 
medical attention for the workman and his family for ordinary 
ailments and for accidents. As a rule, a hospital fee designed to 
cover the cost of board is charged for those who use its services. 

The medical department also supervises camp sanitation, in 
addition to its regular duties. 

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE TO CHAPTER III 

Industrial Accident Commission, California: Logging and Sawmill 

Safety Orders, effective March 15, 1917. The Timberman, Feb. 1917, 

pp. 48T to 48X. 
Industrial Insurance Department, State of Washington: First Annual 

Report, for the twelve months ending September 30, 1912. Olympia, 

Washington. 
Pratt, C. S.: Washington Workmen's Compensation Act is Successful in 

its Operation. The Timberman, August, 1912, pp. 74-77. 
Sparks, J. E. and Forest, E. H. T.: Lumbermen's Safety First — First 

Aid Manual. Pub. for Industrial Dept., International Comm. of Y. 

M. C. A., Association Press, New York. 
State Safety Board of Washington: Safety Standards for Logging. 

The Timberman, April, 1920, p. 45 to 48. 
U. S. Dept. of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: Workmen's Compensa- 
tion Laws of the United States and Foreign Countries, Bui. No. 126, 

Washington, Dec. 23, 1913. 



FOREST LABOR 59 

U. S. Dept. of Labor: Descriptions of Occupations, Logging Camps and 
Sawmills. Washington, 1918. 

U. S. Dept. of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: Wages and Hours of 
Labor in the Lumber, Millwork, and Furniture Industries, 1915. Bui. 
No. 225. Washington, Feb. 1918. 

U. S. Dept. of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: Industrial Survey in 
Selected Industries in the United States, 1919, Bui. No. 265, Washington, 
May, 1920, pp. 348 to 356. 

U. S. Deft of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: Workmen's Compensa- 
tion Legislation of the United States and Canada, Bui. No. 272. Wash- 
ington, Jan. 1921. 



CHAPTER IV 

CAMPS 

The early logging camps had crude buildings with no modern 
conveniences, and the men were given very plain fare. Present- 
day loggers no longer crowd the workers in small, unsanitary 
structures and feed them upon poorly cooked food, because work- 
men demand better living conditions. Many states and also 
various provinces in Canada have passed laws which are designed 
to improve sanitary conditions in industrial camps and which 
require the employer to observe standards which will conserve 
public health. 

CAMP LOCATION 

The general requirements for a suitable camp depend upon the 
type of logging operation and upon the character of labor employed. 
The chief requirements for a camp for snow logging are: 

(1) A central location with reference to a large tract. It is 
not considered profitable to walk men more than 1| miles from 
camp to work, or from one watershed to another, because they 
consume too much time and energy. It is cheaper to construct 
new camps if there is a large amount of timber, or a secondary 
camp if the quantity is small. The camp should be located so 
that the main-haul or two-sled road will run through the camp 
lot on its way to the landing. Teamsters then lose no time in 
getting to work in the morning, returning to feed animals, and 
getting them to the stable at night after a hard day's work. 
During the hauling season, time is an important factor, and where 
long hours are observed every precaution should be taken to hus- 
band the strength of animals and men. 

(2) A level, well-drained camp site from 1 to 2 acres in extent. 

(3) A stream of pure running water near at hand (for drink- 
ing, cooking, laundry purposes and stock watering) and so located 
that it will not be contaminated by the camp sewage. 

(4) Accessibility to the source of supplies. This is an impor- 

60 



CAMPS. 61 

tant factor, although secondary to proper location with reference 
to the timber and main haul. 

The requirements for a camp site for a railroad operation are 
as follows: 

(1) A well-drained site, with no swamps or other mosquito- 
breeding spots in the vicinity, because railroad camps are operated 
during the warm season when there is the greatest danger from 
malaria. 

(2) Location with reference to a natural supply of pure water 
is secondary to good drainage, since drinking water is either 
hauled to the camp in tank cars, or can be obtained by driving 
wells at the camp site. It is desirable, however, to have a running 
stream in the vicinity from which water for the stock and for 
laundry purposes may be secured. 

(3) Accessibility to the operation is essential, unless the men 
can be transported to and from their labor. In the southern 
pineries, a large percentage of the workmen on logging operations 
are married, and there is an increasing tendency to establish more 
or less permanent camps, in order that more conveniences may 
be provided for the loggers' families. The woods crews are then 
hauled to and from work by train. 

(4) A sufficient area of level ground to permit the construc- 
tion of the spur tracks required for moving the houses, set-out 
switches for log cars, and a railroad "Y. " 

Floating camps are placed in bayous and canals in proximity 
to the operation. Pure drinking water cannot be secured from 
these streams and provision must be made for a boiled or distilled 
supply. Camp location under such circumstances is governed 
almost wholly by accessibility. 

TYPES OF CAMPS 

Log Camps. — Typical buildings are usually one-storied and are* 
constructed crib-fashion of logs, preferably of conifers with the 
slightest taper obtainable. These are notched at the corners 
to hold them together and to reduce the chink space, which is 
filled with moss and clay, or mortar. The floors in the living 
rooms are made of hewed timbers or rough lumber, and the roofs 
are covered with "shakes" or prepared roofing. The doors are 
made from rough boards, and a few windows furnish light and aid 



62 



LOGGING 



in ventilation. Occasionally a framework on which logs are 
fastened upright is substituted for the crib-work. 

Log camps in the North generally comprise the following 
buildings: 

(1) An office and store, sometimes called a "van," which is 
the headquarters and the sleeping place of the foreman, camp 
clerk and log scaler. The equipment of the room consists of 
bunks for the men, a few shelves on which goods are displayed, 




Fig. 2. — A Logging Camp in the Northeast. The buildings from left to 
right are the cook shanty, bunk house, blacksmith shop, and stable. 
Maine. 

and a rough counter over which they are sold, two or three home- 
made chairs, and a box stove. The store carries supplies required 
by the woodsmen, such as shoes, clothing, tobacco and a few 
drugs. Occasionally the office is in one of the main buildings. 
(2) A cook shanty which houses the kitchen and dining depart- 
ment. The former usually is placed in one end of the building, 
and the remaining space is devoted to dining tables running length- 
wise or crosswise of the building. Benches are provided for 
seats. A small sleeping room is partitioned off for the cook. 



CAMPS 63 

(3) A bunk house which provides lounging and sleeping quarters 
for the men. Double bunks, two stories high, are built along the 
side wall and often across the ends of the building. Each bunk 
accommodates two men. Straw or hay may be supplied in lieu of 
mattresses. Blankets may or may not be furnished by the camp. 

Long wooden benches, called "deacon seats," are placed along- 
side of the bunks. A large sink for washing, one or two heating 
stoves, and a grindstone are also part of the equipment. Wires 
for drying clothing are supended over the stove. 

Ventilation often is secured by placing a barrel in a hole in 
the roof and fitting it with a hinged head that may be opened 
and closed; if this is not used, some other crude arrangement is 
adopted. 

Cook shanties and bunk houses generally are separate build- 
ings, although in the Northeast they often are only from 6 to 10 
feet apart, and the gap is covered with a roof, boarded up in the 
rear and used as a storage place, called a "dingle." 

Two-storied camps, having the kitchen and dining-room on 
the lower floor and the sleeping quarters on the second floor, 
are sometimes used in the Adirondack mountains, although the 
general practice is to use one-storied buildings. 

(4) Stables or hovels — rough buildings with a good roof and 
fairly tight sides — are constructed to afford proper protection to 
animals. They are equipped with stalls, feed boxes, harness 
racks and grain bins. Each animal usually is allowed a stall 
space of 5 by 10 feet. When a large number are kept in one 
camp, the stalls are arranged on opposite sides of the building 
with an alleyway in the middle in which grain and hay are stored. 
A 6-foot runway is left behind the animals to facilitate cleaning 
the barn and to afford a passage for the animals to and from 
their stalls. 

(5) A storehouse, where surplus supplies are kept. This may 
be a detached building, or a room in the cook shanty set aside 
for this purpose. 

(6) A storage or root cellar which is an underground place 
where vegetables are kept. It must be frost-proof and yet cool 
enough to prevent the produce from spoiling. 

(7) A blacksmith shop where horses are shod, and sleds and 
other equipment made and repaired. If a variety of work is 
performed there must a set of iron- and wood- working tools. 



64 



LOGGING 



The chief tools required in a first-class camp shop are: 



1 forge, complete, including bellows 
1 anvil 

3 augers, 1|-, 2- and 3-inch 

1 thread cutter and an assortment 
of dies 

4 hammers 
1 vise 

1 broadax 

2 rasps 

1 coal shovel 



12 tongs, assorted 

1 brace and an assortment of bits 

1 drill machine and an assortment of bits 

1 bolt clipper 

1 striking hammer 

2 monkey wrenches 

2 two-inch iron squares 
1 set of horse-shoeing tools 
1 iron heating stove 




Photograph by II. DeForest. 

Fig. 3. — a Two-storied Logging Camp. The dining room, lounging room 
and office are on the ground floor, and the sleeping quarters are on the 
upper floor. Northern New York. 

In addition, a general assortment of cold chisels, drawing 
knives, and pinchers, and an assortment of files are kept on hand. 
(8) Sled storehouses to shelter sleds and other ec}uipment 
during the summer months. 

An average crew for the northern woods is about sixty men, 
with from twenty-five to thirty-five horses. A camp to accommo- 
date a crew of sixty men and thirty horses would be composed of 
buildings of the following approximate sizes: 

Oflice and store 16 by 20 feet 

Cook shanty 35 by 37 feet 

Bunk house 35 by 37 feet 



CAMPS 65 

Stables (2) 40 by 40 feet 

Storehouse 16 by 16 feet 

Blacksmith shop 27 by 27 feet 

Storage cellar 8 by 12 feet 

Sled storehouse 10 by 15 feet 

Although there is variation in the area of the ground floor of 
all buildings used in northern camps, an average of several 
gives from 65 to 80 square feet per man. The construction of 
such camps requires one day's manual labor for each 15 square 
feet of floor space and one day's horse labor for each 100 square 
feet of floor space. 

In some parts of the North, especially where logging railroads 
are used or where lumber can easily be secured, log buildings have 
been replaced Ijy board camps covered with tar paper. Buildings 
of this character are torn down when a camp site is abandoned 
and the lumber is used for buildings on a new site. 

Portable-house Camps. — The buildings are used indefinitely 
and are moved from place to place as logging progresses, being 
placed on skids along the main line or a spur of the logging rail- 
road. Two or three buildings grouped together may form a 
dwelling for a family, or singly they may be fitted up as bunk 
houses to shelter two or more men. Large camps in the South 
may have 100 or more houses and shelter from 200 to 400 persons, 
of whom only 30 to 50 per cent may be laborers in the employ of 
the logging company. 

Camps of this character constitute small villages which have a 
school and church, and sometimes a Y. M. C. A., for the benefit 
of the loggers and their families. Other buildings include quarters 
for the superintendent, sometimes a boarding-house for single 
men, barns for the stock, a machine shop, storage houses, coal 
supply bins for the locomotives and a commissary or store. The 
store is an important feature in isolated camps for not only the 
families in camp but also many of the local inhabitants secure 
their supplies from this source. Stores of this character often 
carry a large stock of goods and sell, monthly, several thousand 
dollars' worth of merchandise, groceries and feed. 

When families do not live in camps the number of buildings 
is limited and may include, besides the bunk houses, an office 
and a cook shanty. The latter because of its large size frequently 
is not portable. A small "van" is maintained from which the 



66 



LOGGING 



men can secure such supplies as they need. Camps of this 
character are found in the Northwest. 

Portable houses must be of a size that can be loaded and trans- 
ported on log cars. Strength in construction is an important 
factor, because of the frequent handling to which they are sub- 
jected. 

The buildings vary in size and in mode of construction. In the 
South they often are 12 by 14 or 10 by 20 feet, with a door at each 
end and a window on each side. The framework on which the 




Fig. 4. — A Portable-house Logging Camp. The large building in the rear 
is the camp store. Arkansas. 



floor joists rest is made of heavy timbers, and the side bracing, 
floor joists and rafters of 2- by 44nch material. The siding may 
be 4-inch dressed and matched material, and the interiors of the 
better houses are ceiled with |-inch ceiling. A cheap grade of 
flooring is used. The roof is covered with sheet iron or some 
patent roofing material. 

A house of this character 10 by 20 feet in size requires ap- 
proximately 2200 feet of lumber, 230 square feet of roofing, 4 
window sashes, 4 pairs of hinges, 2 doors and 2 doorknobs. It 
can be built by four carpenters in two days. If kept in good re- 
pair and painted at intervals it will last for many years. 

Portable houses are loaded on log cars either by animals or 
log loaders. In loading a house with the aid of animals, the log 



CAMPS 67 

cars are "spotted" on the railroad track opposite the house to be 
loaded, and skids are placed from the house to the car. One end of 
a cable is attached to the house, the other end being passed over 
the car and through a block and fall fastened to a tree or stump on 
the opposite side of the track. A team is attached to the free 
end of the cable and the house is dragged slowly up the skids 
and upon the car bunks. 

A house can be handled most expeditiously with power log 
loaders, in which case there must be a heavy 6-inch by 12-inch 
timber running lengthwise or crosswise under the center of the 
building. An iron rod, 1| inches in diameter, having a large eye 
at one end and a screw thread at the other, is run through the 
center of the house from the peak of the roof down through the 
hea\y floor beam and made fast with a nut. An empty log car 
and the log loader having been placed on the track opposite the 
house, the loader cable is fastened to the eye of the rod, and the 
whole structure is raised clear of the foundation, then swung 
around in position and lowered upon the car. It is unloaded by 
a reversal of the process. In some cases the rods are fixed per- 
manently to two corners of the house, diagonally opposite, and 
a bridle on the loading cable is fastened to them when the house 
is to be moved. The moving of the house does not necessi- 
tate the removal of the household effects. 

Barns for animals at portable logging camps may be either 
semi-permanent board structures, tents, or specially constructed 
cars. 

Board barns are advantageous in a region where the winter 
weather is severe, since they can be made tight and afford ample 
shelter and comfort for the animals. They are built of cheap 
lumber with a board roof battened, or covered with prepared 
roofing. Such structures are expensive when camp is moved 
frequently, because some lumber is destroyed each time the 
building is torn down, and the cost of erection is considerable. 

A form of tent barn 32 feet wide with 14-foot center poles and 
7-foot side poles, is recommended by some loggers for temporary 
camps. Double stalls are made 10 by 10 feet with 6-foot alleys 
at the rear. A barn of this character made from 12-ounce duck 
will be serviceable for about two years. 

Car barns are used in some parts of the South. A type used 
in Arkansas has a fiat car 10| by 40 feet in size, with standard 



68 



LOGGING 



freight trucks on which is l^uilt a superstructure 9 feet from the 
floor to the eaves, with a gradually sloping peaked roof covered 
with tar paper. A passageway 6^ feet wide runs through the 
center of the car which provides a place for the storage of hay and 





Fig. 5. — An End and Side View of the Framework of a Car Barn. 



grain, and on each side of it feed and hay boxes are arranged. A 
drop roof, supported on 3- by 6-inch by 8-foot scantlings, covers 
stall space 10 feet wide beyond which an extension roof covers 
an alley. Four double stalls are arranged on each side of the car 



CAMPS 69 

separated by board partitions wired to supports on the car and 
under the outer edge of the drop roof. The stable floor is filled in 
with earth to give drainage. No protection other than the short 
extension roof is provided at the rear. The car is left on a 
temporary track and in one hour can be dismantled ready to 
move. 

A car of this character is serviceable where frequent changes 
of site are necessary especially where permanent camps are used, 
and the animals arc stabled near the logging operation. It is 
not suitable for a region in which the weather is severe during 
the winter months, although with a little additional labor it 
would be possible to enclose it on the sides and ends. Corrals 
are enclosed with panels five boards high and 16 feet long, which 
are wired to posts set at proper intervals. The only labor re- 
(luired in moving to a new site is to cut the wire and load the panels 
on flat cars. 

Car Camps. — Logging camps sometimes consist of specially 
designed cars fitted up as sleeping quarters, kitchen and dining 
room, bath and drying rooms, reading room, office, commissary, 
blacksmith shop and warehouse. This type of camp has been 
most highly developed in the Northwest. Although the first 
cost of construction is higher than for a stationary board camp, 
car camps are ultimately cheaper. The chief merits of the car 
camp on wheels are as follows ■} 

(1) The camps may be moved quickly to a new site in case 
of danger from forest fires. 

(2) The annual depreciation charge, including maintenance, 
is rarely more than 10 per cent, which is lower than for stationary 
camps. 

(3) There is a marked saving in wages when camp is moved, 
since only a few men are required for the operation. The log- 
ging crew need not be called away from work for this purpose. 

(4) Modern, sanitary car camps attract the best grade of 
workmen, which insures a steady and reliable crew. 

(5) Camps may be moved frequently and the men housed 
near their work. 

(6) A smaller site is necessary and, therefore, the expense of 
preparing a new camp ground is reduced. 

^ See Logging in the Douglas Fir Region, by William H. Gibbons, U. S. 
Dept. of Agriculture, Bui. No. 711, Washington, 1918, pp. 11 and 12. 



70 



LOGGING 



Camp cars are rarely used where families must be housed, 
since the initial investment is too great. 

In one Oregon camp the units are built on 34-foot flat cars 
which have a superstructure 46 feet long, 14 feet wide and 8| 
feet high from floor to eaves. Ten cars provide accommodations 
for eighty men, five cars being used for bunk houses, and one 




Fig. G. — A Floating Camp on a Cyi)res,s Oix^ration. The dining room and 
office are on the ground floor and the sleeping quarters are in the upper 
story. The building on the left is the camp store. Louisiana. 

each for kitchen, store room, dining hall, headquarters and com- 
missary, and power and baths. 

Each bunk car accommodates sixteen men and is fitted up 
with two-storied single bunks provided with springs and mat- 
tresses. The cars are steam-heated and electric-lighted and afford 
comfortable quarters for the men. 

A unique departure is the power and bath car which is fitted 
up with a tub and four shower baths. These are available for 
the use of the men, under suitable regulations. A power plant 
placed in this car furnishes light for the camp and a boiler 
furnishes steam heat for the buildings. 



CAMPS 71 

The office, commissary, and foreman's and storekeeper's 
quarters are placed in a single car, while a storage car holds 
supplies for the commissary and package goods for the kitchen. 

Running water is provided for the camp whenever a gravity 
supply is available. 

Floating Camps. — The camps used in the cypress region on 
pulll)oat operations are built on scows, and are usually two- 
storied buildings in which the entire camp is fed and housed. A 
portion or all of the lower floor may be devoted to the kitchen, 
dining room and foreman's quarters, while the upper floor is 
used for a barrack to house the men and is generally divided into 
two sections to accommodate white and colored laborers. 

A store building is moored close to the main camp and the two 
connected by a gangplank. 

Floating camps are tied up along the banks of bayous or of 
canals near the logging operation, and the men go to and from 
work in dug-out canoes called "pirogues," or in flat boats. 

BOARDING DEPARTMENT 

The establishment of a commissary department for feeding 
forest workers is necessary whenever the employees do not have 
their famihes in camp. This is true in all regions except the 
southern yellow pine, and often in camps in this region, boarding 
facilities must be provided for the bachelor members of the crew. 

The subsistence department is in charge of a head cook, who has 
helpers called flunkies or cookccs, who wait on table, peel potatoes, 
wash dishes and perform odd jobs around the kitchen. One or 
more assistant cooks may be employed in large camps, for the 
preparation of meats and pastry. A high-grade cook is considered 
essential, because the season's success usually depends on a con- 
stant supply of labor, which cannot be retained unless a variety 
of wholesome food is provided. A weekly charge may be made 
for board or the cost of it may be included in the wage paid to 
a workman. 

One flunkie to every twenty-five men is sufficient. All camps 
also have one or more chore boys who clean up the men's quarters, 
cut firewood for the kitchen and bunk houses, carry water for 
bunk house use, and sometimes clean the stables. A launderer 
or laundress also is employed in some camps. 



72 LOGGING 

The kitchen equipment consists of one or more cook stoves, and 
the necessary utensils required in the preparation of food for 
large numbers of men. Some of the modern camps now use 
electric dish-washers and have small refrigerating plants or special 
underground cold storage facilities for keeping meats and perish- 
able foods. 

The kitchen utensils may be of iron, tin, or granite ware. Dining 
plates and serving vessels often are of granite or agate ware, 
although heavy china is considered preferable because there is 
danger of the enamel chipping off granite ware. Cutlery is of 
steel with plain wooden handles. 

Rations. — In preparing l^ills of fare for camp purposes, the 
cook is dependent not only on the supplies on hand but also on 
the regularity with which they are delivered at the camp. This 
varies with the distance from the source of supplies and the 
weather conditions. There cannot be a well-defined system of 
bills of fare in camps where the cook must rely upon wagon or 
sled transport for bringing in the foodstuffs. When the camp is 
located on a logging railroad, the problem is more simple, since 
regularity in delivery is practicable. Cooks are expected to vary 
the daily bill of fare as much as possible, in order that the workmen 
may not tire of their food. The average logger's ration is about 
double that of the United States army on garrison duty and may 
reach, on an average, between 6,000 and 7,000 calories daily for 
workers in the colder portions of the country. An investigation of 
logger's rations^ made in the Northwest in 1918, disclosed the fact 
that the unnecessary and avoidable waste in feeding men in 
logging camps was from 20 to 30 per cent, due to (a) incompetent 
buyers and to lack of system in making purchases, (b) storage 
waste through deterioration of perishable foods and to damage by 
rats and other vermin, (c) table waste, the greatest single factor, 
caused by serving too great a variety and the preparation of too 
large quantities of each variety, (d) plate waste, caused by indi- 
viduals taking more food than they desired. These various wastes 
were attributed chiefly to serving too large portions of meat and 
similar foods, greed, food sabotage, and unpalatability. The 
chief remedy suggested was a reduction in size of portions served, 
personal appeals to the men to avoid waste, and more careful 
preparation of food in order that all of it might be palatable. 

1 Made by the Signal Corps, U. S. Army, Spruce Production Division. 



CAMPS 73 

Much attention has been given to the ehmination of these wastes 
in recent years, owing to the high price of foodstuffs. Many 
logging camps now serve excellent meals. 

Bills of fare for logging camps have been published in lumber 
trade journals at various times, in an effort to encourage a varied 
diet in logging camps menus, because it is a recognized fact that 
well-cooked, appetizing, and nourishing food tends to increased 
efficiency on the part of the workmen. ^ 

Recipes for the preparation of foodstuffs in logging camps have 
rarely been especially prepared, since the procedure does not differ 
from that applicable in any industrial camp in which large numbers 
of men are fed.^ 

The ration lists given in Table VI arc suggestive merely, in- 
dicating the general class of foods furnished in logging camps in 
the Pacific Northwest^ and in the Northeast. 

The amount of animal feed required is approximately 30 pounds 
of hay and 20 pounds of grain daily per animal. 

The total weight of animal feed and foodstuffs required to log 
one million feet, log scale, of timber in the Northeast is approxi- 
mately 200 tons. Data for other regions are not available. 

Commissary supplies and animal feed are usually hauled into 
northern camps during the late fall and early winter on tote sleds. 
Where there are good roads, supplies are occasionally wagoned 
in during the sunnner. A two-horse team will haul about 1500 
pounds of supplies daily for a distance of 20 miles on a sled, 
while a team of four horses will seldom haul more than 1000 
pounds on a wagon. Supplies for railroad camps are brought 
in, as needed, by rail. 

CAMP HYGIENE 

Early logging camps had no system of medical supervision, 
and occasionally there were serious epidemics in camps, especially 
in those parts of the country where logging was carried on during 
the warmer months of the year. They were of rarer occurrence 

^ See West Coa,st Lumberman, Seattle, Washington, Nov. 15, 1915, p. 20. 

2 Recipes for the preparation of foodstuffs for a 50-man camp in the 
Northeast were pubhshed in the proceedings of the First Annual Conference 
of the Woods Department, BerUn Mills Co., et al, held Nov. 25 and 26, 1913. 
Berlin, New Hampshire. 

^ See Investigation of Feeding Operations, Timberman, October, 1918, 
pp. 65 to 68. 



74 



LOGGING 



Table VI 
LOGGING CAMP RATIONS^ 

(Pounds per man for one day.) 



Commodity 



Meat, fresh 

Bacon or salt pork 

Eggs 

Lard substitutes 

Butter and substitutes. 

Cheese 

Milk, canned('») 

Milk, freshO) 

Beans 

Potatoes 

Canned vegetables 

Fresh vegetables 

Sugar 

Syrup and molasses . . . 

Jams and jellies 

Flour (all kinds) 

Cereals 

Corn meal 

Corn starch 

Rice and barley 

Dried and canned fruits 

Fresh fruit, etc 

Tea 

Coflfee 

Salt 

Pepper 



1.25 

0'i56 
0.080 
0.150 
0.050 
0.250 
1.000 
0.125 
1.000 
0.362 
0.125 
0.200 
0.250 
0.031 
0.900 
0.100 
0.020 
0.020 
0.020 
0.250 
0.250 
0.010 
0.071 



{') 



0.89 
0.36 



0.18 
.029 



0.35(5) 
1.62(«) 



C) 
0.34 
0.067 

i'36' 

0'082 

• (5)- • 

0'i37 
0.028C) 

.020 

.065 



(') Weights of food as purchased. 

(^) Pacific Coast conditions. Prepared by the Signal Corps, U. S. Army. Spruce Produc- 
tion Division. 

(^) Maine logging camp. 

(*) When fresh milk is available, canned milk is not used and vice versa. 

(^) Includes rice. 

(^) Includes potatoes and other fresh vegetables. 

C) Includes cocoa. 

in northern camps because logging was confined chiefly to the 
colder months of the year when there was less danger of conta- 
gious diseases due to unsanitary surroundings. 

Most loggers now take every possible precaution to prevent 
disease. This is due to a realization that the highest labor effi- 
ciency can be secured only in camps where a high sanitary standard 
is maintained, and to the passage of State laws which are designed 
to protect public health in industrial camps. 

State regulations chiefly govern the subjects of water pollution, 
disposal of camp refuse of all kinds, and ventilation. Bowel 



CAMPS 75 

troubles are one of the more common ailments in camps during 
the warm months, and are often due to poorly cooked or tainted 
food, and polluted water. Such diseases may be guarded against 
by supplying pure drinking water, by burning or burying all 
kitchen and stable refuse,^ by providing tight latrines, so that 
flies cannot infect the food supply, and by making provision for 
adequate ventilation and suitable bathing facilities. 
The essentials of camp sanitation are: 

(1) A pure water supply. This can be provided only when 
the camp buildings are so located with reference to the water 
supply that there is no possibility of contamination from camp 
sewage. When drinking water is taken from streams, care must 
be taken to see that the supply is not contaminated at any point 
on the stream above the camp.^ 

(2) Adequate disposal of garbage, manure, and all forms of 
human excrement. Garbage and manure should be burned, 
buried or treated with some preparation which will keep flies 
away from it, since they are a common means of spreading disease. 
Incinerators for garbage and manure can be built cheaply and 
are an admirable method of disposal.^ 

Tin cans should be collected daily during warm weather and 
placed in deep earthen pits and covered with earth, or else they 
should be placed in a pile, covered with oil and burned over. 
During the winter months, garbage and tin cans may be stored 
safely at a distance of 200 feet from camp, provided they are 
hauled away or otherwise disposed of before the fly season. 

In warm weather, waste water from the kitchen, wash and 
bunk houses, and baths should be carried in closed trenches to 

1 Kerosene sprinkled on bam manure and garbage will keep away flies, 
l)ut lessens the value of the manure for fertilizing purposes. Borax 0.62 
pounds, or crude calcium borax 0.7.5 pounds per eight bushels of garbage or 
manure will keep away flies and wnll not injure the fertilizer value. Two 
ounces of either of the above chemicals are sufficient to keep flies out of gar- 
bage cans. 

2 A simple test for water purity is a.s follows: To one glass of water add 
one-fifth grain of permanganate of potash. This will turn the water a wine 
color. If organic matter is present the water will turn a muddy brown color, 
It should not be used for drinking purposes unless, on chemical analysis, 
the water is pronounced potable. 

^ Specifications for industrial camp garbage incinerators may be found in 
Advisory Pamphlet on Camp Sanitation and Housing, Commission of Im- 
migration and Housing of CaUfomia, San Francisco, 1914. 



76 LOGGING 

a covered cesspool located at a safe distance from the water sup- 
ply. In case open ditches are used, quicklime should be liberally 
applied at frequent intervals; otherwise the organic matter will 
decompose and furnish a breeding place for flies. 

The use of fly-proof latrines by men in camp should be obliga- 
tory, since, typhoid in camp is due chiefly to the infection of food 
by flies and rarely to polluted water. About 3 per cent of those 
who have had typhoid fever are "carriers," and to the unsuspected 
presence of such men in camps, most of the typhoid epidemics 
may be traced. A daily application of 5 pounds of quicklime 
to the latrine pit will keep it in a sanitary condition. 

(3) Fly-proof sleeping, kitchen, and eating quarters and la- 
trines. Food infection cannot be prevented unless care is taken 
to carefully screen not only the living and eating quarters but 
also the chief sources of infection. Such protection is easy to 
secure and should be obligator}^ in every industrial camp. 

(4) Adequate air space and ventilation. The air-space re- 
quirements of various states for industrial camps is not uniform, 
but the best standards require not less than 500 cubic feet of air 
space per man, combined with adequate ventilation.^ 

(5) Adequate bathing facilities. Many camps are not provided 
with shower baths or other bathing facilities for the workmen, 
although they are quite common in the camps of the Pacific 
Northwest. Bathing facilities have proved an important factor 
in reducing wound infection and, therefore, are very desirable. 
Compulsory camp laundry service is also an aid to the prevention 
of wound infection. Experience has shown that woods workers 
in most sections of the country appreciate such facilities and use 
them freely. The problem of providing bathing facilities in 
northern camps is more difficult than in the South and West, 
because of temperature conditions, and they are seldom furnished. 

(6) Cleanliness in the kitchen and dining room. The degree 
of cleanliness found in camp kitchens and dining rooms is ex- 
tremely variable unless properly supervised by the management 

1 The Camp Sanitation Rules formulated in 1914 by the Wisconsin State 
Board of Health call for 225 cubic feet of air space per man; the standard for 
the Loyal Legion of Loggers and Lumbermen is 500 cubic feet per man; the 
Province of Ontario, Canada 400 cubic feet per man. Wisconsin requires a 
ventilation duct in the roof equivalent to 4 square feet per 500 square feet 
of floor space or fraction thereof. The 4 L's specify 14 square feet of window- 
space per man, a small window for each bunk being preferable to larger ones. 



CAMPS 77 

or by some representative of the State Board of Health. State 
regulations usually provide that the kitchen and dining room 
shall be scrubbed at least bi-weekly and swept daily. ^ 

(7) Adequate drainage of the camp site. This is essential 
in order to prevent the pollution of the water supply and to elim- 
inate mosquito breeding holes. 

Ideal sanitary regulations of the Loyal Legion of Loggers and 
Lumbermen, formulated in 1919 by the sanitary inspector and 
adopted by the Board of Directors of that organization, are as 
follows : 



"Adequate supply of pure drinking water with some satisfactory 
type of drinking fountain. (The use of a common drinking cup 
is not allowed.) Water supply must be protected from con- 
tamination from source to points of distribution. 

CAMP SITE AND GROUNDS 

"Whenever possible a well drained camp site shall be selected. 
The grounds in the immediate vicinity of buildings shall be kept 
free from rubbish, garbage and all other unsightly or unsanitary 
matter. All l)uildings should be connected by serviceable walks 
of boards or other suitable material. 

BUNK HOUSES 

"Bunk house should be raised from ground at least 2 feet, and 
in damp situations more. Any design best fitted for the locality 
in which camp is situated may be used. Preferences should be 
given to the smaller type — none should house more than 25 men. 
Good substantial walks of plank or other suitable material should 
connect all bunk houses with all other buildings in the camp. 

"Bunk house should have suitable roof ventilation and should 
be large enough to provide a mininmra of 500 cubic feet of air 
space per man. Four square feet per man window space should be 
provided, numerous small windciws (one for each bunk) are 
preferable to a lesser number of large windows. 

"Bunk houses should be adequately heated by steam, hot water 
or stoves. Roof, walls and floors should be weather tight. Iron 

1 "Dry Sweeping" is prohibited in public camps in most states. 



78 LOGGING 

post bunks with wire springs should be used exclusively. Bunk 
house floors should be swept daily, and scrubbed once each week, 
or oiled every two weeks. Bunk houses should be thoroughly 
aired daily. 

"Bedding should be cleaned and aired frequently. 

"Every camp (except the very small ones) should have one 
able-bodied man whose sole duty should be to clean up the camp. 
All cuspidors, spit boxes or other receptacles used for a like pur- 
pose should be throughly cleaned daily. 

BATH HOUSES 

" There should be a minimum of one shower head for each twenty 
men. Bath house should be centrally located so as to be easily 
accessible from bunk houses, and should be well ventilated, lighted 
and water tight. 

"Drainage from shower compartments should be carefully 
constructed and lead, through covered drain, to cesspool or other 
proper place of disposal. The hot water heater should be of 
sufficient capacity to insure an adequate supply of hot water 
for bathing, washing and laundry purposes. Separate control 
for hot water and cold water should be installed. 

"Bath rooms must be kept scrupulously clean. The use of 
individual towel and soap should be insisted upon in bath and 
wash room. 

DRY ROOMS 

"Dry rooms are not required east of the Cascades. In other 
districts they should be well heated, well ventilated, separate 
from living and sleeping quarters and should contain ample 
space so that each individual's clothes can be placed without 
coming in contact with others. 



"Latrines should be located at a point where they will not 
contaminate water supply, or be a nuisance to camp on account 
of odors. They should always be placed on opposite side of camp 
from kitchen and not less than 150 feet from bunk houses. They 
should be easily accessible from camp, connected to it by a sub- 
stantial board walk, and should have a light over the doorway 
at night. 



CAMPS 79 

" Latrines should be sufficiently large to afford one seat for each 
eight persons, should not contain open cracks or knotholes, and 
should be fly-tight around the bottom of the shelter. All openings 
should be screened with No. 16 or 18 wire mesh. 

"Holes should be large and fitted with seK-closing covers. The 
interior aspect of the box should be protected on the inside by a 
tin or iron urine shield. Toilets should contain a non-leakable 
urine trough connected by tight drain to earth vault. 

"The earth vault should not be less than 8 feet in depth. 
Excreta should be covered weekly with oil or live lime. Some 
type of vent should connect the vault with the open air. This 
vent must be screened. Floors must be swept daily, seats weekly, 
and urinal trough mopped daily with crude oil. Floors should 
be oiled once each week. An ample supply of paper must be 
constantly kept on hand. 

MESS HALLS 

"The mess hall should be located not less than 250 feet from 
the latrines. Mess halls should be adequately lighted, heated 
and ventilated, and should be sufficiently well constructed so as 
to leave no open cracks in floors, walls or ceiling. 

"Mess halls should be made fly-proof, should provide sufficient 
table space to allow a minimum of 22 inches per man at table. 

"The tables should be washed after each meal. Floors should 
be scrubbed twice each week, or oiled once a week, and swept 
with care daily. Avoid dry sweeping. Condiment bottles and 
containers should be scakk^d with hot water and wiped carefully 
each day. All dishes and cutlery should be thoroughly washed 
in hot water and soap and rinsed in boiling water before drying. 



MEAT HOUSE 

"The meat house should be very carefully constructed, and 
should be absolutely free from cracks and knot holes. It should 
be set high off the ground and present at least three sides to the 
air. It should be perfectly screened with a fine mesh wire netting. 
Walls and ceiling should be ceiled with seasoned matched ceiling^ 
and painted white or light slate. Floor should be well-made of 
matched lumber, and either oiled or painted. Meat hangers 
should be so placed that meat will not come in contact with the 



80 LOGGING 

walls. The meat block should be round and smooth, and either 
painted or varnished on all surfaces except top. Doors should 
fit tight, and be self-closing. 

"The meat house interior and all tools, furniture and utensils 
should be kept scrupulously clean. 

KITCHENS 

"The kitchen should be well lighted and ventilated. It should 
be either in the same building as the mess hall, or connected to 
it by a fly-proof enclosed passageway. All openings should be 
screened and all doors should have some automatic closing device 
attached. 

"All drainage should be of the covered drain type. Dish 
water and other liquid waste should be conveyed to a cesspool 
or sullage pit through covered drains. All kitchen garbage should 
be kept in metal fly-proof, covered containers, until permanently 
disposed of. 

"Kitchens should be thoroughly cleaned at least once each 
week, and swept daily. Dry sweeping should not be permitted. 
No persons afflicted with a communicable disease should be allowed 
in the kitchen or mess hall. Absolute cleanliness of persons and 
clothes of cooks, helpers, and waiters should be demanded, and 
particular attention should be given to hands and nails. Failure 
to observe this rule should cause dismissal. 

"All perishable food should be protected from putrefaction 
and contamination by dust or insects. An ample supply of hot 
and cold running water should be supplied at all times. The 
kitchen should be kept free from flies, roaches, mice and other 
vermin. Cats, dogs and other pets should be excluded. All 
persons not actively engaged in the preparation of the food should 
be kept out of the kitchen. 

SANITARY SERVICE 

"The camp superintendent should be held strictly responsible 
for the sanitation of the camp. He should oversee and direct 
the camp janitor in the performance of his duties. It should 
be the duty of the camp janitor to clean up and keep clean the 
entire camp, including all bunk houses, reading rooms, toilets 
and the camp grounds. (The kitchen and mess halls are entirely 



CAMPS 81 

within the province of the cook and his helpers.) The camp 
janitor should see to the proper disposal of all garbage and refuse 
and should daily inspect all buildings under his care. He should 
note all damage and defects in any doors, windows, ventilators, 
screening, and all apparatus or fixtures connected with the heat- 
ing, lighting or bathing and washing facilities of the camp, and 
repair or cause them to be repaired at once. 

"Garbage and refuse from cook houses should be placed in 
covered, water-tight garbage cans. Cans should never be left un- 
covered and should be emptied and cleaned inside and out daily. 

"A stand to hold garbage cans should be constructed just out- 
side the kitchen door. The stand and surrounding ground and 
wall should be treated with crude oil frequently, to repel flies. 

"Kitchen waste or garbage should be disposed of by burning, 
burying or feeding to hogs. (Hogs should never be allowed 
to roam at large, but should be kept in a hog-tight enclosure. 
This should never be less than 500 feet from the camp; same rule 
applies to stables. ^Manure pile should not be allowed to accu- 
mulate in vicinity of camp.) 

"Fly-tight boxes or other receptacles should be placed at con- 
venient points in the immediate vicinity of the living and sleep- 
ing quarters. In these should be placed all sweepings, waste paper, 
discarded clothing, and other refuse of the camp. These should 
be emptied and contents disposed of by incineration as the occasion 
may demand." 

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE TO CHAPTER IV 

Bein, F. L.: Refrigerating System for the Cook-house. The Timberman, 
AprU, 1920, p. 32P and October, 1920, pp. 59, and 60. 

Jaffa, M. E.: The Uses and Values of Foods. The Timberman, Nov. 
1915, pp. 60 to 62. 

Lipscomb, Dr. W. N. : Logging Camp Sanitation. The Timberman, Nov. 
1917, pp. 64G to 641. 

RuEGNiTZ, W. C: Ehminating Waste in the Boarding House. The Tim- 
berman, Sept. 1917, p. 36 and Nov. 1917, pp. 63 and 64. 

RuEGNiTZ, W. C: Standard System of Management of Mess Houses. 
The Timberman, Nov. 1921, pp. 34 to 38 incl. 

Spruce Production DI\^sION, Bureau of Aircraft Production: Construc- 
tion of Camp Kitchens and Mess HalLs. The Timberman, Sept. 1918, 
p. 33. 

Tharaldsen, Thorfixx: Investigation of Feeding Operations. The 
Timberman, Oct., 1918, pp. 65 to 68. 



CHAPTER V 
WOODWORKERS' TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT 



An ax head consists of two parts: namely, the l^it or euttinp; 
edge and the head or poll. The latter has an eye mto which is 
fitted the helve or handle. There are several types of axes, chief 
among which are the falling ax, the broadax and the turpentine ax. 

Falling Ax. — This is used for felling, log-making, swamping 
and other chopping work. The head is made in a variety of 
patterns and of several weights. It tapers from the poll to 
the bit and has either smooth, slightly concave or beveled sides. 
The eye is oval-shaped and has a larger diameter on the side op- 
posite the handle in order that a wedge may be inserted in the 
handle head. The head may have one or two cutting edges. 
The former is known as a single-bitted and the latter as a double- 
bitted ax. A single-bit is in common use where a light ax is 
required, where a single cutting blade is needed, or where the 
ax is to be used for striking. A double-bitted ax is service- 
able where a woodsman has need of a sharp cutting edge, and at 
times must cut dry knots and other material that quickly dull 
the tool. It is a favorite with swampers and some sawyers prefer 
it for driving wedges. 

Bits are made of steel and are either straight or curved. They 
must be properly tempered, for if too soft the edge will turn 
and if too hard it will break. 

The weight of the head depends on the character of work that 
is to be performed and the personal ideas of the laborer. 

In the Northeast fallers prefer an ax head weighing from 3j to 
4 pounds, while the western loggers prefer one weighing from 3| 
to 4^ pounds. 

Swampers and others who cut limbs and brush, snipe logs and 
perform similar work use an ax head weighing from 4 to 5 pounds. 

The handles for single-bitted axes are either curved or straight, 
the choice being chiefly one of individual preference. Handles 

82 



WOODWORKERS' TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT 



83 




are preferablj^ made of second-growth hickory, but camp black- 
smiths often use hard maple for them. In the eastern part of 
the United States loggers generally prefer a 36-inch handle, 
while on the Pacific Coast handle lengths range between 38 and 
40 inches for average-sized timber and up to 44 inches for redwoods. 
Handles for double-bitted axes are straight in order that either 
bit may be used. They are made in the same lengths as those 
for single-bitted axes. 

Broadax. — The broad ax is used for hewing timbers, cross- 
ties, and work of a similar character. The more common form has 
a reversible bit, 11^ or 12 inches 
long, a heavy square poll and a 
flat inner face. It may be used 
either right-handed or left- 
handed. The outer side has a 
slightly concave face and a cut- 
ting bevel |-inch wide on the bit. 
The usual weight of the head is 6 
or 7 pounds. Handles are from 
26 to 36 inches long with a slight 
upward curve immediately behind 
the eye which enables the work- 
man to assume a more upright 
position and still maintain a cor- 
rect cutting angle for the blade. 

Turpentine Ax. — A special form of ax is used in southern pine 
forests for cutting the "boxes" or receptacles in the bases of the 
trees in which the crude turpentine is collected. 

It is made in two patterns, namely, the square poll and the 
round poll, the type used being a matter of personal choice. A 
turpentine ax has a long, narrow bit so that a deep, narrow 
incision maj' be made. The usual dimensions are: length, 
11^ or 12 inches; width of blade, 3^ inches. The average weight 
is 5^ or 6 pounds. Straight hickory handles 36 inches in length 
are considered best. 




a-Double-bitkd Axe. 
b -Single-bitted Axe. 
C —Turpentine Axe. 
d- Broad Axe. 



7. — Characteristic Types of 
Ax Heads. 



Saws are made in a variety of lengths and widths of blade, 
and in numerous shapes and patterns of teeth to meet special 
requirements and to conform to the preferences of certain lo- 
calities. 



84 



LOGGING 



The Blade. — In small- and medium-sized timber a 5|- to 6^- 
foot blade is used, while for the fir timber of the Pacific Coast 
the saws range in length from 7| to 10 feet, with a maximmn length 
of 18 feet in the redwood region. The width varies with the pat- 
tern of the saw, and ranges from 4 to 8^ inches. 

A slightly curved saw blade is most frequently used because it 
affords a larger space for sawdust. This makes it run with less 
friction and the work is less fatiguing. Saws are made thinner 
at the back than at the cutting edge, in order further to re- 
duce friction. Saws for felling large Pacific Coast timber are more 
limber than those used for log-making, because the latter are 




Fig. 8. — Common Types of Cross-cut Saw Handles, a. Reversible saw 
handle used in the Pacific Coast Forests, h. CUmax pattern saw handle, 
c. Loop handle. 

operated by one man and a stiff saw is needed to prevent the blade 
from buckling on the forward stroke. Felling saws usually are 

17 gauge on the back and 13 gauge on the cutting edge, sometimes 

18 and 14 gauge respectively, while bucking saws for western use 
often are 18 gauge on the back and 13 gauge on the toothed edge.^ 

Handles. — The handles used on cross-cut saws are round, 
about 1| inches in diameter, and range in length from 12 to 18 
inches. They are fastened either by clasps which fit into holes 
in the ends of the saw, or by loops which fit over the ends of the 
saw. The upper part of the loop is threaded and the handle 

^ The standard gauge used for the measurement of thickness in the United 
States is the Stubbs or Birmingham wire gauge. The value, expressed in 
fractional parts of an inch, for 18 gauge is 3/64 full; for 17 gauge 1/16 scant; 
for 14 gauge 5/64 full; and for 13 gauge 3/32 full. 



WOODWORKERS' TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT 



85 



is tightened by screwing it down firmly against the back of the 
sawblade. Either type permits the ready removal of the handle 
from the blade. 

Teeth. — The teeth on a cross-cut saw are arranged in pairs, 
trios or quadruplets, each set of which is separated by a cleaner 
or raker for removing the sawdust. Where skilful filers are not 
available a saw without rakers may be used, the sawdust being 
carried out of the cut by the teeth. The forms of teeth preferred 



PERFECTION 



PERFECTION N0.4 

a 



REX FALLING 







REDWOOB KI.NG 

d 



REDWOOD FALLING < 



)muwMmm 



EUREKA FALLING 



WVAAji/UWW 

e « / 

Fig. 9. — Saw Teeth Patterns, a. Often used for sawing southern yellow 
pine, cypress and spruce, b. For sawing white pine, hemlock and cedar. 
c. For sawing yellow poplar and Cottonwood, d. For sawing redwood. 
e. For sawing Douglas fir. /. For sawing white oak. 

are as follows: yellow pine, cypress and spruce — perforated 
lance teeth, arranged in sets of four (Fig. 9a); white pine, hem- 
lock and cedar — broad teeth in sets of two (Fig. 9b) ; poplar 
and Cottonwood — heavy solid teeth in twos (Fig. 9c) ; redwood 
— solid lance teeth in twos (Fig. 9d) ; Douglas fir — solid lance 
teeth of fours (Fig. 9e) ; white oak — solid teeth in sets of three 
(Fig. 9f). 

The cutting teeth constitute a series of knives which strike the 
fibres at right angles and sever them on either side of the cut. 
The cleaners or rakers free the severed fibres which are then 



86 



LOGGING 



carried out in the cavities of the teeth in the form of sawdust, 
occupying about six times as much space as the fibres did pre- 
vious to cutting. Long, stringy sawdust denotes a well-fitted saw. 

Loose-textured and long-fibered woods are the most difficult to 
saw because the teeth tear rather than cut the fibres, a larger 
quantity of sawdust is produced, and the rough character of the 
walls of the cut offers resistance to the saw. Coniferous wood 
is more readily sawed than hardwood, because of its simple ana- 
tomical structure and fine medullary rays. 

Experiments made by Gayer^ show the resistance to the saw 
across the fibres of green timber to be as follows, the resistance 
to beech being assumed as L 





Resistance to saw. 


Scotch pine, silver fir and spruce.. 

Maple, larch, alder 

Beech 


0.50-0.60 

0.7,5-0.90 

1.00 

1.03 

1.30-1.40 

1.80 


Oak 









Saw-fitting. — The cutting edges of the teeth are beveled to a 
fine point, the degree of bevel depending on the character and 
condition of the wood. 

The filing and care of saw teeth is called "saw-fitting," and 
requires skill and experience. 

The tools that comprise a complete saw-fitting set for cross- 
cut saws are as follows : 

1 combined tooth gauge, jointer and side file. 

1 saw set. 

1 tooth set gauge. 

1 swage, or 1 set-hammer. 

Several fiat files." 

The characteristics of a well-fitted saw are: 

(1) All cutting teeth must be the same length so that each 
will do its share of the work. 

1 Gayer, Karl: Forest Utilization (Vol. V, Schlich's Manual of Forestry; 
trans, from the German by W. R. Fisher; 2nd ed.). London; Bradbury, 
Agnew and Company, 1908. 

2 Flat files from 6 to 8 inches long; are preferred by saw fitters. The life of 
a file depends on its quality; as a rule one good file wiU fit from 3 to 6 saws. 



WOODWORKERS' TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT 87 

(2) The rakers or cleaners should be not less than ^^ of an 
inch nor more than :jV o^ ^^ inch shorter than the teeth. 

(3) The form of tooth bevel depends on the character of 
timber that is being sawed. It should not be too flat for sawing 
frozen timber, very hard timber or wood that has many tough 
knots. 

(4) All teeth should be filed to a sharp point. 

(5) Saws require a certain amount of "set, " which is given by 
springing out alternate teeth in one direction and the remainder 
in the opposite direction so that the saw will cut a kerf some- 
what greater than the thickness of the blade. Dense-fibered 
and frozen hardwoods require the least set, while pitchy pine and 
soft broadleaf trees require the maximum. Only the minimum 
set required should be given because the greater the set the 
more power required to pull the saw. Some operators recom- 
mend a set equal to one-fourth the thickness of the blade for hard- 
woods such as maple, birch, beech, and oak, and one-third the 
blade thickness for softwoods such as hemlock, pine and spruce. 

The art of successful saw fitting consists in securing the proper 
balance between the length of the tooth points and that of the 
rakers. In hardwood sawing, the scoring teeth do not sink as 
deep at each stroke as in softwood, and the bevel of the cutting 
points is less acute. Longer rakers can be used with hardwoods 
than with softwoods due to the more shallow scoring bj^ the 
teeth. The raker length should be such that clean-cut shavings 
and not fine dust are produced. When fibers, known as 
"whiskers" adhere to the edge of shavings it is an indication 
that the rakers are cutting below the depth at which the teeth 
have scored the wood, and the rakers, therefore, should be short- 
ened. As a general rule, rakers for hardwoods should be about 
1/64 inch shorter than the teeth points. For softwoods, they 
should be from 1/40 to 1/32 inch shorter. 

Rakers usually are swaged or given a slight bevel on the point, 
since this tends to plane the wood out of the cut rather than to 
drag it out. When sawing hard maple, however, the rakers are 
not swaged because the long strings of sawdust tend to curl up 
in the gullets of the saw and do not readily fall out when the saw 
leaves the cut. 

Successful saw filers often find it necessary to adjust their 
filing practice to the class of labor which is to use the saws. For 



88 LOGGING 

example, Yankee sawyers take a quick, light stroke, while Scan- 
dinavians take a slower stroke, and "ride" the saw harder. 
Saws for the latter class of workmen should have shorter rakers 
than for the former. 

Saw-fitting may be done by a member of the saw crew or by a 
regular filer who works either in the forest or at the camp. In 
the former case, the filer usually makes a saw stand by cutting 
off a 3- or 4-inch sapling at a convenient working height and 
then sawing a slot about 3 inches deep in the top of it in which the 
back of the saw is placed. Post supports are driven in the ground 
at a distance of from 24 to 30 inches on either side of the sapling 
in order to support the saw ends. The saw is then shifted along 
the supports, as the filing proceeds, the actual work being done 
at the point where the saw blade rests in the slot in the sapling. 
Some convenient stump is used as a base for the setting block, 
if a "stump set" is used. 

Filing in camps is done in a specially equipped shop provided 
with a permanent saw stand, and in some cases with'a power-driven 
emery wheel which is used to grind down the gullets of the saw. 
The latter practice is not followed when saws are filed in the 
forest. 

The steps in saw-fittings are as follows : 

(1) Joint the teeth. This consists in running a file over the 
tooth points in order to make all of them a uniform length. 
The dull tooth points must later be sharpened. 

Adjusting the length of the rakers. If they are to be 
swaged they are left the same length as the teeth. If they are 
to remain unswaged they are cut down by placing the raker gauge 
over the raker and filing down to the required length. Rakers 
are filed to a keen, sharp edge which should be exactly at right 
angles to the saw blade. If the teeth are to be swaged they are 
struck lightly on the point with a hammer and the point turned 
down. 

(3) File the teeth. The harder the wood the less the bevel 
required. Having chosen the style of tooth point to be used 
(Fig. 10) file each tooth, taking care not to reduce its length. A 
beginner is inclined to file too heavily and thus wear down the 
teeth too rapidly. Start at the heel of the bevel and run the file 
towards the point using a rather light free stroke. 

(4) Set the teeth. This may be done either with a setting 



WOODWORKERS' TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT 



89 



block and hammer or with an anvil and hammer.^ The teeth 
are bent slightly away from the line of the saw blade, the beveled 
face alwaj's being on the inside. Uniformity in set is secured 
by the use of the tooth set-gauge or " spider " the point of the upper 
arm in contact with the tooth point being short to give the re- 




/ s 

Fig. 10. — The Forms of Bevel used on Cross-cut Saws. a. Diamond point 
bevel, easy to maintain, and the point holds well. b. Bevel for a tooth 
where there are no rakers, the teeth cleaning out the sawdust, c. Bevel 
for knots and frozen timber where strength is needed in the extreme point 
— not adapted for fast sawing, d. Round point for fast, smooth sawing, 
in knotty timber, e. Bevel for fast, smooth sawing — teeth strong. /. Flat, 
thin bevel for soft wood and fast .sawing — point is not as strong as that 
shown in e. g. Bevel adapted for general work. h. Bevel adapted for 
general work. 

quired set. When the tooth is spread to the required distance 
all four legs of the tooth set-gauge will rest firmly against the 
saw. 

(5) Side dress the teeth. If there are any feather edges on 
the teeth they are removed by the use of the side file or an emery 
stone. 

This completes the operation of saw fitting. An expert filer 
fits daily from twelve to fifteen saws of average length. A saw 
will cut from 400,000 to 500,000 board feet before the teeth 
become so short that it is discarded. 

' See page 87 for the amount of set given cross-cut saws. 



90 LOGGING 

When the felHng crew does the log-making, one sharp saw is 
provided each day, otherwise a sharp saw is furnished every other 
day. 

Saws filed daily are serviceable for a period of from two to 
four months and are then turned over to road-making crews and 
other laborers who do not require high-grade tools. 



POWER FELLING MACHINES 

There has not a been a satisfactory power-driven tree-felling 
machine placed on the market. Machines of various types have 
been patented and offered for sale but they have not proved of 
practical value. 

Devices such as drag, circular and endless-chain saws operated by 
steam, electricity, compressed-air or gasoline power have been 
devised, but they have all been too heavy and bulky for transpor- 
tation in the forest. Their weight is not only a handicap in getting 
the machine around through brushy woods and over rough 
bottom, but also prevents their rapid removal from the vicinity 
of falling timber where they are continually subject to damage. 



POWER LOG-MAKING MACHINES 

On comparatively level land in an open forest composed of 
large trees, drag saws, called "steam dagos" driven by compressed 
air have been used successfully for " bucking" logs. 

The equipment consists of a traction engine with an air com- 
pressor and an air storage tank. The saw, which may be at- 
tached readily to a log of any size, is driven by a piston working 
in a small cylinder, mounted on a metal frame weighing from 60 
to 75 pounds. The cylinder is connected with the air chamber 
on the engine by a line of hose of sufficient length to give a working 
radius of 300 feet. Three frames and one saw are the usual 
equipment for an outfit. 

Drag saws mounted on skids and driven by a small gasoline 
engine^ or by steam power are used extensivelj^ in the West 
to buck logs into fire-wood lengths for logging engine use. 
The maximum capacity is approximately 25 cords daily. Gaso- 
line-driven saws also have been used successfully in the South 
^ Usually from 3 to 4 horse power. 



WOODWORKERS' TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT 



91 



for felling timber along logging railroad rights-of-way when it 
was necessary to cut trees at or near the ground level. 



Fallers and log-makers require wedges to aid them in directing 
the fall of trees and to prevent the binding of the saw in the cut. 
They are made either of metal or of hardwood. Iron or steel 
wedges may be made by the camp blacksmith, or purchased from 
dealers in loggers supplies. 

The size and weight of metal wedgee vary with the work for 
which they are used, and the pattern is largely a matter of in- 




a b c d e f 

Fig. 11. — Some Types of Wedges used by Loggers, a and b. Wood chop>- 
per's wedges, c. Tie maker's and faller's wedge, d. Faller's wedge, 
e. Log maker's wedge, Pacific Coast. /. Faller's wedge, Pacific Coast. 

dividual preference. Felling wedges, especially when used in large 
timber, are longer than those used for log-making. A common 
form of metal wedge used on the Pacific Coast by fallers is made 
from 1-inch steel and is about 13 inches long and 3 inches wide 
at the point and weighs from 6 to 8 pounds. In Maine the 
felling wedges are shorter and may be shaped somewhat like a 
hatchet head. They are 6 or 7 inches long, 3 inches wide at the 
base, and 1^ inches wide and 1 inch thick at the top. On the 
Pacific Coast the buckers often use a wedge similar to the one 
shown in Fig. lie. In most regions fallers and log-makers use 
the same type of wedge. 

Since smooth-faced metal wedges are likely to rebound, shallow 
grooves often are made on the faces so that when driven into a 
cut the pressure causes the wood to partially fill the groove and 
prevents any backward movement. The faces are sometimes 
roughened slightly with a cold chisel to accomplish the same 
purpose. 



92 LOGGING 

Hardwood wedges of hickory, hard maple, beech, ironwood, 
dogwood and persimmon are frequently used in the southern 
pine region when local timber for their manufacturers accessible. 
They are preferred because they are inexpensive and hold well 
in a cut. They may be made by the sawyers as needed or by 
contract. They are ordinarily 6 or 8 inches long, 2| or 3| inches 
wide and 1 inch in thickness at the head. 

Felling crews in the Northwest usually carry two long and 
three short wedges and log-makers, five bucking wedges. In 
other regions where the timber is of medium size the sawyers 
use from two to four wedges. From four to five wooden wedges 
per day are required by a saw crew of two men. 

Metal wedges are either carried by the fallers in a small canvas 
sack slung over the shoulder, or one is fastened at each end of a 
piece of hay wire, 3 or 4 feet long. Wooden wedges are carried 
in the hip pockets of the workmen. 



T^."^ a 1 










\ c ° 










i p" , ° 










1 ' ' 


j/o" 




\ 


j: ; '"!' 




' Mt 


ntlix 








r^' 









Fig. 12. — A Spring Board used by Fallers in the Northwest. 
MAULS AND SLEDGES 

Iron wedges may be driven with a wooden maul made by the 
camp blacksmith from hard maple, yellow birch or any tough 
wood. A common form used in Maine is made from a round 
tree section, 6 inches in diameter and from 26 to 30 inches long. 
An 8-inch head is left on one end^f the section and the remainder 
is trimmed down to a diameter of 2 inches to form a handle. 
The head may or may not be bound with iron hoops to prevent 
splitting. Steel sledge hammers of 8 or 10 pounds' weight are 
used in the Northwest for driving metal wedges. Wooden wedges 
are driven either with an ax or a sledge. 

SPRING BOARDS 

These are used only in the Northwest, and serve as plat- 
forms on which notchers and fallers stand when performing 
their work. The spring board with the spur uppermost is thrust 



WOODWORI^RS' TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT 



93 



into a horizontal notch cut into the tree. When the faller's 
weight is apphed to the outer end of the board the spur is forced 
into the wood, preventing the board from slipping and allowing 
it to be swung around, the spur acting as a hinge. Spring boards 
usually are made in the camp blacksmith shop. 

KILHIG OR SAMPSON 

This tool is used as a lever to aid in directing the fall of a tree. 
It consists of a polo 3 or 4 inches in diameter and from <S to 16 




Fig. 13. — A Kilhig or Sampson used in directing the Fall of a Tree. 

feet long, either sharpened, or armed on one end with a spike. 
The pointed end of the pole is placed in a notch in the tree 
trunk from 5 to 8 feet above ground, the free end projecting 
downward to a point 10 or 12 inches above the ground where 
it is supported on a peavey handle or a pole the lower end of 
which is firmly planted in the ground. A laborer grasps the 
free end of the peavey handle and by pressing forward is able 
to exert a strong pressure against the bole of the tree. Kilhigs 
are frequently made as needed by the saw crew since it is easier 
to cut a pole than it is to carry one. This tool is in common 
use in the Northeast. There are several patent tools of similar 
character used in European forests but they have not met with 
favor in this country. 



94 



8 1 



LOGGING 



TREE TALLER 

The tree faller or jack (Fig. 14) has been introduced on the 
Pacific Coast to enable fallers to throw trees in any direction 
regardless of lean. It consists of two lever-arms which are 
spread by means of a lever-actuated screw. The arms rest on an 
oscillating plate, which serves to increase the bearing surface. The 





From Bui. 711, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 

Fig. 14. — A Patent Tree Faller, showing the Manner of Insertion in the 
Notch (left), and the Position of the Jaws when the Cut has been opened 
about Seven Inches. 

opening between jaws, when fully extended, is 7 inches. The 
weight of the tree faller is 166 pounds, and is so constructed 
that it may be separated into two loads of nearly equal weight 
for ease in moving it from one tree to another. It has proved 
of- especial service in throwing timber which is heavy when it 
has been necessary to change the normal direction of fall because 
of danger of excessive breakage 4jie to bad ground conditions. 



GUN STICK 

Fallers in the redwood region sometimes use a gun stick to 
determine the direction of fall of a tree that has been undercut. 
The usual length of a gun stick is 8 feet overall, although 10-foot 
sticks are sometimes used when very large timber is being felled. 
Two types are in common use, Fig. 15a being preferred by some 
because the wood on the ''diamond " on Fig. 156 sometimes 
swells during wet weather and does not work easily. A faller 
standing between the extended legs of the gun stick, which he 
grasps about 3 feet from the ends, places a leg at each outer 
corner of the undercut. Holding the stick firmly against the 



WOODWORKERS' TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT 95 

tree, he stoops down until he can sight from the bolt to the rivet, 
which line of sight indicates the direction in which the tree will 
fall provided it stands straight and the undercut has been made 
properly. If the direction of fall is to be altered, one leg of the 
gun stick is slipped around the tree, until the desired direction of 
sight is attained. The point on the tree at which the shifted 
leg touches indicates the outer edge of the revised undercut. 




Fig. 15. — Two Types of Gun Sticks used by Redwood Fallers. 
MEASURING STICKS 

The measuring sticks carried by log-makers usually are 8 feet 
long, where logs 24 feet and under are being cut. In the North- 
west they often are 10 feet long. They may be made by the 
sawyers from a straight sapling with little taper, or by the camp 
blacksmith from squared sticks which are cut to exact length and 
on which marks are placed at two-foot intervals. Unless wooden 
measuring sticks are metal-tipped, or have a nail driven in each 
end, the buckers are apt to chop off one end when marking off log 
lengths on the bole. Sticks shortened in this manner are often 
the cause of logs being cut to improper lengths. It can be cor- 
rected by allowing buckers to use only those sticks which are 
furnished by the company and the length of which is frequently 
checked by the saw boss. A measuring stick made from 1/4 
inch round iron is an excellent substitute for the wooden ones. 
It is light in weight, cannot be shortened by carelessly chopping 
off the ends, and when not in use may be stuck upright in the 
ground near at hand. 



96 



LOGGING 



CHISEL BILL 




Fig. 16. — A Socket Peavey. 



The peavey is used as a a lever to handle logs, and is an indis- 
pensable part of a logger's equipment. The standard maple or 
ash handle is 5, 5^ or 6 feet long, but it may be made in special 

lengths from 4^ to 8 feet. 

There are two types, namely, 

Jll m the socket peavey and the clip 

I P^ peavey. 

"' '"^^^ The handle of the first is 

fitted into a socket, which is 
armed on the lower end with a 
pike, and on the upper end of 
the socket is a clasp to which 
the hook is bolted. 

The second has a pike driven 
into the end of the handle, which 
is bound with a metal band to 
prevent the wood from splitting. 
The hook is attached to a clip 
or clasp independent of the pike. 
The hooks are of three types, namely, "round bill," "duck bill" 
and "chisel." The round bill is preferred for summer work 
because it does not stick in the log; the 
duck bill is best for frozen timber as it 
will penetrate the wood more readily than 
the other forms; the chisel point is in lim- 
ited use. 

CANT HOOKS 

Cant hooks are used for purposes simi- 
lar to the peavey, although they are 
employed more around mills and in hand- 
ling sawed timber than in handling logs. 

Standard handles are 4^, 5 and 5| feet in jtjq 17 A Cant Hook. 

length. They are shod on the end with a 

heavy band of iron, carrying on its under side a "toe" which 
replaces the pike on the peavey. A hook of the same character 
as that on the peavey is fastened to the handle by a clasp. 




WOODWORKERS' TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT 



97 



PICKAROON 

Laborers engaged in bringing crossties, stave bolts and other 
timber down steep slopes often use a pickaroon, which has a 
handle 36 or 38 inches long on the end of which is attached a 
head with a recurved pike. These heads are frequently made 
from worn-out ax heads by removing a portion of the cutting 
edge. 



UNDERCUTTERS 

The undercutter is a tool used by the "bucker" or log- 
in the Northwest. It serves as a support for the saw 
making an undercut on a fallen tree. 

It is a round or flat rod of iron 
about 2 feet long with a head on one 
end and single or double claws on 
the other. These claws are sharp and 
are driven into the side of the bole. 
Sliding on this rod is a block carrying 
a milled wheel which can be raised or 
lowered to accommodate the depth of 
cut, and on this the back of the saw 
rests. Buckers frequently dispense 
with undercutters because of the 
annoyance of carrying them and in- 
sert the bit of an ax in the bole in 
such a way that the ax handle serves 
as a base on which the back of the 
saw may ride. 



maker 
when 



1 








lil 






d: 








"1 








it 


s;_;l— 3 


D 









Fig. 18. 


— A Type of Under- 


cutter 


used in the 


Pacific 


Coast 


Forests. a 


is the 


saw blade resting 


on the 


milled wheel. 





USE OF KEROSENE 

In felling coniferous woods, resin collects on the saw and soon 
causes it to bind. This is remedied by the use of kerosene. 
Fallers and log-makers in the pine forests of the South carry a 
pint bottle of kerosene, fitted with a stopper made from green 
pine needles. The crew usually keeps a gallon can near at hand 
from which to replenish its supply. At frequent intervals the 
saw is sprinkled on both sides with the oil. A crew cutting from 
12,000 to 15,000 feet log scale, daily, will use from one and one- 
half to three pints of kerosene. Four gallons per week is re- 
garded as a liberal allowance. 



CHAPTER VI 
FELLING AND LOG-MAKING 



The period of the year in which felling is done is governed by 
chmatic conditions and by the method of logging followed. 

Where loggers rely on a heavy snowfall to furnish a bottom 
for transporting logs, felling begins in the late summer or early 
fall and continues until the snow becomes too deep for profit- 
able skidding, which is about the middle or latter part of De- 
cember. 

On railroad operations in the Northern States, felling is carried 
on throughout the greater part of the year, ceasing only when 
the snow becomes too deep for operation, or when deemed ad- 
visable because of market conditions. 

In the coniferous forests of the South and in the Northwest, 
felling is carried on the year round as weather conditions seldom 
interfere seriously with logging. 

Hardwood felling may continue throughout the year. Owing 
to the fact that the sapwood of species such as hickory is subject 
to insect damage^ if cut during the summer months, the season 
of felling may be restricted to the resting period of the tree, although 
hardwoods can be cut safely at any season if they are manu- 
factured in a short time and the lumber well piled and seasoned. 
The galleries made in sap wood by insects afford an entrance 

1 Certain species of ambrosia beetles, "sawj^ers" and timber worms are very 
destructive to the sapwood of felled hardwood and coniferous timber during a 
portion of the year. The danger of attack is greatest in timber cut during the 
fall and winter and left on the ground or in close piles, during the early spring 
and summer; also to trees cut during the warm season. The presence of 
bark is necessary for infestation by most of these insects and the danger can be 
largely avoided by not allowing the logs to accumulate during the danger season, 
or by barking such as cannot be removed within a few weeks. (A detailed dis- 
cussion of these problems may be found in various publications of the U. S. 
Bureau of Entomology.) 



FELLING AND LOG-MAKING 99 

for the spores of certain fungi^ which cause a discoloration. The 
fungi develop most rapidly during warm, sultry weather. Sum- 
mer-felled timber may be very seriously damaged by insects 
and fungi in from two to four weeks. 

The felling time of trees, such as oak, is sometimes restricted 
to the late summer and early fall if the timber is to be trans- 
ported by water because heavy species cut at this season and 
allowed to dry for from sixty to ninety days become more buoyant. 

The logging of hemlock often is restricted to the period between 
May and August, during which time the bark will peel.^ As it 
is a valuable by-product, used for tanning purposes, the logger 
seldom cuts the timber without saving the bark. 

Tanbarks are also secured from chestnut oak {Quercus prinus) 
and from the tanbark oak of California {Quercus densi flora). 
The season for peeling chestnut oak is from early April until 
the end of June, and for tanbark oak, from the middle of May to 
the middle of July. The timber in both cases is now used for com- 
mercial purposes, although the bark often is the more valuable 
product. 

Coppice fellings should be made during the winter and early 
spring because the sprouts are then more thrifty than those from 
trees cut during the growing period.^ Late winter felling is 
preferred because there is less chance for the bark to be loosened 
from the stool by the collection and freezing of moisture. 

The season of the year in which timber is cut does not, so far 
as known, influence its strength, although it may affect its dura- 
bility. II;ir(lwoo(ls arc more comi^lcx in sliuclurc and arc more 
easily damaged in seasoning than are softwoods. Winter-felled 
hardwood timber air dries more satisfactorily than summer-felled 
tunber because the water content evaporates slowly and the 

^ There are several genera of fungi which attack the sapwood of deciduous 
and coniferous woods, causing a bluish, blackish or reddish discoloration. 
The infection takes place largely through spores carried into the galleries 
made by ambrosia beetles, saw^'ers and other borers. 

- Bark from hemlock logs cut in December or later may be successfully 
peeled from May to July inclusive, provided they are properly decked. The 
quality of bark is said to be equal to that peeled in the usual manner during 
the summer months. Bark from Ipgs that have been in the water is valueless. 
See American Lumberman, .July 21, 1900, p. IS; Dec. .30, 1916, p. 31. 

3 See Chestnut in Southern Maryland, by Raphael Zon. Bulletin No. 53, 
U. S. Bureau of Forestry, 1903, pp. 14-17. 



100 LOGGING 

woody structure adapts itself to the gradual shrinkage with a 
minimum amount of checking. Some loggers apply a coat of 
thick whitewash to hardwood logs to prevent end checking. 
Others use a preparation composed of one part lamp black to 
sixty parts of rosin. The mixture should be heated but not boiled, 
then thoroughly stirred, and a coat 1/8 inch thick applied. 

These preparations should not be applied until the moisture 
has ceased to ooze from the log. 

DEADENING 

Deadening or girdling consists in cutting a ring around the tree 
deep enough to penetrate to the heart wood. This ring is made 
just above the root swelling, approximately at the sawing point. 

The deadening of trees reduces the water content of the boles 
and renders them lighter in weight. It is seldom resorted to 
with most species, because those which cannot be floated when 
cut in the ordinary way are either left standing or are hauled 
by rail to the mill. Green cypress timber does not float well, 
hence deadening or girdling is universal when timber is floated 
to the mill. Even when cypress timber is railroaded it is 
usually girdled because (1) the logs will then float in the 
mill pond, (2) the sapwood is rendered somewhat tougher and 
skidding tongs do not pull out so readily, and (3) the heartwood 
in green timber swells during cutting and binds the saw. 

Logging in cypress swamps is carried on throughout the year 
and some girdle timber at any convenient time, although the 
sapwood is more subject to insect attacks at certain seasons. 
The greatest damage occurs during the months from May to Sep- 
tember, inclusive^. Girdling precedes felling from a few weeks 
to several months and generally is done by contract for a given 
sum per tree. One man will girdle about twenty-five trees per 
day. 

DIRECTION OF FALL 

This should be governed by the following factors : 

(1) The lean of the tree. A straight or slightly leaning tree 

may be sawed to fall in any direction by the use of wedges. 

Heavily leaning trees can be thrown by the same means in any 

* Hopkins, A. D. : Pinhole Injury to Girdled Cypress in the South Atlantic 
States. U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Cir. No. 82, 1907. 



FELLING AND LOG-MAKING 101 

one of three directions, namely, as it leans or to either side. 
Where a tree leans only slightly and its inclination cannot be 
determined readily by the eye, an ax handle held suspended like 
a plumb line between the line of sight and the tree will serve as 
an indicator. 

In determining the direction of fall the choice is influenced by 
the shape of the crown. Very few crowns are symmetrical, 
one side often being heavier than the other, because of better 
light conditions. This preponderance of weight on one side acts 
as a powerful lever and, therefore, must be considered by the 
faller. 

(2) The avoidance of lodging one tree in another. 

(3) The selection of a spot where the bole will not be broken 
on stumps, rocks or other objects. This requires special atten- 
tion in handling large or brittle timber. In yellow pine the loss 
from this source may be 1 per cent of the total, while in western 
red cedar it is often from 15 to 20 per cent, and in redwood even 
higher. Boles of the latter are sometimes so badly damaged 
in felling that they are worthless. A bed for redwood is fre- 
quently made by leveling the ground and covering it with brush. 

(4) The simplification of skidding work. In brushy regions 
it is desirable to fell trees parallel to the skidding trail, since this 
aids the teamster in getting out the logs. Thnber cut for snaking 
with power skidders should be felled away from or toward the 
direction of haul, especially if long timber is being handled, 
])ecause it is difficult to drag out logs that are placed otherwise. 
Timber on slopes should be felled either up or down according 
to the location of the nearest accessible skidding trail. Trees 
felled up steep slopes are less subject to breakage because the 
distance of fall is less. It is, however, a more dangerous method 
because the trees may shoot down the slope. 

ORGANIZATION OF CREW^S 

The organization of crews for felling and log-making differs in 
the various forest regions. Sawyers in the Lake States often 
work in crews of two under the direct supervision of a saw boss, who 
keeps a close check on the work, assigns each crew to a given 
territorj^, specifies the lengths of logs and sees that waste does not 
occur in cutting. 

In southern pine operations a similar plan may be followed. 



102 



LOGGING 



the sawj^ers being responsible to the logging boss or to a con- 
tractor instead of a saw boss; or two or three saw crews may be 
in charge of a sub-foreman, called a "chipper and notcher," who 
notches trees for felling, marks off the log lengths, and keeps a 
record of the amount cut by each crew. The duty of the sawyers 
is to fell the timber and to cut it up into logs. 

In Maine, felling often is in charge of a sub-foreman called 
the "head chopper" who is the boss of a yarding crew, which 





::ffi::":: = = ::: 


ifl||||||m||[l|||illll|r||||| 


5 .... ^ 


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+P±y^^^ 


ecimal"C"Logl 

1 1 


rppr^^.^ 


/ — 










- i 1 i 1 ! --<•/- 


^.-mrnm 


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5 600 y 






400 Ll 


^Sk^ 





Fig. 19. 



12 16 20 24 28 32 

Diameter of Trees Breast High 

By permission U. S. Forest Service. 

Graph showing the Effect of Slope on the Output of FelUng Crews. 
Inland Empire. 



includes two fallers, the swampers, teamster, sled tender and 
skidway man. The head chopper notches the trees, lays off the 
log lengths and directs the work of the yarding crew. 

On the Pacific Coast notching, felHng and log-making may be 
, performed by separate crews. A notcher, who selects the trees 
to be felled and makes the undercut, is assigned to each j^arding 
crew. Two fallers then cut the timber and the notcher marks 
off the log lengths for the guidance of the buck(TS who follow. 
The latter work singly, and two or three are required for each 



FELLING AND LUG-MAKING 103 

felling crew. On some operations a notcher is not employed, 
the undercut being made by the fallers. This is now considered 
the best method. 

The output per falling crew or falling and })ucking crew is in- 
fluenced by the character of the topography, the amount of brush 
and windfall, the size of the timber, the season of the year, the 
method of payment, and the effective time put in by the crew. 
The steeper the slope or the rougher the bottom, the lower the 
output per crew because of the greater difficulty of getting around 
and the greater care which must be exercised in felling the timber to 
prevent breakage. The effect of slope upon output is shown 
graphically in Fig. 19. Heavy brush and windfall also reduce 
the output of a crew because of the greater amount of swamping 
required before a tree can be felled and because greater care must 
be exercised to prevent breakage. Sawing studies made in the 
Inland Empire show that the output per crew increases with an 
increase in the diameter breast high of the tree, until diameters 
of 34 or 36 inches are reached, at which point the output begins 
to decline. This is probably due to the greater amount of rest 
required when the larger trees are felled. Average-sized trees 
can be felled without stopping to rest, while the larger ones 
require one or more resting periods in which the fallers can "catch 
their breath." See Figs. 19 and 20. Timber cuts more easily 
in the summer than in the winter, because frozen timber is harder 
to cut; also, workmen's nmscles are more sup|)le during the warm 
months than (hning the cold 1 )ecause tliey do not lieeome chilled dur- 
ing I he resting period. Fallers and buckers working on a eon( racl. 
basis will do more work than those who are paid a stated wage.^ 
The effective time put in by a crew is determined not only by the 
recognized hours of labor, Ijut also by the distance which the work- 
men must walk from camp to the job, since if the distance is 1 
mile or more, from 10 to 20 per cent of the working day may 
be consumed in going to and returning from the job. 

The average day's work for two men felling, bucking and 
swamping lodgepole and other small timber, running from fifteen 
to sixteen logs per thousand board feet is from 4000 to 5000 board 
feet; in small yellow pine timber, running from twelve to fifteen 
logs per thousand, from 7000 to 7500 feet, and where logs run 
from six to ten per thousand, from 10,000 to 15,000 feet. Two 
' See Fig. 20. 



104 



LOGGING 



fallers will average about 5000 feet, log scale, daily, in eastern 
spruce, about 10,000 feet in southern hardwoods, and from 
25,000 to 30,000 feet in Douglas fir. Buckers on the Pacific 
Coast average from 12,000 to 15,000 feet each, per day. 















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Day Work 508 tre 


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24 28 32 36 40 44 

Tree Diameter Breast High-Inches 

By permission U. S. Forest Service 



Fig. 20. — Graph showing the Influence of Method of Payment on the Out- 
put of FelHng and Log-making Crews. Inland Empire. 



CUTTING AREAS 

Sawyers working on a wage basis may not be assigned to 
specific bounds, but cut where the foreman of the camp or the 
saw boss direct. When the work is done by contract, fallers 
are assigned to definite bounds in order to facilitate the measure- 
ment of the cut timber and to insure the felling of all merchant- 
able timber; otherwise the workmen may leave trees which arc 
difficult to cut or which would entail so much labor that their 
daily earnings would be reduced. 



FELLING AND LOG-MAKING 



105 



NOTCHING 

A wedge-shaped notch or undercut is made on the trunk in 
the direction of fall, to guide the tree and to prevent the bole 
from splitting before it is competely severed from the stump. 
It has a horizontal base extending slightly past the center of the 
tree if felling is done with the ax, and from one-fifth to one- 
fourth of the diameter when feUing is done with the saw. The 
undercut on trees that lean heavily in the felling direction is 




Fig. 21. — The Undercut on a Douglas Fir Tree. The fallers are stand- 
ing on spring boards to enable them to make the cut above the root swelling. 
Washington. 

made deeper than usual in order to insure a clean break. On 
those that lean away from the felling direction a small notch is 
cut because it gives the wedges greater power. In felling large 
redwood the sloping face of the undercut is sometimes made 
below the horizontal cut instead of above it in order to avoid 
the waste of timber which would occur if the usual method were 
followed. 

The notch is placed from 2 to 4 inches below the point at 
which the felling cut is started on the opposite side. Its height 
above ground is determined entirely by the policy of the logger 



106 LOGGING 

regarding stump heights. Notches may be cut with the ax, 
but the horizontal cut usually is made with a saw and the notch 
completed with an ax. 

Hardwood timber, if improporly notched, pulls long splinters 
from the heart wood. This may be overcome by continuing the 
center of the undercut into the heart of the tree. When the tree 
is severed on the opposite side a clean break will result. 

On small- and medium-sized timber the notch can readily be 
cut by a workman standing on the ground. A form of scaffold 
must be provided for notching and felling large timber and for 
this purpose spring boards are used. When trees of very large 
size such as redwoods are cut the spring board may be replaced 
by a scaffold supported either on spring boards or on timbers. 



With the Ax. — The ax was used almost exclusively as a felling 
tool during the early period of logging in the United States and 
is still used for small trees. In felling with an ax, the operation 
begins by cutting a wedge-shaped notch opposite and slightly 
higher than the undercut. This cut is continued towards the 
center of the bole until the tree falls. Wedges cannot be used 
in felling with the ax, therefore, it is more difficult to throw a 
tree in any direction except that in which it leans. It is estima- 
ted that from 10 to 20 board feet per tree of spruce is lost when 
the ax is used exclusively for felling and log-making. 

With the Ax and Smv. — This method is now universally used 
for nicdiuni- and large-sized timl)er because a loss both of (inu^ 
and wood occurs in using the ax alone. The use of a cross-cut 
saw increases by about 10 per cent the number of trees a given 
saw crew can fell in a day. 

When the bark contains sand or other gritty substances it is 
customary to remove it from the base of the tree at the point 
where the saw cut is to be made. The saw cut is then started 
on a level with or slightly above, and opposite the undercut. 
When the saw has buried itself, wooden or iron Vv-edges are driven 
in behind it to prevent binding. As sawing proceeds the wedge 
point is made to follow the back of the saw by occasional blows 
from an ax or a sledge. Sawing in a direction parallel with the 
undercut progresses until the tree begins to fall, whereupon 
one sawyer withdraws the saw and both seek a place of safety. 



FELLING AND LOG-MAKING 107 

On very large timber, fallers first saw deeply on both sides of 
the undercut, then saw around the tree, making the last cut on 
the back side of the bole parallel to the undercut. 

Trees with rotten hearts require different treatment from 
sound ones because the decayed bole is apt to give way before it 
is severed from the stump. A cut a few inches deep is made 
around the tree and then the bole is severed from the rear as in 
felling sound timber. Even if the bole gives way before the cut 
is completed it seldom splits badly. Felling during high winds 
is accomplished in the same manner. The direction of fall under 
either of the above circumstances often cannot be determined 
accurately, and the work is considered hazardous. 

When timber is felled in a direction other than that in which 
it leans the faller leaves the most wood between the saw cut and 
the undercut on the side opposite to that in which the tree leans. 
This tends to pull the tree in the desired direction. 

STUMP HEIGHTS 

There is no rule other than a commercial one regulating stump 
heights in different sections of the country. Loggers in early 
days cut very high stumps in order to avoid root swellings, pitchy 
butts and other defects. 

The greatest waste from this source occurred in the Pacific 
(yoast forests where stumps sometimes from 15 to 18 feet high 
were left by the early logging operators. Twelve thousand board 
feet of merchantable timber per acre was not an excessive amount 
to be wasted in this manner. At the present time sound stumps 
seldom exceed 3 or 4 feet in height. Coniferous species, like 
western larch, often are so pitchy in the butt that from 4 to 6 feet 
must be left in the stump when the timber is to be transported 
by water. In the yellow pine forests of the South the stumps 
are cut from 16 to 24 inches high; in the spruce region of the 
Northeast they often are from 10 to 12 inches. 

The tendency in all sections is to reduce the height of stumps 
on sound timber to the lowest point practicable. It is not prof- 
itable to cut a low stump on most species when the butt is rot- 
ten, because a large portion of it may be trimmed off and thrown 
away during the process of manufacture. Saws cannot be kept 
as sharp on very low stumps as on those of medium height since 



108 LOGGING 

grit dulls the saw, especially in a sandy soil. Sawyers cutting 
very low stumps cannot cut as much timber per day because 
the work is more fatiguing, consequently the decrease in the cut 
of a saw crew due to low stumps may reach 15 per cent in 
medium-sized timber. 

The general rule on the National Forests is that the stumps 
shall not exceed 18 inches in height. Lower stumps may be 
required at the discretion of the inspectors. The stump height 
on slopes should be determined at the contour line. 



LOG-MAKING 

Utilization of the Tree. — The bole usually is the most valuable 
portion of the tree, however, the curly stumps of black walnut 
and other species are highly esteemed for cabinet work. In 
many localities, rough tops and limbs are cut to a diameter 
of from 2 to 4 inches for firewood, pulpwood, charcoal burning 
and destructive distillation. Faggots are not utilized in this 
country. 

The portion of the bole which is removed from the forest is 
influenced by the location of the timber with reference both to 
the manufacturing plant and to markets. The lumberman with 
accessible timber may be able to handle low-grade logs which an 
operator with a less favorable location could not bring out profit- 
ably. 

The transportation charge for carrying lumber to markets 
is also a powerful factor in determining the extent of utilization, 
inasmuch as all grades of a given species pay the same freight 
rate and when the latter is high, low grades cannot be shipped 
at a profit. An interesting example is that of the shortleaf and 
longleaf pines of the South. Both species usually are sold at the 
same price f .o.b. at a given mill, but since longleaf weighs more per 
thousand feet, in some cases 300 pounds on a given item, the 
freight charge to market is greater and hence shortleaf can be 
shipped to more distant markets, or a lower average grade can 
be manufactured and the same profits secured as in the case of 
longleaf. 

Crooks, knots, pitch, worm holes and other defects are factors 
that influence the amount of bole taken. The extent and char- 
acter of the defects that a log may contain and still be mer- 



FELLING AND LOG-MAKING 109 

charitable is governed by the species and the use to which the 
timber is to be put. Chestnut lumber containing many "pin- 
worm holes," has a market value both for veneer backing and 
for the manufacture of tanning extract if the timber is otherwise 
sound. On the other hand, oak with similar defects brings a low 
price because its physical properties do not fit it for many pur- 
poses. Defective logs of white pine, yellow poplar and other 
woods suitable for the manufacture of box material may be 
utilized because the lumber is cut into short lengths and the 
unsound portions eliminated, while logs of yellow pine with 
similar or fewer defects are frequently valueless for this purpose 
l)ecause the wood is heavy, making higher freight charges on the 
package, and southern yellow pine crates, when placed in cold 
storage, taint dairy products, eggs and certain other foodstuffs. 

The amount of bole taken depends on the ultimate use of 
the timber. This is well illustrated in cutting white oak for 
rived stave bolts which are split along the line of the medullary 
rays. Since the timber must be straight-grained and free from 
knots, only the choicest cuts are taken and a large part of the 
bole often is left in the forest. 

Market conditions are a potent factor in regulating the mini- 
mum size and character of timber that can be handled profitably. 
High-grade logs produce a sufficient percentage of low-grade 
lumber to supply a dull market, while a brisk demand enables 
the logger to bring out a large per cent of his inferior material 
because it can be sold for enough to cover the cost of manufac- 
ture and yield a small profit. Close utilization will not be general 
until the public is prepared to pay higher prices for lumber. 

Log Lengths. — Builders consider even lengths of from 10 to 24 
feet most advantageous and these have come to be recognized in 
lumber markets as standard. Mills handling small- and medium- 
sized timber which is skidded by animals, cut their logs into 
the above lengths in the forest, while those manufacturing long 
timbers or using power skidding machines either bring in logs 
var3dng from 24 to 60 feet in length or the entire bole to a top 
diameter of from 4 to 6 inches. These logs may be cut into 
shorter lengths at the railroad or landing but delivery at the mill 
of long logs is considered preferable for crooked or defective 
timber since the loss from improper division of the boles can be 
reduced. An experienced man at the mill can cut the boles into 



110 LOGGING 

log lengths more rapidly and economically with a power machine 
than can the biicker in the woods, and special orders for unusual 
lengths can filled without loss of time. 

Logs to be rafted down large streams should be cut into long 
lengths, because the raft can be built stronger and cheaper. 

The transportation of long logs out of the forest is destructive 
to young growth because their length requires considerable 
swamping for animal transportation, and when a ground system 
of power skidding is used a large amount of young growth is 
broken or bruised before the log reaches the run down which it 
passes to the machine. 

The ''board" mills in the yellow pine region cut logs into 
standard lengths a large percentage being 12, 14 and 16 feet. 
The "timber" mills cut longer logs to meet their special re- 
quirements. 

Cypress operators who railroad their timber to the mill cut 
logs into standard lengths between 10 and 20 feet. On pull- 
boat operations where logs are floated to the mill the whole trunk 
or 30- to 50-foot logs are skidded. 

Hardwood logs rafted down the Ohio river and other large 
streams are cut into lengths of from 40 to 60 feet, while on small 
streams and on railroad operations standard-length logs are the 
rule. 

In the Adirondack mountains spruce logs which are to be 
manufactured into lumber are cut chiefly into lengths of 10, 12, 
13, 14 and 16 feet, and those for pulp manufacture into even lengths 
of 14 feet or more. In JVIaine spruce is cut either into standard 
lengths, or the butt cut is made from 30 to 40 feet long and the 
remainder left in a top log which is taken to a diameter of 4 or 
5 inches. 

White pine is largely cut into standard lengths. 

Douglas fir on the Pacific Coast is cut into logs ranging in 
length from 26 to 60 feet and sometimes longer. The customary 
lengths range up to 40 feet with a high percentage of 32-foot logs. 

In the redwood region about one-fourth of the logs are cut 
16 feet long. The remainder are cut into lengths of 18, 20, 24, 
32 and 40 feet. The longer lengths are cut from the smaller 
trees. 

Method. — The first step in log-making is to cut the limbs 
from that portion of the bole which is to be utilized. This is 



FELLING AND LOG-MAKING 111 

done with an ax by a member of the saw crew or by a special 
man called a swamper, knotter or limber. The bole is then 
laid off into log lengths either by the head sawyer or by the 
"chipper" who uses an 8- or 10- foot measuring stick. 

In log-making there are several problems which the workmen 
must solve depending on the position of the felled tree. 

(1) When the tree lies flat on the ground, bucking-up is a 
simple matter as the sawyers start their cut on the lower or up- 
per part of the bole at the marked point and continue until 
the log is severed from the bole. When the saw begins to bind 
wedges are driven into the cut and made to follow the saw by 
an occasional blow from an ax or maul. Binding often is over- 
come by felling the tree across a log. 

(2) When the bole is supported at one end, care must be 
exercised to avoid splitting slabs from the under side. This is 
accomplished by making a cut 2 or 3 inches deep on the under 
side of the bole. In addition the log may have its free end sup- 
ported by a false work of logs, or by a heavy stick placed in a 
vertical position directly under it. The saw cut is then started 
on the upper face and continued until the log breaks off from 
its own weight. 

(3) When the bole is supported at both ends the cut is usually 
started on the under side and continued until it extends one- 
half or two-thirds of the distance through the log. A cut is 
then started on the upper side of the bole and continued until 
the log is severed. The bole is often supported by heavy sticks 
placed in a vertical position under both sides of the cut. 

(4) When the bole is sprung between trees or stumps the 
general practice is to make a deep cut on the concave face and 
then to saw or chop on the outer face. Caution is required 
where trees are badly strained because they may break with 
considerable force and injure workmen. 

In small- and medium-sized timber it is generally the duty of 
the felling crew to cut the bole into logs as soon as the tree has 
been felled. An exception to this occurs where the bark of 
trees such as hemlock, chestnut oak and tanbark oak are sought 
for tanning purposes. In this case the felling of the trees and the 
stripping of the bark are done by a crew whose work may pre- 
cede the actual logging operation by several weeks. Log-mak- 
ing imder these circumstances often is done by a separate crew. 



112 LOGGING 

Log-making in the large timber of the Pacific Coast has been 
developed along special lines. The large size of the timber 
prevents the use of a two-man crew unless a scaffold is constructed 
on which the men can stand. This is not necessary because one 
man with a 7- to 9-foot single-handled saw can cut logs to ad- 
vantage by standing on the ground. He starts his cut with the 
saw at an angle and gradually brings it towards the horizontal 
as it nears the bottom of the log. Thick-barked timber requires 
special preparation before bucking-up because the bark is a great 
hindrance to the bucker. The practice in redwood forests is to 
remove the bark from the log and when the refuse is dry to burn 
over the area. Bucking-up is then carried on by one man as 
described. The bark on Douglas fir logs tends to dull the saw 
and is removed along the line of the saw cut. 

Wedges are used to keep the saw from binding and kerosene 
is applied to the saw blade when necessary to free it from pitch. 

The equipment used for felling and log-making in small- to 
medium-sized timber consists of a cross-cut saw from 5^ to 6^ feet 
long with two detachable handles; a double-bitted or single-bitted 
ax; two or more wooden or iron wedges; a measuring stick; a 
bottle of kerosene; and possibly a wooden maul or a sledge for 
driving wedges. 

Similar equipment is used for large timber but the saws range 
in length from 8 to 18 feet. Spring boards also are required 
where high stumps are cut. 

Power Bucking. — In the sugar pine forests of California, hand 
bucking is sometimes supplemented by the use of the power- 
driven steam dago.^ The engine is moved under its own power 
to the vicinity of felled trees which are to be cut into logs. A 
saw frame and saw are adjusted at the cutting point on the bole, 
the saw is then started and left to work automatically while two 
other frames are being adjusted at other cuts. Saws are run at 
about 150 strokes per minute. 

A swamping crew precedes the saw crew and trims the felled 
trees, throwing the brush to one side to give room for the ma- 
chines. There is a decided economy both of time and labor in 
the use of the compressed-air machine. Nine men are required 
to operate it and the daily capacity is from 125,000 to 140,000 
board feet, with a maximum output under favorable circum- 
1 See page 90. 



FELLING AND LOG-MAKING 113 

stances of 160,000 feet. From fifteen to seventeen men would 
be required to secure the same output with hand labor, and the 
labor charge would considerably exceed the cost of operation and 
maintenance of the machine. Some difficulty is experienced in 
operating during cold weather because the moisture freezes on 
the cylinder and piston and interferes with the action of the 
latter. 

An endless chain saw is used to cut logs into shingle-bolt lengths 
in the redwood forest region and also to cross-cut logs at the mill. 
It is especially adapted for the former work, where very large 
timber is to be cut into short lengths, because several cuts can 
be made at each set-up of the machine. 



WASTE IN LOG^MAKING^ "^ 

Inefficient saw crews under improper supervision often cause 
a waste of timber by careless selection of log lengths. 

Crook or Sweep. — Waste nearly always occurs in the division of 
a bole having crook or sweep. It is more serious in small than in 
large timber because the percentage of loss in slabbing at the mill is 
much greater. Pronounced sweeps should be cut from the bole 
and left in the woods and when it is not deep it should be left 
on the end of the log where there will be the minimum loss in 
manufacture. Logs with crook or sweep are more expensive 
to handle both in the forest and at the mill than straight logs of 
the same diameter and length because more time is required to 
skid, to load on to the log cars and to handle them in the mill. 
The actual yield of lumber is from 12 to 75 per cent less depending 
upon the per cent relation between the depth of sweep or crook 
and the diameter of the log.^ 

Forked Trees. — Another source of waste is the cutting up of 
forked trees. The chief faults of the sawyers in this regard are: 

(1) Felling the tree so that the lower fork is either imbedded 
in the ground or so placed that it is difficult to saw it properly. 
The line of least resistance is followed and the lower fork is left 
or a portion of it sacrificed. (Fig. 22.) 

* See Prolonging the Cut of Southern Pine, by H. H. Chapman and R. C. 
Bryant. Yale University Press, New Haven, Conn., 1913. 

- See Forest Mensuration, by H. H. Chapman. John Wiley and Sons, 
Inc., New York, 1921. 



114 



LOGGING 



(2) Cutting too far below the fork, thereby wasting mer- 
chantable material. 

(3) Cutting too far above the crotch as shown in Fig. 22. 
The bole should have been cut close up on both sides of the crotch 
and the short section left in the woods. 

It is unprofitable to bring logs with large forks to a mill because 
the yield of lumber from them is not in proportion to the cost 



ilMI^"' 






Fig. 22. — A Forked Tree cut in a Wasteful Manner. 




of production. Forked logs require from two to fifteen times 
longer to get into the mill and to be sawed into lumber than do 
straight logs of the same diameter and length and the yield from 
them is often from 20 to 50 per cent less. A further loss is oc- 
casioned by the reduction of the mill output because of the ad- 
ditional time spent on sawing such logs. 

hnproper Trimming Lengths. — Insufficient attention is given 
to the lengths into which logs are cut. They should be a few 
inches longer than the implied log lengths because in bucking 
large logs it may be impracticable for the sawyers to cut exactly 
at right angles to the length and, further, logs often are damaged 
on the ends in skidding and in transit to the mill. This extra 
length is trimmed off in the mill and gives a straight, bright end 
on each board. Three inches are regarded as sufficient for a 



FELLING AND LOG-MAKING 115 

log 16 inches and under in diameter and 4 inches for those of 
greater diameter. 

Workmen become careless and often do not cut 50 per cent of 
the logs the proper length. Where less than 2 inches are left 
for trimming length, the board is usually reduced 2 feet in length 
at the mill, while on those that are several inches too long the 
loss is also great. Inaccuracy in measurements is due to careless 
measurement with the stick and to the use of one shortened by 
accidentally clipping off the end with the marker's ax. 

The result of measuring 1000 logs on the skidway of a southern 
yellow pine operation showed that only 426 logs were of the 
proper length, while 240 were too short and 333 were from 1 
to 11 inches too long. The excess on the ends of several logs 
was often sufficient to have secured an additional 2 feet of mer- 
chantable material had the bole been carefully divided. 

Disregard of Quality. — Log-makers frequently do not give 
sufficient attention to securing quality as well as quantity. Where 
timber has large limbs the general practice is to leave the greater 
part of the tops in the woods because lumber of low grade only 
can be secured from them. Log-makers frequently exercise poor 
judgment in cutting trees into logs and often fail to apportion 
the bole so that the best portion and the knotty portion are 
kept in separate logs. It is not uncommon to find from 6 to 10 
feet of clear bole put into a log with several linear feet of knotty 
material. This policy is costly because the value of the log is 
chiefly determined by its poorest section. The universal rule 
should be to divide the bole so that the clear material will be 
kept separate from the rough and defective. It may often prove 
more profitable to waste a few feet of rough log if by so doing the 
amount of high-grade lumber can be increased. 

Waste. — One form of waste commonly observed is shown 
in Fig. 23. Log-makers seldom go above points where one or 
more large limbs project out on one side (see X). If the log is 
15 or more inches in diameter and one side is free from knots, 
the cut should be extended 2 or 4 feet further up the tree, say to 
"Y", if that distance gives the proper log length. The lower 
side will yield clear lumber free from knots and cannot in any 
way depreciate the value of the log content, while the lumber- 
man secures the additional material on the good half of the log 
which otherwise would be wasted. If necessary, the portion 



116 LOGGING 

containing the large knots can be cut off in the mill at the 
trimmer. 

A loss usually occurs in cutting broken timber into logs by 
making the saw-cut too far below the break. Where the break 
is not square across it is often possible to obtain added material 
by cutting the log so as to include a portion of the broken end. 
This should alwaj^s be done on large timber where the extra 
section that can be secured is at least equal to one-half the diam- 
eter of the log. 

One of the most extensive wastes occurs in the tops when all 
of the merchantable material below the larger limbs has not been 




Fig. 23. — Waste iii a Top resulting from an Improper Selection of Log 
Lengths. 

utilized. Sections of good timber from one to several feet in 
length and of a quality equal to that taken are often left, because 
the log-makers did not exercise judgment in dividing the bole 
into the" most economical log lengths. The loss from this source 
often runs from 3.5 to 5 per cent of the total merchantable stand 
and the annual loss on large operations amounts to thousands 
of dollars, although it could be corrected by proper supervision. 
Close utilization of the kind mentioned does not require the 
operator to take material that he does not consider merchant- 
able. A system by which timber is cut for quality as well as 
quantity means an increase in the percentage of the higher grades, 
more timber per acre and prolonged life to the operation. 

BARKING OR ROSSING 

When logs of large size are skidded on dry ground, the bark 
on the lower side is frequently removed to reduce friction. This 
is termed "barking" or "rossing." During a wet season or 
when power is used for skidding rossing frequently is omitted. 

In the Northeast the ends of long logs that are being yarded 
on drag sleds are sometimes rossed on the under side when the 
road is either level or upgrade, or the dragging hard. 



FELLING AND LOG-MAKING 117 

In other sections of the country only the largest logs are rossed. 
The work is generally done with an ax by a member of 
the swamping crew. On heavy timber the barker not only 
removes the bark but also straightens slight crooks by cutting 
off sufficient wood to flatten the log so that when dragged, it 
will remain in proper position. 

Spruce logs intended for pulp manufacture are sometimes 
peeled in the forest because there is less wood wasted than when 
the work is done by machinery at the mill and the shipping weight 
is reduced by this means. 

Redwood logs are rossed in the forest before the boles are made 
into logs because the thickness of the bark and its rough character 
not only impede log-making but are also a hindrance in trans- 
portation. 



Previous to skidding, the forward end of a large log may be 
"sniped" or "nosed" that is, rounded off on the under side 
so that it will not catch on obstructions. Where the ground 
is rough and the log is likely to roll over, the entire front end 
is sniped. This work may be done by a sniper or by one of the 
swampers. The sniper generally prefers an ax with a 5- or 
6-pound head. 

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE TO CHAPTER VI 

Braniff, Edward A.: Grades and Amounts of Lumber Sawed from Yellow 

Poplar, Yellow Birch, Sugar Maple and Beech. Bui. No. 73, U. S. For. 

Ser., Washington, D. C., 1906, pp. 20-2L 
Bruce, Donald: The Relative Cost of Making Logs from Small and Large 

Timber. Coll. of Agriculture, Agricultural Ex. Sta., Bui. 339, Berkeley, 

Cal., Jan. 1922. 
Gary, Austin: Practical Forestry on a Spruce Tract in Maine. Cir. 131, 

U. S. Forest Service. 
Chapman, H. H., and Bryant, R. C. : Prolonging the Cut of Southern Pine. 

Yale University Press, Bui. 2, Yale Forest School, New Haven, Conn., 

1913. 
Clapp, Earle H. : Conservative Logging. Report of the National Conserva- 
tion Commission with accompanying papers, 1909, pp. 512-546. 
Girard, James W.: Inland Empire Sawing and Skidding Studies. The 

Timberman, Sept., 1920, pp. 36-38. 
Graves, Henry S.: Practical Forestry in the Adirondacks. Bui. No. 26, 

U. S. Div. of For., Washington, D. C, 1899, pp. 57-60. 
Hedgecock, George Grant: Studies upon some Chromogenic Fungi which 



118 LOGGING 

discolor Wood. Missouri Botanical Garden, Seventeenth Annual Report, 

St. Louis, Mo., 1906, pp. 59-114. 
Hopkins, A. D.: Practical Information on the Scolytid Beetles of North 

American Forests. I. Barkbeetles of the Genus Dendroctonus. Bui. 

No. 83, Part I, U. S. Bureau of Entomology, 1909. 
Hopkins, A. D.: Insect Injuries to Forest Products. U. S. Department 

of Agriculture, Yearbook, 1904, pp. 381-398. 
Hopkins, A. D. : Pinhole Injury to Girdled Cypress in the South Atlantic 

and Gulf States. Cir. 82, U. S. Bureau of Entomology, 1907. 
Peters, J. Girvin: Waste in Logging Southern Yellow Pine. Yearbook of 

U. S. Department of Agriculture, 1905, pp. 483-494. 
Von Schrenk, Hermann: The Bluing and Red Rot of the Western Yellow 

Pine with special reference to the Black Hills Forest Reserve. Bui. No. 36; 

U. S. Bureau of Plant Industry, 1903. 



PART III 
LAND TRANSPORT 



CHAPTER VII 
TRANSPORTATION 

Transportation represents a large per cent of the total cost 
of delivering raw wood material at the mill or market,' hence 
it is the loggers' most important problem and the success or 
failure of the operation usually depends upon the manner in which 
it is solved. Differences in wages or efficiency of labor, character 
and size of timber (hardwoods or softwoods), the physical con- 
ditions under which the work is done and the topography of the 
region may cause some variation in log-making costs, yet on effi- 
cient operations the difference between the highest and lowest 
costs is relatively small. On the other hand, transportation 
expenditures in a given region may vary within wide limits 
because of the different topographic conditions under which 
the work is carried on and also because of inefficiency on the part of 
the management, due to the choice of unsuitable methods or im- 
proper application of suitable ones. 

The correct solution of the transportation problems of the log- 
ging industry calls for great resourcefulness on the part of the 
logger and is made more difficult because of the pioneer conditions 
under which the work must be done. The tonnage may comprise 
logs or other products cut from trees ranging from small second- 
growth timber a few inches in diameter and yielding units 
weighing but a fraction of a ton to massive trees such as the 
Douglas fir and the redwood of the West Coast, single log units 
of which may weigh many tons; the topography may vary from 
a flat, swampy condition to a rugged mountainous one in which 
deep canyons and steep slopes are encountered; and the climatic 
conditions may range from the mild climate of the southern 
part of this country to that of the northern and eastern part of 

• The transportation of forest products to mill or market represents 75 
per cent or more of the total delivered cost of raw material, exclusive of the 
stumpage value. 

121 



122 LOGGING 

the United States where the winters are long and cold and are 
accompanied by a heavy fall of snow. 

The conditions under which logging is carried on vary so widely 
in the different forest regions of the country that loggers must 
specialize in the practice applicable to a given region. In the 
Northeast, he must be an expert on stream improvements and 
on sled transportation; in the South he must be familiar with the 
methods of moving medium-sized timber on swampy, flat, and 
rolling lands, and understand the use of power skidding machin- 
ery, and steam railroads; while in the Far West he must move 
heavy log units often under unfavorable topographic conditions. 

The logger utilizes in his work almost every form of equipment 
which has been devised for moving materials among which are 
sleds, carts, wagons, railroads^ aerial trams, slides, flumes, steam 
and electric skidders, tractors, power log loaders, steam and gaso- 
line tugs, barges, and power log haulers. 

There is no uniformity in the procedure followed in the selec- 
tion of the transportation methods on logging operations. Many 
operators have not prepared a detailed preliminary plan of operation 
for their tract in advance of logging. The general methods in use 
in the region have been adopted as the standard and modified 
as conditions made such a step necessary. The applications 
of these methods to field conditions was left to the logging superin- 
tendent or foreman whose engineering ability was based chiefly 
on practical experience. This method proved satisfactory when 
a high degree of technical knowledge was not needed. The 
depletion of the accessible timber stands on favorable topography 
has forced loggers into regions, distant from markets, where the 
development of transportation requires a degree of engineering 
skill not possessed by the average foreman. It also has made 
it necessary to plan the operations for some years in advance in 
order that costly improvements may be located so that they will 
serve to bring out the maximum amount of timber. The greatest 
advance along these lines has been made- in the Appalachian moun- 
tain region in which some of the largest operations are being car- 
ried on in a very mountainous section, and on the Pacific Coast 
where massive machinery is required for skidding and expensive 
railroad construction is necessary to move the heavy timber. 
A new branch of the engineering prQfession has grown up to 
meet the needs of the logger in these regions, especially in the 



TRANSPORTATION 123 

West, namely, logging engineering which calls into play a knowl- 
edge of the civil, mechanical and electrical phases of the profes- 
sion especially adapted to the loggers' needs. 

Transportation on a logging operation may be classified under 
two main heads, namely, secondary or short-distance, and pri- 
mary or long-distance. 

Secondary transportation. — This is used to bring the raw ma- 
terial from the stump to some central point or points from which 
it is taken by the primary transportation to the mill or market. 
It varies widely in character and the work may be done solely 
by manual labor, although animal draft or mechanical power 
is most frequently used. In general the choice of methods is 
based on some or all of the following factors: 

(1) The size of the timber, the stand per acre, and the length 
of logs desired. Very large timber such as redwood and Douglas 
fir can best be handled by some form of mechanical power, owing 
to the great weight which must be moved, hence power skidding 
or yarding machinery is used. 

Light stands of timber, unless the trees are of large size, can be 
logged cheaper by some form of animal draft than by mechanical 
power because the use of the latter usually necessitates the con- 
struction of an extensive mileage of logging railroad spurs, the 
unit cost of which is excessive when the stand per acre is low. 
Tractors have been introduced successfully on some operations 
in recent years as a substitute for animal draft in logging light 
stands. They have proved useful on long hauls and also on 
slopes, especially during the warm weather when steep ascending 
grades reduce the efficiency both of teamsters and animals. 

(2) The character of bottom and undergrowth and degree 
of slope. When the bottom is smooth and free from underbrush, 
animals can be successfully used for moving smal^ to medium-sized 
timber, but animals are not satisfactory when the bottom is 
swampy or there is a heavy undergrowth present, because in 
the first case the animals mire badly, and in the second case 
an excessive amount of swamping is necessary in making trails 
and roads. Slopes in excess of 30 degrees are hard to log with 
animals because of the difficulty of controlling logs as they are 
yarded to the lower levels, and also due to the great exertion re- 
quired on the part of the animal when it ascends the slopes on the 
return journey. Power skidding is more satisfactory under such 
conditions. 



124 LOGGING 

(3) The distance. Animal draft is used both for short and 
for long distances. The efficiency of this form of draft decreases 
rapidly with the distance hauled on level ground and on large 
operations it is seldom profitable to skid or yard logs for distances 
greater than from 600 to 800 feet. However, logs from scattered 
bodies of timber or light stands may be hauled for much greater 
distances on some form of wheeled vehicle when the volume of tim- 
ber is so small that it is not profitable to bring the main transpor- 
tation within a few hundred feet of it. In a rolling region, the 
profitable skidding or hauling distance for animals may be much 
increased because of the greater volume of timber which can be 
moved down grade at one time. In such cases logs may be 
dragged for distances of 3/4 or 1 mile. 

Ground power skidding methods are rarely adapted to distances 
greater than from GOO to 1000 feet, and overhead systems from 
800 to 1500 feet. However, in very rough regions the latter 
type of equipment has been used for distances as great as from 
3500 to 4500 feet. The choice between the two methods is based 
largely on the volume of timber to be moved, the size of the units 
to be handled, the character of bottom over which the timber 
must be carried, and the form of primary transportation available 
both for moving logs and skidding equipment. 

(4) The form of primary transportation. Animal draft may 
be used with rail, motor truck or water transport but, in general, 
only two forms of power equipment have proved satisfactory when 
railroads are not available, namely, pullboat logging in cypress 
and tractor logging.^ Logs skidded by pullboats are floated to 
destination while those logged by tractor may be floated or else 
hauled on motor trucks. The latter practice is followed in tractor 
logging only on relatively small operations. 

(5) The annual or seasonal output. Some form of animal- 
draft is always used when the annual or seasonal output is small, 
because the investment in logging equipment is less and the ani- 
mals may be diverted to other work when logging is not in prog- 
ress. Power skidding machinery represents a large initial in- 
vestment and the capacity of such machines is too great for small 
operations. Few power skidding machines can be operated 

1 In some cases in the Pacific Northwest, power skidding is used without 
rail transportation, the logs being dragged to water transportation by road 
engines. 



TRANSPORTATION 125 

profitably on a daily output which is less than 30,000 board feet . 
per unit and some have an average daily capacity of 100,000 board 
feet or more. Hence, the daily output far exceeds the require- 
ments of small mills, and during idle periods the carrying charges y 
on the machineiy are excessive. i -^ 

(G) The forestry policy to be pursued. Power logging has 
been extensively introduced on large operations in many parts 
of the country, especially in the southern yellow pine, the Ap- 
palachian mountain, the Central Hardwood (chiefly in the Missis^ 
sippi Valley section), the Inland Empire, California, and the Pacif- 
ic Northwest regions. It has not gained any appreciable foot- 
hold in the Northeast and in the Lake States where there is a 
long winter season with a relatively heavy snowfall. The ten- 
dency in power logging in recent years has been to increase the 
amount of power in individual machines and the speed of the skid- 
ding lines in order to increase the output per unit and thus keep 
down the costs of logging which have a more or less constant 
tendency to rise with the advance in the cost of labor and supplies. 
All forms of power logging are more destructive to reproduction 
and seed trees than animal logging, and the ratio of destruction 
increases rapidly with the increase in the speed of the skidding 
lines. It is doubtful if skidding-line speeds in excess of 600 feet 
per minute are compatible with any form of forest management 
other than clear cutting. The so-called high-lead system used 
(ihiefly in the West has proved to be the most destructive because 
of the damage not only to the base but also to the tops of trees 
which may be left in the forest. The extent of damage by any 
system of power logging is directly proportional to the area covered 
by the runs since, on such areas, all volunteer growth and seed 
trees are destroyed. 

All forms of animal logging have proved to be less destructive 
than power logging because the chief damage results onl}^ to those 
trees which are cut to make roads or trails over which to move 
the logs, and to the seedling growth which is on the right of way. 
Since swamping must be done by manual labor, the amount of 
timber cut is reduced to a minimum. Although an occasional 
seed tree may be scarred by contact with the wheels of skidding 
or hauling equipment, this damage usually is slight and the tree 
readily recovers. The damage to seedlings and saplings along 
the trails and roads often is more or less complete but such areas 



126 LOGGING 

are less in extent than the runs for power logging and, therefore, 
the total damage is reduced. Forest policj^, therefore, has an 
influence on the choice of secondary transportation on areas where 
a sustained yield is sought.^ 

Primary Transportation. — This includes the movement of the 
products from some central point or points in the forest to mill 
or market and represents one of the major costs incident to logging. 
Primary transportation may be on land or water or both, since 
forest products often are hauled for considerable distances on 
land and then floated or rafted to destination or to some point 
where they are again taken out of the water and moved on land 
to the mill or to market. Among the factors governing the choice 
of primary transportation are the following : 

(1) The topography. Wheeled transport is not adapted to 
regions where the topography is very rough because steep adverse 
grades reduce to a minimum the size of loads which can be hauled 
and the cost of constructing a roadbed is high. In such cases 
flumes, aerial trams and slides may be used. On the other hand, 
a flat or rolling country with a solid bottom is well adapted to 
the use of some form of wheeled transport. A region with many 
streams and ample water storage reservoir sites is adapted to 
water transport while the reverse may be true of a flat or gently 
rolling country because of the sluggish character of the streams 
and the high cost of stream improvements necessary to confine 
logs to the channels at flood stage. Rough regions also are chiefly 
non-agricultural in character and a greater mileage of railroad 
usually must be constructed to tap outside existing transport 
systems than is necessary in flat or rolling regions which often 
are more densely populated and, therefore, have better existing 
transportation facilities. 

(2) Climate. Temperature and precipitation often have a 
marked bearing on the form of transportation chosen. Heavy 
snowfall and low temperatures during the winter months are found 
in some regions where conifers are the more common forest trees. 
Such areas usually are well watered with streams of a size suitable 
for floating logs. Also in such forest regions rail transportation 
is seldom well developed and it may be necessary to move forest 

1 The Forest Service of the U. S. Dept. of Agriculture already has placed 
certain restrictions on power logging on some of the National Forests in the 
West. 



TRANSPORTATION 127 

products many miles to reach a suitable point for manufacture. 
Sled transportation to a stream down which the logs are floated 
is common in such regions, provided the temperature conditions 
are such that a snow or ice bottom can be relied upon for a period of 
from seventy to eighty days. This is the case in many parts of the 
Northeastern spruce region and in many parts of the Lake States. 
In the Inland Empire the amount of snowfall is adequate for sled- 
hauling but temperature conditions are so unstable that the logger 
cannot rely upon a continuous period of cold weather of suflicient 
length to enable him to place his logs on the landing. As a 
consequence, sled transportation is not used to the same extent 
that it is in other regions of equal or lesser snowfall. In the south- 
ern and far western forests some form of wheeled transport must 
be used to move the products from the forest, either for the entire 
distance or to some body of water on which the logs may be moved 
to destination. In the southern pineries, rail transport is in 
common use because the timber does not float well and trunk-line 
railroads can be reached with a comparatively short mileage of 
logging railroad. On the Pacific Coast a large volume of timber 
is hauled by rail to tidewater or to some large stream and then 
rafted and towed to the mills. The timber floats better than 
southern pine, but its large size and the long lengths in which it 
is cut in the forest make it impracticable to float the timber down 
the relatively small, short streams which drain the territory 
between the Cascade Mountains and the sea. 

(3) Size, character and length of logs. Large-sized timber 
usually must be hauled on some form of wheeled transport, es- 
pecially when cut near the headwaters of drainage systems, since 
the streams are too small to float logs of large dimensions. Pulp- 
wood may be cut in lengths as short as 2 feet in order to move 
it down small streams, and stave and shingle bolts, and crossties 
often are floated down streams that are too small for saw logs. 
Very large logs cannot be moved successfully by animal power, 
hence some form of rail or motor truck transport usually is em- 
ployed. 

The weight of logs may be the factor determining the choice 
of land or water transport. The heavier hardwoods cannot be 
floated successfully for long distances and some form of land trans- 
port must be installed or the timber left standing. 

The lengths in which it is desired to bring out logs may deter- 



128 LOGGING 

mine the choice because logs in excess of 32 feet in length usually 
can not be handled profitably by animal draft. An exception 
may be noted in the case of piles and other products, for which 
special facilities must be provided. Long logs usually can be 
handled best by some form of rail transport on which a long 
wheel base may be used to support the load. 

(4) Character of skidding equipment. Heavy machinery and 
power logging equipment can best be moved by rail and in most 
parts of the country such form of transport is used A logging 
railroad also furnishes a quick and efficient means of moving logs 
or other products to some point not tributary to the watershed 
on which the timber stands. Motor trucks may be successfully 
substituted for a railroad on small operations where both animal 
and power logging equipment is in use. 

When logs are skidded by animal power, the choice of primary 
transportation may be a logging railroad if a large volume of 
timber is to be moved ; wagons or carts for a small volume moved 
a comparatively short distance; sled hauling and water transport 
when climatic conditions and character of timber permit; and 
sled hauling with animal or tractor draft when water transport 
is not available or the logs will not float. 

(5) Size of operation. Simple inexpensive equipment which 
can be used in the form of several independent units is the only 
type adapted to small capacity operations, since the volume of 
timber to be moved is limited and a heavy expense for equipment 
is not justified. On the other hand, operations which are to 
continue for many years and which move many millions of board 
feet of timber per year must have some form of transport on which 
reliance can be placed for steady and continuous delivery of large 
quantities of timber in a given time. The initial expense for 
transportation can be distributed over a long period of years 
and the unit costs kept at a reasonable figure. It is necessary 
to strike a balance between investment, operating charges and 
maintenance, because the logger with a limited output cannot 
incur heavier transportation costs than his larger competitors, 
if he is to be successful. The success of any system of primary 
transportation depends largely upon the skill displayed in ana- 
lyzing the conditions found on any particular area and upon the 
efficiency of the supervising force in installing and operating 
the chosen system. 



t 



Jh 



CHAPTER VIII / 
ANIMAL DRAFT POWER 

For many years animals constituted the only draft power 
used in logging operations in the United States. They are still 
used extensively in the spruce region of the Northeast, the Appa- 
lachians, the yellow pine forests of the South, the Lake States, 
the Inland Empire and portions of California. In all of these 
regions machinery has replaced them for many purposes, yet 
animal logging is still extensively practiced. 

Animals are now seldom used to move heavy timber, or for 
swamp logging or work on very rough ground and very steep 
slopes. Power-driven machinery has supplanted them in the 
redwood belt of California, the fir forests of the Northwest, 
the cypress swamps of the South and in some of the other rough 
mountainous portions of the United States. 

They still remain the favorite form of draft when the timber 
is of medium size, where the stand per acre is less than 5000 
board feet and when topography and bottom afford a good footing. 

The chief uses for animals in logging are to transport timber 
and other forest products from the stump to a collecting point 
along a logging railroad, a landing on some stream or to a saw- 
mill. In addition they often supply the power for decking logs 
on skidways, and loading logs on sleds, wagons and log cars. 
Even when machinery is used for skidding logs, animals may be 
required to return the cable to the woods and to haul wood and 
water for the engines. 

Oxen. — Oxen were the only animals owned by many of the 
pioneer lumbermen, and even after horses were available, loggers 
operating in remote sections found the ox more desirable because 
it could live on coarser feed, stand rougher treatment and required 
an inexpensive harness which could be made in camp. 

Conditions have now changed, and the higher cost of labor 
and supplies has led many loggers to use either horses or mules 

129 



130 LOGGING 

because they are more active than oxen. The latter are now 
used chiefly in the hardwood regions of the Appalachians and in 
the yellow pine region of the South, where they are frequently 
supplemented by horses or mules. 

The following conditions are those under which oxen may be 
used to the best advantage: 

(1) On swampy ground, because they do not mire as badly 
as the smaller-footed horse or mule. 

(2) For skidding on brushy ground, as they require little 
swamping. 

(3) On slopes, especially if the ground is rough and the under- 
brush abundant, because they are not excitable in difficult situ- 
ations. 

One advantage is that eight or ten animals can be handled 
by one teamster, while only four of five horses or mules can be 
worked by one man. Oxen stand heavy pulling day after day. 
better than other draft animals and also require a minimum of 
attention because only one feed per day is necessary if the animals 
are turned out to graze at night. 

They are slow on short hauls but they can be loaded more 
heavily and thus partially offset the greater speed of horses and 
mules, although they are not as serviceable as mules on hot, 
dusty roads because they suffer from continual exposure to the 
direct rays of the sun, and on very warm days, may be easily 
killed by over-exertion due to careless driving. They can be 
used in cold regions without danger. Under average conditions 
an ox will travel about 1 mile per hour when pulling a load. 

Oxen are harnessed with a yoke. The driver controls them by 
the voice and by a heavy rawhide whip. They are worked in 
teams of from three to five yoke. In a team of five yoke, the 
front pair are called "leaders," the next two pairs are "in the 
swing," the fourth pair are "point cattle" and the rear pair are 
called "wheelers." The leaders are the best trained, while the 
wheelers are the heaviest yoke of the team. 

The training begins when the animals reach the age of one 
and one-half or two years, but they do not attain their best 
development until their fifth or sixth year. They are service- 
able, under average conditions, until they reach the age of ten or 
twelve years. 

In the South oxen for logging purposes weigh from 1000 to 



ANIMAL DRAFT POWER 131 

1200 pounds each and are generally purchased from farmers 
near the logging operation. They usually are light weight 
when purchased and require a year or more of proper feeding 
before they attain their average efficiency. Heavy or well 
trained animals may bring as high as $200 per yoke. 

Horses. — Horses are used in the Appalachians, southern pine 
region, Lake States, Inland Empire and the Northeast. They 
stand cold weather well, are active and are moderate eaters. They 
are best adapted for logging on smooth or rolling ground, and 
with good care will remain efficient for from four to seven years. 
Horses which have reached the age of fifteen years are seldom 
profitable on a logging operation. 

Horses should not be used for logging purposes until they are 
from four to six years of age and when first put at work should 
be broken in gradually. In the South, new animals should not 
be put at hard work during the hot summer months, but should 
preferably be purchased in the fall and gradually broken in as 
the weather becomes cooler. 

In northern Alabama, when well cared for, they are as satis- 
factory as mules, but farther south the climate is not so favorable 
for them. When improperly housed and fed they are less efl&- 
cient than mules and oxen. 

Horses for skidding purposes should weigh from 1200 to 1600 
pounds each. Those weighing from 1200 to 1400 pounds are best 
adapted for handling small logs, and for rough conditions because 
they are more agile than heavier animals. Those weighing from 
1400 to 1600 pounds are preferred for work in a flat or rolling 
region and for large logs. Weights ranging from 1500 to 1700 
pounds usually are selected for wagon and two-sled hauling. 
Such animals are not suflficiently active for use on rough ground 
or steep slopes. The weights preferred for hauling skidder lines 
in the South range from 1000 to 1400 pounds. 

The general type of horse preferred for logging purposes is one 
with high withers, and broad loins and chest, and should have 
legs which are free from all blemishes. Old scratches or other 
wounds are easily injured in working around brush or in mud 
or hard snow, and often the animal must be relieved from work. 
Large hoofs are an important factor in selecting horses for work 
in rocky places, since there is less liabihty of the foot slipping 
into holes between rocks. 



132 LOGGING 

Horses for logging purposes may be purchased from dealers 
who make a specialty of draft animals, or from farmers in the 
prairie regions. 

Mules. — Mules are used more extensively in the South than 
in any other section. 

The chief points of advantage are : 

(1) They will stand more heat than an ox or a horse and arc, 
therefore, better adapted for long or hard hauls during summer 
months or in a hot climate. 

(2) They will stand rougher treatment and perform more 
labor on poor feed than a horse. 

(3) They are less excitable than horses and, therefore, are 
well suited for use in operations where colored teamsters are 
employed. 

(4) They are more agile than horses on rough ground. 

(5) They eat less than horses and seldom overfeed. 

Mules have not proved a success in the North where low tem- 
peratures prevail during the winter. 

Under favorable conditions there is little difference in the 
amount of work performed daily by mules and horses. 

Mules for logging purposes range in weight from 1100 pounds 
for leaders to 1400 pounds for wheelers. Southern loggers usually 
purchase their mules in the St. Louis and Kansas City markets 
or from farmers in Kansas and nearby states. The best mules 
are raised in Missouri, Kentucky and Kansas. 



The rations given to animals vary greatly because of the differ- 
ence in the character of feed available and the diversified opin- 
ions of feeders. 

A draft animal at hard work requires a certain amount of 
concentrated food containing protein, carbohydrates and fats 
which is fed in the form of grains, such as corn, oats and barley; 
mill products, including corn meal, ground corn and oats, and 
similar combinations; and the by-products, cottonseed meal 
cottonseed hulls and linseed meal. In addition, animals require 
rough material, such as hay of various kinds, corn fodder, corn 
husks and like feeds to give bulk to the ration. If no rough 
fodder or hay is given, an animal will consume more concentrated 
food than is necessary to keep it in working condition. On the 



ANIMAL DRAFT POWER 133 

other hand, heavily-worked animals cannot subsist on roughage 
alone because the digestible nutrients are so small that they 
cannot consume a sufficient bulk to secure the proper amount of 
nourishment. 

In preparing rations for animals, horses and mules require 
different treatment from oxen because they have smaller stomachs. 
As they have less power to digest foods, they must be fed less 
at one time and at more frequent intervals. 

The degree of digestibility is dependent on two factors; namely, 
the length of time the food remains in the digestive tract, and on 
the fineness of the division of the food. Mastication is less 
in horses and mules than in oxen because the former must do 
all the chewing before the food is swallowed while ruminants, 
such as the ox, regurgitate their food and chew it at will. 

Students of animal nutrition have prepared tables showing 
the amounts of the various constituents required for animals of a 
standard weight of 1000 pounds, performing a given kind of 
labor.^ Other weights are in proportion. Such tables are known 
as feeding standards and are an approximate statement of the 
amounts of the different nutrients required by animals and may 
be used as a guide by feeders. 

In general, a horse or a mule requires from 2.3 to 2.5 pounds of 
dry matter containing If pounds of digestible matter for 
each 100 pounds weight. Oxen require about 2.6 pounds of dry 
material, containing the same weight of digestible matter as re- 
quired for horses and mules. 

In calculating rations according to feeding tables, it is only 
essential that the quantities of carl)ohydrates and fats corre- 
spond approximately, because they both serve practically the 
same purpose and an excess of one may be offset by a deficiency 
of the other. 

The test of the fitness of a ration for a draft animal is the 
ability of the animal to maintain an even weight. Generally, if 
a healthy animal loses weight, it is an indication of insufficient 
food, while an increase denotes an excessive ration. This does 
not refer to minor changes in weight from day to day but to 
changes observed over a period of several weeks. 

Oats are generally preferred to corn for logging horses and 
mules, especially during hot weather, while cracked corn and 
1 The Wolff-Lehmann Feeding Standards are given in the Appendix. 



134 LOGGING 

cottonseed products often are an important part of an ox ration. 
Timothy hay is preferred for horses and mules, and "prairie" 
or wild hay for oxen. 

The dry matter and digestible food ingredients for various 
classes of feeding stuffs are given in the Appendix^ and by the 
use of this data and the feeding standards^ a balanced ration may 
be prepared, or an existing unsatisfactor}^ ration modified. Since 
grains and by-products like bran vary considerably in weight for 
a given volume of feed, the use of dry measure in determining 
quantities is not recommended. 

Rations fed to horses and mules doing various classes of work, 
including logging are given in the Appendix.^ Those for logging 
animals sliow a rather wide variation and indicate the a]:)sence 
of reliable feeding standards. 

Horses and mules should be fed three times daily giving about 
one-half of the ration at night. The morning and noon 
feed should consist largely of concentrated feeds, giving the bulk 
of the "roughage" at night. The practice of one or two feedings 
per day for horses and mules is not considered advisable, because 
it is a departure from the normal feeding habits of such animals 
and may induce stomach or intestinal disorders. Animals are in- 
clined to over-eat when the interval between feeding periods is 
long. Oxen, however, may be fed once a day only and still keep in 
good condition, owing to their greater stomach capacity and 
their ability to regurgitate and later chew their food. 



WATER REQUIREMENTS 

The amount of water required by horses depends largely 
upon the season of the year, the temperature of the air, the 
character of the feed, the individual peculiarities of the horse 
and the amount and character of the work performed. The 
water requirements increase with a rise in temperature and with 
the amount of work performed since both factors induce per- 
spiration. 

Less water is required when concentrated or green succulent 
foods are fed than when the bulk of the ration consists of coarse 
fodder or of dry food. A horse under average conditions will 
drink from 50 to 65 pounds of water daily, while under heavy 

1 Page 526. ^ Page 525. ^ Pages 528 and 259 



ANIMAL DRAFT POWER 135 

work or during warm weather from 85 to 110 pounds will be 
consumed. Mules in Oklahoma, during hot summer weather, 
consumed 113 pounds of water daily with a minimum of 107 
pounds and a maximum of 175. ^ The ration was composed of 
grain and hay. 

Experiments conducted in the British Army showed that horses, 
when allowed to drink at will, consumed about one-fourth of 
their daily allowance in the morning, about three-eighths at noon 
and the remainder at night. 

European experiments indicate that the time of drinking has 
no appreciable effect on the digestibility of the food. Animals 
may be watered either before or after feeding with equally good 
results, but it is desirable to always observe the same practice 
since some animals do not feed well if watered after feeding, when 
they are accustomed to being watered before. However, animals 
should not be watered when they are hot, since it may induce 
colic or other similar ailments. 

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE TO CHAPTER VIII 

Allen, E. W. : The feeding of Farm Animals. U. S. Dcpt of Agriculture, 
Farmers' Bull. No. 22, Washington, 190L 

Dalrymple, Dr. W. H. : Economic Feeding of Work Animals used in 
Logging Operations. Lumber Trade Journal, Nov. 1. 1914, pp. 27 and 
28. 

Dalrymple, Dr. W. H. : Feeding Work Horses and Mules. Lumber 
Trade Journal, July 1, 1914, p. 15. 

Langworthy, C. F.: Principles of Horse Feeding. U. S. Dept. of Agri- 
culture, Farmers Bull. No. 170, Washington, 1903. 

1 See Principles of Horse Feeding, by C. F. Langworthy. Farmers' Bulletin, 
No. 170, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 



SKIDWAYS AND STORAGE SITES 

The transport of timber from the stump to the manufacturing 
plant generally comprises two distinct operations.^ 

(1) Assembling the logs at depots, called skid ways or yards, 
usually near the point of felling. This is termed skidding or 
yarding, and may be accomplished by. manual labor; by animal 
power with or without the use of vechicles; by power-driven 
machinery; or by log slides and chutes. 

(2) The transport of the assembled logs to a stream or to the 
manufacturing plant. This is termed hauling and may be done 
with some form of cart, wagon, sled, railroad, flume, aerial 
tram, or log slide. 

Skidding and hauling may be conducted simultaneously, as 
in the South and West where rail transport is used, or at dif- 
ferent seasons, as in the spruce forests of New England where 
hauling is done on sleds. 

LOG STORAGE IN THE FOREST 

The character and location of the storage points depend on 
the manner in which the timber is to be hauled and on the 
topography. 

For Sled Haul. — Skidways for sled haul are built along the 
main or secondary two-sled roads and are constructed in the 
following manner. A log called a head block, 12 or 14 feet long 
is placed parallel with the road and from 2 to 8 feet away from 
it. On top of the head block, two skids 10 or 12 inches in diam- 
eter are placed at right angles to the road the forward end resting 
in notches 3 or 4 inches deep which are cut into the head block. 
The skids are spaced about 8 feet apart for standard-length logs. 
When the skidway extends back for some distance from the road, 

^ On small operations the logs may be taken direct from the stump to the 
mill. 

136 



SKIDWAYS AND STORAGE SITES 



137 



the skids are supported at intermediate points by blocks or logs. 
The rear ends of the skids are sunk into the ground so that logs 
may be dragged over them by the skidding team. Each skid is 
notched just over the head block, and in this notch a block is placed 
which prevents the logs from rolling off of the front of the skidway. 
Another scheme for holding logs on the skids uses two poles 
about 10 feet long and or 7 inches in diameter which are placed 




Fig. 24. — Decking Logs w-ith a Crosshaul, the Block being fastened at the 
Front End of the Skidway. New York. 

upright between the head block and a pole which extends across 
the skidway from skid to skid and which rests in notches cut in 
the head block. This method makes it possible to deck the logs 
square in front and, therefore, more logs can be put on a given 
skidway. It is more difficult, however, to load sleds from such 
a skidway since the poles must be removed before loading begins, 
and the logs may roll down when the poles are cut away. 

Skidways for long logs may have three or more skids, the num- 
ber depending upon the length of timber being decked. Those 
for sled hauling should be placed on the same side of the stream 
as the timber which is being skidded and the road also should 



138 LOGGING 

have a slight down grade in order to facihtate starting the 
sleds. 

Logs may be decked on level ground to a height of from 20 to 
30 feet. They are elevated by means of the crosshaul, operated 
by animals. A "decking" crew may comprise four or five men 
and one team. The_equipment comprises four cant hooks, two 
pole skids 6 inches in diameter and from 8 to 10 feet long, and a 
f-inch crosshaul chain about 40 feet long with a grab hook on 
one end. The logs are brought to the rear of the skidway and 
are then rolled by a "tailer-in" to the base of the logs already 
decked. The end of the chain carrjdng the hook is then thrown 
over and under the center of the log to be decked, after which 
the hook is fastened to one of the decked logs just below the spot 
where it is desired to place the new log. The free end of the chain 
passes over the skidway and, if the pull is to be straight away, 
is attached to a hook on the double-tree. After adjusting the 
chain, skids are placed against the decked logs, and the team is 
started. Two "ground loaders" guide the log straight up the 
skids using cant hooks for this purpose. Logs with taper, crooks, 
large knots and similar defects seldom roll straight and the ground 
loaders must be on their guard continually. A "top-loader" 
who stands on top of the pile of logs directs the log to its place, 
frees the grab hook if necessary and also directs the teamster. 
The direction of pull may be modified to meet special conditions. 
For instance, instead of attaching the chain directly to the double- 
tree it may be passed through a block fastened to a tree directly 
behind the skidway. This enables the team to pull at right 
angles to the direction in which the log is traveling and is of es- 
pecial advantage when brush, boggy ground or other obstacles 
prevent a straight-away pull. The chain may also be passed 
through a block and brought forward over the skidway so that the 
horses pull on the same side on which the logs are being decked.^ 
This may be desirable where there is a bad bottom or other phys- 
ical hindrances to the usual method of operating. 

Decking also may be done with the skidding horse or team in 
the following manner. A block is rigged on a tree at the front 
of the skidway along the main road and another block on a tree 
along the skid road. The decking line passes through these 
blocks, one end being attached to the parbuckle, and the other 
1 See Fig. 24. 



SKIDWAYS AND STORAGE SITES 



139 



end serving as a point of attacliment for the draft animal. The 
team brings- the log to the rear of the skidway. The yardman 
places the parbuckle around the log and attaches the decking 
chain to it, and as the team returns for another log, the teamster 
hooks one prong of his skidding grab into a link of the chain and 
the log is pulled up the skids and upon the skidway. The chain 
is detached b}'- the teamster who then proceeds on his way, the 
chain being again fixed in position by the yardman. 

L^arge.^kidways ^can be filled most economically when they 
are bu ilt in tiers on slope s. The logs are then delivered above 




Fig. 25. — Skidwaj's along a Two-sled Road. Montana. 

the skidway and rolled to the levels below. Large side h iU 
skidways may cqntain_Jrom^ feet log scale. 

Du ring h auHng time skidways may be places of transfer from 
skidding to hauling equipment in which event they are known as 
'^oTskidways." 

Wlien sleds are used for hauling, the skidways are located at 
convenient points along the logging roads which load to a landing 
or storage yard on a stream down which the logs are to be floated, 
^"he sites for skidwaj's should be selected by the logging foreman 
at the time the sled roads are laid out, and the routes of the latter 



140 LOGGING 

should be chosen with reference to good skidway sites as well as 
desirable grades. Rroyision should be made for a down-hill 
haul from the stump to the storage point. Skidding cannot 
be carried on profitably for long distances on level ground, 
consequently a flat country requires the greatest number of 
skidways. Large skidways are preferable because there is less 
snow to be shoveled off at loading time, and the construction 
and maintenance of a minimum mileage of road is required. 

Landings. — Temporary storage grounds called landings may 
be made along the banks of driveable streams or on the edges 




Fig. 26. ^ a \Uw^h aiul ruinhlc Skidway at the End of a Trailing Log 
Slide. New York. 

of lakes, when the logs are to be floated to the mill or to market. 
The logs may be brought to the landing on sleds, or by slides, 
flumes, or railways. The type of landing will depend upon the 
character of the stream and the number of logs to be handled. 
When the stream is small and the storage area limited, sled- 
and rail-hauled logs may be decked from 15 to 30 feet high in the 
stream bed parallel to the banks. If the banks are high the logs 
may be brought to the edge and rolled down into the stream bed 
in a more or less rough-and-tumble manner. The landings at 
the ends of slides and flumes are always of this character, since 
it is impracticable to deck logs brought down by such forms of 
transportation. 

Logs placed on frozen streams or lakes usually are scattered 
over a wide area in order to save the labor of decking and to 
prevent the weight of the logs from breaking through the ice. 



SKIDWAYS AND STORAGE SITES 



141 



For Wagon Haul. — Skid ways are seldom made for wagon 
hauling. The logs are bunched in the forest in a place accessible 
to the wagons and are loaded with the crosshaul and taken to a 
skidway along the railroad or direct to the mill. 

For Railroad Haul. — These vary in character depending on 
whether the logs are loaded on cars by animals or by power. 

Skidway sites for animal loading with the crosshaul should 
not be lowor than the track because it is too difficult to handle 




Fig. 27. — A Skidway or Loadiuf^ Dock along a Logging Railroad in West 
Virginia. The logs in the structure are later loaded and hauled away. 

the logs. A straight "get-away" of 40 feet should be provided 
on the side of the track opposite the skidway where the loading 
team can travel back and forth. An area several hundred feet 
in length along the track may be cleared for storage, especially 
if the stand of timber is heavy and hauling precedes rail transport 
by some weeks in which case the skidway can then be used but 
once. When hauling is simultaneous with rail transport, skid- 
ways are filled repeatedl}'' and less storage space is required. 

With animal loading it is essential that the logs be carefully 
decked parallel to the railroad track. ^ The skidways have 
two continuous rows of poles placed about 8 feet apart and ex- 
1 See Figs. 55 and 121, 



142 LOGGING 

tending at right angles to the track for a maximum distance of 
100 feet. The logs usually are brought to the rear of the 
skidway and rolled toward the track, leaving a clearance of 
approximately 10 feet between the first log and the rail. Logs 
are seldom decked more than four high as it is more economical 
to place new skids than to spend time in decking. 

A form of skidway for transferring logs from skidding devices 
to railroad cars is shown in Fig. 27. The. skidway is built crib- 
fashion of merchantable logs which are loaded and hauled away 
when the job is completed. The skidway should be high enough 
so that the top of the load on the car does not come above the 
level of the skids, thus facilitating hand loading. The skidway 
is made long enough to permit several cars to be loaded at once. 

Where power loaders are used, skidways often are merely areas 
along the track from which the brush and debris have been 
removed so that the teams can deliver the logs. In a flat region 
where plenty of space is available the logs are seldom decked. 
It is unnecessary^ to have logs arranged parallel to the track or 
placed on skids since the loader can pick them up readily at 
distances not exceeding 100 feet.^ If there are steep slopes near 
the railroad, logs are often hauled to the edge and rolled down 
by gravity, forming a "rough and tumble" skidway. This pro- 
vides a large storage area and reduces labor in handhng the logs. 
Since power loaders can readily pick up logs several feet below 
the level of the track the logger can locate his railroad without 
reference to loading sites.' 

Special landings or yards are not necessary on many operations 
where power skidders are used. Thus, power skidders having 
a loading device, load logs as they are brought to the railroad, 
and the only improvement necessary for loading is a cleared space 
around the machine which will enable the loaderman to manipu- 
late the loading boom. Overhead and snaking systems often 
are of this character. When the logs are not loaded by the skidder, 
they are decked up in piles along the track parallel to the roadbed, 
no special base being prepared. Such a procedure is followed 
with some types of snaking and slack-rope skidders. 

On the Pacific Coast logs formerly were loaded chiefly by means 
of the "gin-pole" which required the construction of a landing 
built along the railroad track on which the logs were placed 
1 See Fig. 105. ^ See Figs. 26 and 102. 



SKIDWAYS AND STORAGE SITES 143 

by the yarding or road engine. Such landings were relatively 
expensive to construct and in recent years the gin-pole method, 
and the landing have been superseded by some overhead loading 
device^ which does not require a landing, and which is faster than 
the gin-pole method, also permitting some choice in the order in 
which logs are loaded on the cars. 

* See page 367. 



CHAPTER X 
HAND LOGGING AND ANIMAL SNAKING 

HAND LOGGING 

The movement of logs by hand from the stump to a point 
where they can be reached by animals is commonly practiced 
in the Appalachian mountains and is known as " brutting." Trails 
are cleared down the steep slopes and the logs are rolled to a 
stream bed or flat where hand labor is replaced by animal labor. 
Hewed crossties frequently are made in rough mountain regions 
and dragged down the slopes to streams or to accessible points. 

Hand logging also is practiced in the white cedar (Chamcecy- 
paris thyoides) forests of the Coastal Plain region. The trees 
are felled, cut into sections and carried by men or carted on 
wheelbarrows over plank runs to a light tram road where they 
are loaded on small cars and pushed to a point available to a 
steam tram road. 

Some operators in the cypress swamps of this region cut swaths, 
called "creeks," at half-mile intervals through the forests locat- 
ing them with reference to the current when the swamp is flooded. 
These are made during a dry season and are cut from 50 to 150 
feet wide according to the number of logs that are to be floated 
down them. The trees which have been girdled for about a year 
are felled and cut into logs during a dry period and left on the 
ground until flood waters cover the swamp to a depth of 5 or 6 
feet. Negro laborers are then taken to the swamp in boats and 
they pole the logs, sometimes for a quarter of a mile, to the 
nearest "creek," down which they are floated to the rafting 
ground, where they are made into rafts, and then towed to a 
mill. 

Hand logging was common on the Pacific Coast for many 
years before the industry reached its present development. The 
timber was felled on slopes close to tidewater or some driveable 
stream, the logs were rolled into the water, made into rafts and 

144 



HAND LOGGING AND ANIMAL SNAKING 145 

sold to other loggers or manufacturers who transported them to 
market. Often the stumpage was not the property of the logger 
who cut it and the tmiber was sold at a price slightly above the 
cost of the labor expended upon it. The increase in the value of 
stumpage and the greater care given to timber properties by the 
owners has largely elhninated this class of loggers in the United 
States. In British Columbia hand logging is still practiced to a 
limited extent by virtue of "hand logger's" permits issued by 
the Provincial Government. 

The introduction of modern machinery for logging has given 
a wider meaning on the Pacific Coast to the term "hand logging," 
and it is now applied to loggers who operate on a small scale with 
animals. 

SNAKING WITH ANIMALS 

The transportation of logs with animals without the use of 
vehicles is practiced in many parts of the country to take logs 
from the stump to a skid way, stream, railroad, chute or other 
form of transport. 

It usually is a short-distance method and the logs are taken 
out over crude trails from which only such obstructions have been 
removed as are necessary to make snaking feasible. The usual dis^. 
tance for snaking on the level or on gentle slopes docs not exceec} 
_500_fe£t. However, logs may l)c dragged 1000 or more feet from 
the stump to the skidway, but such long distances are not consid- 
ered advisable except where there is a steep downgrade, or where 
there is not enough timber to warrant the construction of a 
road nearer to it. 

Horses and mules, singly or in teams, and oxen in single, double 
or triple yokes may be used for short-distance skidding. The 
number of animals is governed by the weight of the timber hand- 
led, the character of bottom and the grade of the skidding trail. 
In the spruce region of the Northeast, two animals are used 
to yard timber, when logs are cut in long lengths, while in north- 
ern New York single animals are preferred because the timber 
is cut into short lengths. The usual practice in other regions 
is to use two or more animals. Single animals have been tried 
for skidding small second-growth loblolly pine in the Coastal 
Plain Region, but because of the weight of the wood and the 
enervating climate the practice has not proved satisfactory. 



146 • LOGGING 

Although the detailed methods followed in snaking vary in the 
different regions, the general procedure is about as follows. 
Swampers begin at each end of the skidwav and cut o ut ,1, mnin 
trail from 5 to 7 feet wide which runs to the back end of the strip 
jo be log ged. Brush, roots, and windfalls are removed and wet 
spots corduroyed. T he_swa mper also cuts the limbs from the. 
logs ^snipes them on the forward end, if necessary, and cuts a 
^^ride/' on the bottom of the logs which ar e large or which may 




Fig. 28. — Oxen skidding a Southern Yellow Pine Log containing 1200 
Board Feet. Arkansas. 

have to be pulled up-grade. The teamsters draw the merchant- 
able logs to the skidway, working back to the far end of the main 
road before logs nearby, but off from the main road, are dragged in. 
Branch trails are built out from the main ones so that logs from 
any part of the area have to be dragged only a few feet before 
reaching a cleared runway. It sometimes is necessary to use a 
block and tackle to get large logs out of difficult places, but this 
method is seldom used until all usual methods have failed. 

Skidding for long distances is common in the rougher sections 
of the Appalachian mountains and in Pennsylvania where 
horses may be used to drag logs for distances not exceeding 1 
mile. The logs are brought down trails which are sometimes so 
steep that the animals must be returned to the woods by a more 
circuitous route. The skidway is placed along the railroad in 
the valley and a trail is built from each end to the top of the 



HAND LOGGING AND ANIMAL SNAKING 



147 



slope.i The trail is made 6 or 8 feet wide, cleared of obstructions 
and, when necessary, banked on the outer edge with skids to 
prevent logs from leaving it. Swamps are corduroyed, streams 
bridged and rough places covered with "skippers." These are 
timbers 8 or 10 inches in diameter and 12 feet long which are either 
placed zigzag across the road, the angle between skippers being 
about 60 degrees, or the poles are placed directly across the trail 




Fig. 29. 



Skidding Trails leading down to a Skidway along the Logging 
Railroad. West Virginia. 



at intervals of from 4 to 6 feet. Logs drag over zigzag skippers 
more easily than over those placed directly across the trail. 
Rough chutes are sometimes built in the stream beds to cover 
rocks and other obstructions, when it is necessary to divert the 
trail from the slopes to the stream bed. Short-radius curves 
are undesirable because they decrease the draft power of the 
animals, and make it hard to keep a long turn of logs in the 
trail. Logs are brought down in "turns" made up of several logs 
fastened in single file. Eight men can build a mile of skidding 
trail in one day when there is only a limited amount of bridge 
and other timber work to do. On level stretches a two-pole 

1 See Fig. 29. 



148 



LOGGING 



chute is sometimes built to facilitate dragging^. They are oc- 
casionally used on gentle slopes if the bottom is rough. 

On the Pacific Coast animal logging has been replaced by 
power skidders except for short hauls on some small operations. 
Skid roads formerly used for animal snaking in the Northwest were 
carefully located, stumps were removed, cuts and fills made and 
the roadbed leveled so that a desirable grade was secured. Skids 





mwm 


/ 




^M 





Fig. 30. — A Skipper Road on a West Virginia Operation. 



10 feet long and from 10 to 14 inches in diameter were laid across 
the completed grade at 10-foot intervals, and were partly buried 
in the ground so that the horses could step over them easily. 
Wet places in the roadbed were covered with puncheons, split from 
western red cedar, to provide a footing for animals. A "saddle" 
was adzed out of the center of each skid and in this the log rode. 
On curves the skids were longer and were either elevated on the 
inner side of the curve to prevent the tow of logs from crowding 
into the bank or the skids were laid flat and the elevation was 
secured by placing small sloping skids on the inside of the curve. 
The latter was regarded as the better method since the small 

1 See page 264. 



HAND LOGGING AND ANIMAL SNAKING 149 

skids could be more easily placed and, if necessary, the angle of 
inclination could be readily changed. On level stretches the 
saddles were greased to reduce friction. Logs were fastened 
together by means of "grabs" into long tows, each one averaging 
1000 board feet per horse. A team on a road of this character 
formerly comprised from eight to ten yokes of oxen but they 
were later replaced by horses, from four to fourteen animals 
constituting one team. 

Drumming. — A primitive form of skidding, called ''drum- 
ming," is sometimes used by small operators in the Appalachian 
mountains where the slopes are too steep for animal skidding, 
too rough for cheap road construction, and where the size of the 
operation does not warrant the use of power skidders. 

A large drum, hung on a vertical axis, is placed close to the 
edge of the plateau. A long horizontal lever arm to which a 
team of mules is hitched is fastened to the barrel of the drum. 
A short, stout pole is fastened by one end to this lever arm and the 
other end drags on the ground in the rear, and acts as a brake 
when the drum is in operation. A manila cable from 1500 to 
2000 feet long is attached to the drum underneath the draft 
pole and is carried down the slope by men and fastened to a log 
with grab hooks. The mules, attached to the draft pole, are 
started and, as the drum revolves, the cable is wound around 
it and the log gradually dragged up the slope. Logs are drawn 
over an escarpment, and other rough places in a chute made of 
logs. Trails are not cut out for the logs. 

SNAKING EQUIPMENT 

A strong leather harness for horses and mules, and suitable 
yokes for cattle are essential for snaking logs. Horses and mules 
when worked in teams require a set of double-trees or a spreader, 
and two single-trees. 

Double-trees are preferred for flat ground and easy slopes, 
while spreaders, because of their lighter weight, are used on 
steep slopes, since they do not injure the horses by striking 
them on the fetlock joints or other parts of their hind legs. 

For single animals a spreader only is required. When several 
teams are hitched one in front of the other a ^-inch draft chain 
is required to which each double-tree is fastened. The draft 
chains for oxen are attached to rings on the yokes. Various 




150 LOGGING 

devices, such as chokers, tongs and grains, are used to attach the 
log to the draft chain. 

Chokers. — A choker is a chain from 12 to 16 feet long made 
from f-inch iron with or without a choker-hook on one end. 
When a choker-hook is used, the end carrying it is thrown 
around the forward part of a log to be skidded and the chain 
caught in the throat of the hook (Fig. 32a). 

When the chain has no attachments, one end is thrown around 

the forward end of the log, looped around that part of the chain 

'\ / which is to be attached to 

' J^ C' the draft, after which is it 

wrapped several times a- 
round the chain encircling 
the log. When power is 
applied to the draft end 
of the chain the noose 
around the log tightens and 
Fig. 31. — A Common Type of Spreader prevents it from slipping. 

Ground '^''''^'"^ "" ^^''^'' """"^ ^''''^^ ^^'^ '^''^'^'' "^^^^^^ ^' ^^^'^^" 

ly adjustable to any size 

of log, may be used for single logs, or several small logs may 

be bound together in a cluster with one chain. 

The draft end of the chain may be attached by a hook to 
a ring in the yoke of the rear pair of oxen, or to a ring on the 
double-tree or spreader when other animals are used. If the 
chain is not supplied with a hook, the ring on the double-tree to 
which the chain is attached is made with a narrow throat in which 
a link of the chain is caught and held securely. The ring is often 
replaced by a grab hook in which the chain is caught. The 
two latter forms of attachment are preferred because the chain 
may be lengthened or shortened at will. 

Tongs. — Tongs which may replace chokers for handling 
medium-sized logs are made from round or octagon steel Ig or 
1| inches in diameter, and have a spread of from 24 to 36 inches 
(Fig. 326). A ^-inch chain link is attached to each short arm 
of the tongs and these links are connected by a 5-inch steel ring 
which is caught in a hook attached to the double-tree. Some- 
times a hook is attached to the ring on the skidding tongs, in which 
case the hook on the double-tree is replaced l:)y a ring. 

Grabs. — These are of several forms. The common skidding 



HAND LOGGING AND ANIMAL SNAKING 



151 



grab (Fig. 32c), has two hooks each one of which is attached 
to a short f-inch chain which in turn is fastened to a ring made 
of the same sized material. The hooks are driven into the wood 
on either side of the forward end of the log and grip it like a 
pair of tongs. The grab ring is attached directly to the spreader 









g DOUBLE COUPLER 




'J"Hook-K X iX'xS''^ / DOUBLE COUPLCT ^ 

Fig. 32. — Various Forms of Equipment used in Snaking Logs, a, A chain 
choker. 6, Skidding tongs, c, A common form of skidding grab, d, A 
patent skidding grab, e, The "J" hook used to attach the tow chain to a 
turn of logs. / and g, Two forms of double grabs or couplers, h, A single 
grab or coupler. 

by means of a hook. The Morris patent skidding grab (Fig, 
32c?) has a chain with a large ring at each end. The grab hooks 
are attached to the chain by narrow-throated links which may 
be set at any point in order to make the distance between grabs 
conform to the size of the log. The draft power is attached 
to another narrow-throated ring which can be placed midway 
between the grabs and thus equalize the power. On steep slopes 
where logs are apt to run, a form of grab shown in Fig. 32e may be 
used. The spreader ring is attached to the "J" hook and when 



152 



LOGGING 



logs gain too great headway and threaten to nm into the horses, 
the latter may be turned to one side, whereupon the tow of logs 




Fig. 33. — A Turn of Logs at the Dump along a Skipper Road. The logs 
are fastened together with "single coupler" grabs. West Virginia. 



A 



is uncoupled automatically. Grabs are also used to couple 
logs together in turns for transportation down skidding roads. 

There are several different 
patterns, including two forms 
of double grabs or couplers 
(Fig. 32/ and g) used for 
the forward logs where the 
strain is greatest, and a 
single grab or coupler (Fig. 
32h), for the rear logs. 

A metal-banded wooden 
a metal maul or a 



GRAB SKIPPER 




V 



GRAB MAUL 

Fig. 34. — A Type of Grab Skipper and maul, 
a Grab Maul used on a West Virginia gledge hammer is used for 
Logging Operation. ^^-^-^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ ^ p^j^^^^ 

sledge hammer, called a "skipper," for removing them. 



HAND LOGGING AND ANIALAI. SNAKING 



153 



CREWS AND DAILY OUTPUT 



In the northern forests a crew usually has two or three teamsters, 
one or more swampers and one skidway man. One or more 
animals are driven by each teamster. 




1200 
Distance-Feet 
By permission U. S. Forest Service. 



Fig. 35. — Graph showing the Influence of Slope on the Skidding Output, 
Animal Logging. Inland Empire. 



In the open pine forests of the South where there is a minimum 
of trail building, one or more teamsters may work alone, doing 
their own swamping and skidway work. The usual practice, 
however, is to have a swamper prepare the logs. 



154 



LOGGING 



In West Virginia a skidding crew often has two teamsters, 
one grab driver, one road monkey, and two skidway men. Each 
teamster drives two horses. 

The daily amount of work, measured in thousand board feet, 
performed by a team depends on the size of logs, the length 
of haul, the character of bottom and the grade. The size of log 
is an important factor because small logs show a low log scale in 



^^2400 





































\ Stnti'l^"'' •i'^' 1"M U b m i M 1 


















































































:-l::_ Mihi ! i i > i : J 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 i i 1 11 1 1 1 M < 1 I TTrH 1 M 1 



400 



600 



800 1000 

Distance-Feet 

By permission i 



1400 1500 



■ the U. S. Forest Service. 
Fig. 36. — Graph showing the Influence on Skidding Output, Animal Log- 
ging, of Summer and Winter Conditions. Inland Empire. 

comparison to their weight and while several may be skidded at 
one time, their total scale may be considerably below that of a 
single log that can be handled as readily and in less time. 

The number of logs skidded in a given time is not in proportion 
to the distance. Animals when once in motion will consume 
less time traveling the second 100 feet than they did the first, 
provided the log is not so heavy as to require stops every few 
feet. The time saved on the shorter haul may be lost very easily 
at the skidway or at the stump. A soft or rough bottom or one 
covered with large roots, stumps and other obstructions is pro- 



HAND LOGGING AND ANIMAL SNAKING 



155 



hibitive of speed and cuts down the daily output. Steep grades 
increase the number of logs and the volume which can be handled 
at one time for relatively long distances. This is shown in Fig. 
35 in which a comparison is made of the gross output per hour 
for a horse team on slopes ranging from 10 to 25 per cent, and on 
slopes ranging from 30 to 50 per cent.^ The graph indicates that 
the output per hour is greater on the gentler slopes for distances 
not exceeding 500 feet, and less for greater distances. This is 
due to the ability of the horses to traverse the distance from stump 




600 800 1000 1200 

Distance-Feet 

By permission of the U. S. Forest Service. 

Fig. 37. — Graph showing the Effect of Slope on Skidding Output, Animal 
Logging, under Wmter Conditions. Inland Empire. 

to skid way on the more gentle slopes in a shorter time than on 
the steep slopes, and also to the tendency to skid maximum 
loads on steep slopes only for the longer distances. Teamsters 
are not inclined to make up maximum loads for short distances 
and on the operations at which these data were taken the average 
load for the gentler slopes exceeded those on the steep slope up 
to a distance of 500 feet. 

The influence of the character of the bottom on the skidding 
output is shown in Fig. 36 for slopes ranging from 15 to 30 per 

1 From data contained in Inland Empire Sawing and Skidding Studies, 
by James W. Girard. Timberman, Sept. 1920, pp. 36 to 38. 



156 LOGGING 

cent. The graph indicates that the gross hour output on bare 
ground in summer is greater than on a snow bottom of from 10 
to 20 inches for distances of a few hundred feet, while for long dis- 
tances a snow bottom is more efficient. Undoubtedly this is 
due to the greater effort required to break out snow trails for 
the short distances and the tendency to take maximum loads 
only on the longer hauls. 

The effect of gradient on the output when skidding is done on 
a snow bottom is shown in Fig. 37. This graph indicates that 
the gradient has less influence on output on snow bottom than 
on earth bottom, although the tendencies are similar. The 
greater efficiency on the steeper slopes begins at about the same 
distance as for summer logging, but on the long hauls the effect 
of grade on output is less with snow bottom than with earth 
bottom.^ 

When skidding with two animals, either horses or mules, and 
handling timber that averages from six to nine logs per thousand 
board feet, a day's work, ten hours, ranges between 10,000 and 
15,000 board feet for distances up to 500 feet. A daily average of 
10,000 board feet during a month is considered good. For a 
distance of 750 feet the average ranges between 8000 and 12,000 
board feet and for 1000 feet, from 3000 to 4500 board feet log 
scale. A two-yoke team of oxen will average approximately 
the same number of board feet per day as a pair of mules or 
horses. 

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE TO CHAPTER X 

GiRARD, James W. : Inland Empire Sawing and Skidding Studies. Timber- 
man, Sept. 1920, pp. 36 to 38. 

Grainger, M. A.: Woodsmen of the West. London, E. Arnold, 1908. 

Margolin, Louis: The Hand Loggers of British Columbia/ Forestry 
Quarterly, Vol. IX, No. 4, pp. 562-567. 
1 See Fig. 35. 




CHAPTER XI 
SLEDS AND SLED-HAULING 



THE GO-DEVIL 



A sled known as a go-devil, travois or crotch is used in the 
eastern part of the United States during the summer and early- 
fall and sometimes in the winter to supplement snaking. 

The go-devil is made in the camp blacksmith shop and is 




Fig. 38. — A Go-dcvil loaded with Hardwood Logs. Michigan. 

a rough sled having two unshod hardwood runners, preferably 
of yellow birch, hard maple or beech, selected from timbers hav- 
ing a natural crook. The usual type of runner is from 6 to 7^ 
feet long, 6 inches wide, and from 3 to 5 inches thick. A 6- 
by 6-inch by 4- or 5-foot bunk is fastened to each runner by a 
bolt. The bunk is placed from 2 to 2^ feet from the rear end of 
157 



158 LOGGING 

the runners. A ring is attached to the center of this bunk and 
the logs are bound on the latter by a chain passing around the 
logs and bunk and through the ring. The curved, forward 
ends of the runners are connected by a roller which has a short 
chain at each end that passes through a hole in the forward end 
of the runner and is fastened several inches back on it. Since 
the go-devil has no tongue it can be turned around in a small 
space. The draft rigging consists of chains fastened to either 
side of the bunk or to the runners. The chains are brought for- 
ward and joined directly in front of the roller by a ring to which 
the hook on the double-tree is attached. Go-devils are loosely 
constructed to permit a backward and forward play to the runners 
so that if one of them becomes obstructed the other moves ahead 
and starts it. 

They are seldom used for distances less than 300 feet, except 
under adverse snaking conditions. They may be used for a j- 
mile haul on snow but are not as economical as larger sleds for 
this distance. Trails are required and these are cut by the 
swampers as they prepare the logs for skidding. 

THE LIZARD 

A crude form of sled called a lizard is sometimes used in the 
pine forests of the South when the ground becomes too soft for 
wheels. They are not serviceable on very muddy ground because 
the nose digs too deeply into the soil. 

The lizard is made from the natural fork of an oak, hewed fiat 
on the upper and lower sides, with an upward sweep on the 
forward end so that it can slide over obstructions easily. About 
two-thirds of the distance from the front end the two prongs are 
spanned by a bunk bolted solidly to them. The draft chain is 
fastened to this bunk and also passes around the log and through 
a hole in the upturned nose. Lizards are made in the camp 
blacksmith shop. 

YARDING SLEDS 

It is often desirable to yard or skid logs for distances over J- 
mile, especially when the amount of timber does not warrant 
the construction of a two-sled road, or the haul from the stump 
to the landing or to the railroad does not exceed 1| miles and the 
grade is favorable. 



SLEDS AND SLED-IL\ULING 



159 



Snaking methods and go-devils are replaced in such cases by- 
yarding sleds or drays in the Northeast and by a "jumbo dray" 
or a "bob" in the Lake States and the Adirondack mountains. 

The yarding sled is made by the camp blacksmith and has 
a pair of yellow birch or maple runners, 7 feet long, 3 inches 
wide shod with f-inch steel shoes. The forward ends are 
curved upward. The runners are held together by a bunk 8 




'.). — A Yarding Sled used in the Northeast. 



inches square and 4 or 5 feet long, placed about 3 feet from the 
rear end of the sled. In order to facilitate handling the sled the 
bunk is made in two parts; namely, a lower stationary bar 
fastened securely to the runners by pins, called "starts," and 
braced by heavy iron straps or "raves," and an upper bar which 
is temporarily removed when the sled is turned around in the 
woods. The upper bunk has grooves cut on the ends or on the 
sides, and these grooves fit around the starts, which are mortised 
in the lower bunk and fastened to the runners. 

Several logs with the forward ends supported on the bunk and 
the rear ends dragging on the ground can be hauled on a yarding 
sled. 

Two |-inch chains 18 or 20 feet long are used to fasten the logs 



160 



LOGGING 



to the bunk of the sled. Each chain has a grab hook on one 
end and a bunk hook on the other. The use of chains in binding 
logs is shown in Fig. 40. A third chain is sometimes used to 
bind the rear end of the load. 

Two horses are used for hauling yarding sleds, except on long 
hauls or unfavorable grades, when four may be required.^ 

An average load is five large logs, or seven or eight small ones, 
the total averaging fro m 700 to 1000 l^onrd feet . P%^_thiiiisarui 
board feet is an average dnv's work for n, team and sled ^^^ " 



A system of re-yarding is sometimes followed on very steep 
slopes up which it is difficult to haul empty yarding sleds, and 




WEAVERS BIND 

Fig. 40. — Methods of fastening Logs to the Bunk of a Yarding Sled. 



down which it is difficult to control loaded ones. The logs are 
snaked to the foot of steep slopes and hauled to the main skidways 
or landings on yarding sleds. A skidding team is equipped with 
150 feet of 1-inch manila rope to one end of which a grab hook is 
fastened. The logs are bunched by the team and several of them 
are bound together at one end with a chain and the draft rig 
attached to it. The hook on the rope is caught in the binding 
chain and given two or three turns around a nearby tree or stump, 
and the team started down hill. The teamster handles the snub- 
bing line and controls the team by voice only. Horses soon 
learn that the snubbing line will hold back the load and they 

1 On steep down grades one horse is sometimes used because the trails can 
be made narrower and less swamping is necessary. 



SLED AND SLED-HAULING 161 

will go down a very steep grade without a driver. The advan- 
tages of this method, as compared to the use of yarding sleds, 
are that poorer roads may be used, less care has to be exercised 
in felling, difficult "chances" can be easily logged without a heavy 
strain on the horses, and the output per crew can be increased 
from 50 to 100 per cent over that possible when yarding sleds 
are used under similar conditions. 

THE BOB 

In the Lake States and in the Adirondacks a "bob" is used 
in the place of a yarding sled. It has the front runners of a "two- 
sled," equipped with chains for binding on the logs. It is adapted 
for hauls under f mile when the distance is too great for snaking. 
From ten to sixteen logs may be hauled at one time on favor- 
able grades. 

THE "jumbo" 

The jumbo, a modification of the go-devil, is used on a snow 
haul in the Lake States, for distances not exceeding |-mile, where 
the conditions do not warrant the use of heavy sleds. They 
are often used to haul timber out of swamps on roughly built, 
snow roads. When necessary the wettest places are corduro3^ed 
with hemlock or balsam brush. Jumbo sleds have the same loose 
jack-knife construction as go-devils. The runners, however, are 
8 feet long and have a gauge of 6| or 7 feet. The forward and 
rear sleds are joined together by cross chains fastened to the bunks, 
which are spaced from 8 to 9 feet apart. X^ avpmgp Inarl fay 

a jiirnbn rRn|j ;ps fro m 1000 tn 1900 hnarrl fppt^ frnm !\ in 90 j^^ o- p 

"Hemg ca m pd nt.-Q . no tur > ^ — Thp slpdf ^ are loaded by means of^ 
a cros sliaul. Roads must be cut out, stumps removed and swamps 
rnrchrrn jpA^ but t liP ''^^t ^^ ^^^'^^ pnngfrnpfif^ n is much less than 
Tortwo-sledS;___ 

TllE TWO-SLED 

The transportation of logs from the skidway to a landing on 
streams, to a railroad or to a mill often is effected by means of 
a heavy sled called the "two-sled," "twin-sled" or "wagon- 
sled." There is no standard type of two-sled even in a given 
region. Many sleds are made in the blacksmith shop of the log- 
ging camp in accordance with the ideas of the logging foreman. 
The gauge of sleds varies from 3| feet on some operations in 



162 



LOGGING 



Eastern Canada to 8 feet on others in the Lake States. The 
choice appears to rest on the size of loads to be hauled, the form 
of draft power used, and the preferences of the foreman in charge. 
Wide-gauge sleds are used exclusivel}^ when some form of power 
draft is used, since the sleds are made larger and heavier in order 
to carry maximum loads. Many loggers also prefer a wide- 




fhotograph by E. B. Mason. 

Fig. 41. — A Loaded Two-sled showing the Binding Chains and a Potter 
(on the left). New Hampshire. 



gauge sled when animals are used for sled hauling because the 
animals then do not travel in the sled runner tracks and, therefore, 
do not deposit manure on it, a matter of great importance on an 
iced road, since manure will cause the ice to melt rapidly on 
bright days. More road-monkey work is required on a narrow- 
gauge sled road to keep the track clean, than on a wide gauge, 
since the manure must be shoveled off. 

The length of runners varies from 8| to 12 feet and the width 
from 4 to 6 inches. Some runners are made square and others 
rectangular and they may be shod either with a rectangular- 
shaped steel shoe or with the more common type of semi-circular 



SLEDS AND SLED-HAULING 163 

one. Bunks range in length from 8 feet, on small sleds, to 16 
feet on the widest gauge ones, although 10 feet is the average 
length in use in the Northeast and 12 feet in the Lake States. 

A sled used on a Maine operation had runners 10^ feet long, 
4 inches broad, 7 inches high, which were shod with flat 4-inch 
steel shoes. The gauge was 5^ feet. The runners were braced 
near the center by a transverse timber called a bar, which was 
fastened to them by a wrought-iron casting, called a ''dexter" 
or "sled knee." A 10-foot bunk was placed over the bar on the 
rear runners and a 10-foot rocker on the bar of the forward sled. 
This rocker turned around a king-pin that passed through it 
and the bar. The forward runners also were strengthened by 
a flat roller rounded on the ends and fitted in circular holes in 
the sled noses. To this roller the sled tongue was mortised. 
When two teams were used for hauling a sled, a false tongue was 
slung on rings under the main pole, projecting ahead far enough 
to accommodate the forward pair of horses. This pole enabled the 
lead team to assist in steering the sled. The rear runners were 
similar to the forward pair, with the omission of the tongue and 
rocker. Two-sleds are made from well-seasoned oak, maple or 
birch. The woodwork on a sled lasts from three to four seasons 
but the runner shoes must be renewed annually or biennially. 

The front and rear sleds are often joined by two ^- or |-inch 
chains attached to the back side of the forward bunk, directly 
over the runners, then crossed and attached to the noses of the 
rear runners. The length of the chains is adjustable so as to 
adapt the distance between the forward and rear bunks to the 
length of logs being hauled. On rough roads, when light 
sleds are used, and when logs of medium and fairly uniform length 
are being hauled, the cross chains may be replaced by a "goose- 
neck," which is a V-shaped pair of thills. They have a hook on 
the apex by which they are attached to a ring on the back side of 
the forward bunk and the divergent ends of the goose-neck are 
fastened to the roller ends of the rear sled. The length of the 
goose-neck is from 16 to 18 feet, which gives a distance of 21 or 
23 feet between the rear bunk and the forward rocker. When 
the empty sled is ready to return from the landing to the skidway, 
it is customary to unhook the goose-neck, turn it back on the 
rear pair of runners and couple the sleds closely together by means 
of cross chains. 



164 



LOGGING 



SLED ROADS 

Yarding Sled Roads. — Roads for yarding sleds are laid out by 
the camp foreman. Several main roads diverge from the skid- 
ways generally going up the slopes and, from these, branch 
roads are built directly to the logs. 

Main roads are built 5 or 6 feet wide, stumps are cut level with 
the grade and all brush, fallen timber and boulders cleared away. 
The road is roughly graded, holes and depressions are filled with 
brush or dirt, streams are spanned with crib bridges, swamps are 




Fig. 42. 



Yarding-sled Trails leading down to a Skidway on a 
Two-sled Road. Maine. 



corduroyed and, if necessary, cross-skids are placed across the 
road at intervals of from 10 to 20 feet to prevent the runners from 
cutting up the road. Side-skids also may be placed along the 
lower side of the road to prevent the sleds from leaving it. On 
side slopes, the outer edge of the road may be built up by laying 
skids parallel to the road and then placing short skids, 2 or 3 
feet apart across them. This crowds the sled towards the bank. 
Main yarding roads are built by a special road crew. The 
secondary roads are laid out and constructed by the swampers 
while preparing the logs for skidding. Easy grades are de- 
sirable both for main and secondary roads, but are not essential 



SLEDS AND SLED-HAULING 



165 



because the speed of loaded sleds can be checked on steep 
pitches by a "snub-line"^ or a "bridle." 

A bridle is a chain passed around a runner in front of the bunk. 
It is put on and removed as circumstances demand. A clevis 
attached under the forward part of a runner sometimes replaces 
it. Bridles can only be used on smooth ground, otherwise the 
chains catch on roots and other obstructions and stop the sled. 
Tail chains, which bind together the rear end of the load, also 
act as impediments and assist in the control of the sleds. Aided 
by any of these devices, teams can go down slopes loaded, up 
which they cannot return with an empty sled.^ 




Fig. 43. — A Yarding-sled Road built up on a Curve to prevent the Sleds 
from leaving the Road. Maine. 



Two-sled Roads. — The road system for an operation on which 
the logs are to be transported on two-sleds, comprises a main 
road over which all the traffic passes to the landing, and second- 
ary roads which radiate from it to the skid ways. The roads are 
laid out by the camp foreman often without the aid of survey- 
ing instruments, although in recent years, progressive woodsmen 
have adopted a hand level for the determination of grades. 

The main road location is the more important because it is the 
route over which fully loaded sleds pass. These roads often 

1 See Fig. 48. 

2 The general scheme of roads is shown in Fig. 42. 



166 LOGGING 

follow the valley of some stream from the woods operation to 
the landing, crossing and re-crossing the water-course as often as 
necessary to maintain the desired grade. A minimum number of 
bridges is desirable because they are expensive to construct and 
to maintain. In order that logs can be hauled on a down grade 
from the secondary roads to the main road, the latter should 
be located on the lower levels of the tract. 

A main road of easy descending grades is preferred because 
on grades in excess of 5 per cent, heavy loads gain too much 
headway and it is necessary to place hay, straw, gravel, sand or 
brush on the road to check the speed. It is more satisfactory 
and often cheaper in the end to make cuts or to detour ascending 
grades rather than to return by them. 

Dead-level pulls should be avoided because more power is 
required to move loads on such places than on gentl}^ descend- 
ing grades. Sharp curves are especially dangerous at the foot 
of steep pitches because the load cannot be held in check by the 
animals and the sled is apt to leave the road under the momentum 
attained. 

Turnouts are provided at the end of long, straight stretches 
on low-grade roads, while on steep mountain roads a "go-back" 
road is built over which the empty sleds return. 

Secondary roads are inferior in construction to the main ones 
because they may be used for one season only, and a small amount 
of timber is brought out over them. They are seldom iced and, 
therefore, the bottom does not have to be made as smooth as 
for rut roads. 

Fewer roads can be used in a rough or rolling region thaji in a 
flat country because the downgrade permits skidding for longer 
distances. 

Two-sled roads should be built during the summer or early 
fall before the ground freezes and snow falls. The days are 
then long and the unfrozen earth can be handled to best advan- 
tage. On new operations, road work follows camp construction, 
while on other operations the roadmen come in a short time in 
advance of the regular camp crew, or simultaneous with it. 
It often is necessary, however, to construct a tote road, from 
the base of supplies to the camp site, previous to the construction 
of the camp. Roadmen are chosen from the less efficient workers 
in camp, because in such work little skill is required. 



SLEDS AND SLED-HAULING 167 

The right-of-way having been blazed out by the camp fore- 
man, the ''road-monkeys," as the men are called, proceed to 
fell a strip of timber from 20 to 30 feet wide along the proposed 
route. The merchantable timber is cut into saw logs which 
may be left at one side of the road, or skidded to the nearest 
skidway site. If the road is to have a snow bottom, the depressions 
are filled with rotten logs and sound non-merchantable species. 
The latter are also used for corduroy, bridge construction and skids. 
Large stumps are sawed level with the ground; boulders are 
removed or the road level around them raised by skids; and 




Fig. 44. — A Two-sled Road, showing tlie Method of building vi]) tlir Grade 
on Slide Slope.s. 

cuts are made to reduce heavy grades. Snow roads often pre- 
sent a rough appearance before snow falls, because of the uneven 
nature of the roadbed, but the first heavy snow fills the depres- 
sions and smoothes off the road making a solid bed over which 
the sleds may pass. 

-Swamps containing live springs are a source of annoyance when 
the road must pass over them, because they are the last part of 
the road to freeze over in the fall and the first part to thaw in 
the early spring, and should l^e avoided when practicable. When 
the road crosses low marshy ground or swamps, corduroy is used 
which gives a broad bearing surface to the road and prevents 



168 LOGGING 

the sled runners from sinking into the mud. An average day's 
work for one man is to cut poles for and build from 6 to 8 rods 
of corduroy. 

When roads are built on side slopes, the upper side is cut down 
and the lower side raised, by laying long skids parallel to the 
outer edge of the road and placing short .transverse skids on 
them. The space between the skids may be filled with brush, 
or left vacant and snow allowed to fill the interstices. On roads 
where the traffic is heavy the slope is either cut down enough 
to make a solid roadway, or else an abutment of logs is built 
on the low side. 

Roads which are to be iced must be more carefully graded than 
snow roads because a solid base is required to support the ice 
coating, otherwise it will break up under heavy loads. Stumps, 
rocks, and other obstructions in the line of ruts, also interfere with 
the operation of the rut cutter. An iced road, therefore, must be 
carefully graded, stumps grubbed or blasted, rocks removed and 
low spots filled with earth. The appearance of the roadbed 
previous to the fall of snow should be comparatively smooth. 
The additional cost of the roadbed for an iced road as compared 
to a snow road may be 100 per cent or more. However they are 
more efficient on long hauls since heavier loads can be moved 
than on snow roads. Two general types of iced roads are used, 
namely, the rut road and the trough road. The former represents 
the earliest type of iced road used in the United States, and it 
was probably first developed in the Lake States. On the early 
roads the ruts were cut with an ax, but this method was soon 
abandoned since a rut cutter^ makes a smoother channel and the 
cost of the road is less. 

The advantages of a rut road over a snow road is that the fric- 
tional resistance is reduced and the rut serves to hold the sled in place 
on the road, thus preventing the runners from sluing. Rut 
roads require more attention for maintenance than snow roads 
because they must be kept free from manure; sprinkled at fre- 
quent intervals, often daily; and the ruts may have to be cut 
out two or more times per week. In the Lake States ruts often 
are cut in the soil, which gives a solid bed. It cannot be done 
successfully^ in stony soil, however, so that in many regions the 
ruts are cut in the snow and later built up with ice. The first 
1 See Fig. 46. 



SLEDS AND SLED-HAULING 169 

mentioned practice gives the best results, since the ruts will stand 
up under heavier loads. Ruts are cut from 3 to 6 inches deep and 
are made somewhat wider than the thickness of the runner. 
The bottom of the rut may be square or concave depending on the 
shape of the runner shoe. The trough road has a smooth ice 
bottom with sloping ice wings. It is built up to a depth of several 
inches by frequent applications of water and it is then sheared 
off with a steel snow plow which gives a level ice bottom without 
ruts. The advantages claimed for this type of road are that 
it provides easier draft on short hauls, and that the solid ice bed 
makes a more permanent road during the warm winter weather 
which may occur near the close of the hauling season. These 
merits are not conceded by all loggers, however. Trough roads 
usually are made for a gauge of 6 feet or less. This necessitates 
the use of a narrow-gauge sled, with overhanging bunks which are 
more troublesome at landings than those on broader gauge sleds. 
Further disadvantages of the trough road are that the horses 
travel on ice and in the runner track, which necessitates the 
constant removal of manure; the road, unless plowed frequently, 
is built up and then tends to break down on the sides under heavy 
loads; much more water is required than for rut roads; more 
labor is required for maintenance; and on long hauls the capacity 
is no greater than for a rut road. 

Streams and dry watercourses are bridged with structures 
made from round timbers. Bridges are the first part of a sled 
road to weaken. They should be built on a slight downgrade, 
if possible, in order to facilitate the passage of loaded sleds. The 
usual type is one the floor of which is supported on parallel 
stringers, from 12 to 15 inches in diameter resting on abutments and 
piers which are made of logs from 12 to 18 inches in diameter, 
built in crib-fashion. The piers are 10 or 12 feet square and are 
commonly placed from 12 to 16 feet apart, and filled with stone 
to give them stability. The floor is made of skids from 6 to 10 
inches in diameter, placed across the stringers close enough to 
form a solid roadbed, and on these a thick covering of bark is 
spread to hold the snow, and prevent the sled track from break- 
ing up when the load passes over it. The skids are held in place 
by stringers which are laid on top of them, one on each side of 
the bridge. 

Piers are not adapted to use in a stream bed, because freshets 



170 



LOGGING 



^! 



are apt to carry them away. Under such circumstances or where 
the bridge crosses a wide stream the cribs are placed from 20 to 
25 feet apart and the stringers are supported between them by 
piles driven to bed rock at intervals of 8 or 10 feet. 

When the stream is too wide for a single span, the cribs may 
be built in the water, heavily loaded with stone and provided 
with a "rake" on the up-stream face to divert refuse and ice to 



^'^" ^^Hr Mf^ ■ 


\. '\ ^ 


jSBS^^J^' ■--';"^ 


\ ^^^ ^tB^' 


% 


Wi 


HhtCJC**' ^^^^^ ' A 


m 


tt 


fc^->j^^5^^^^|H|S^H|^^B 


bS^zrJ*'**^ '-^ 


' '"'../" "':^^' 4**^ 




B 


■' A 



Fig. 45. — A Snow Shed on a Two-sled Road. Coniferous bru.sh is placed 
against the framework to prevent the entrance of .snow. Maine. 



either side of the crib. When there are long spans it is cus- 
tomary to use five stringers. Deep depressions often are filled 
with cribbing built up to grade level. 

On roads where the snow drifts badly snowsheds are occa- 
sionally built in order to keep the road open with a minimum of 
hand shoveling. They also are used on steep pitches to keep 
the ground free from snow, so that the speed of sleds can be 
controlled. Snowsheds are built in several different forms one 



k 



SLEDS AND SLED-HAULING 171 

of which is shown in Fig. 45. The framework is constructed 
of poles 6 or 8 inches in diameter and heavy brush is placed on 
the sides and roof to prevent the entrance of snow. The height 
and width of the sheds is dependent on the size of the sleds and 
the maximum height of loads hauled. 

Screens built from tops and Imibs sometimes are placed along 
the windward side of a road to protect it against drifting snow. 
A fringe of trees also may be left along exposed portions of the 
road, this timber being cut during the last season the road is 
used. 

Two-sled snow roads require at least from 8 to 12 inches of 
snow for successful operation and in the Lake States and the 
Northeast conditions are seldom favorable for their use until the 
middle or latter part of December. Hauling begins at this time 
and continues without interruption until all of the logs are on the 
landing, or until the season breaks up and the snow leaves the 
roads. 

Snowplows play an important part in the maintenance of a 
main two-sled road. They are frequently made by the camp 
blacksmith, but also are sold by dealers in logging supplies. 

Plows are used after each snowfall to clear a right-of-way along 
the road wide enough to permit loaded sleds to pass. They 
are built in several patterns, a common one having V-shaped 
flaring sides from 2 to 4 feet high, which are bolted to a heavy 
pair of runners. The plow is drawn by from six to sixteen horses, 
depending on the depth of snow and the width of road being cleared. 
Plows also are made from two split logs or heavy sawed timbers 
about 16 feet long which are joined together at the apex of the 
triangle by means of a chain which passes through holes in the 
forward end of the logs at which point the draft power is attached- 
The angle between the sides may be regulated by means of cross 
bars, which are fitted into notches cut into the inner face of the 
logs or timbers. Such snowplows are made reversible in order 
to facilitate a change in the direction of travel. The chain hold- 
ing together the forward ends of the logs at the apex of the triangle 
is removed, the rear ends of the logs are then brought together 
and fastened with the chain, and the point of draft attachment 
is then reversed. This scheme is especially useful since it often 
is difficult to turn around such a snow plow, owing to its unwieldy 
character. Special care is necessary when roads cross lakes or 



172 LOGGING 

ponds that have become covered with a blanket of snow before 
the ice has reached a thickness to hold up heavy loads. It is 
the custom to plow the snow from the ice for a distance of 40 or 
50 feet on either side of the main road and to keep the ice uncovered 
until it has reached a satisfactory depth. If this is not done the 
road may remain in a dangerous condition throughout the winter. 
The maintenance of iced roads requires rut cutters and sprink- 
lers, in addition to snow plows. The rutter is a machine mounted 
on a hea\y set of runners which has two chisel-like cutting Ijlades, 
either fiat or concave, which may be raised or lowered so that a 




i 



Fig. 46. — The Badger Rut Cutter (side view). 

rut of any desired depth can be secured. Snowplows and rut 
cutters often are combined in one machine especially in those 
patterns offered by logging supply houses. 

Long hauls, ascending grades and long, level stretches are 
iced so that larger loads can be hauled. A road on which four 
or more trips can be made daily is seldom iced unless a large 
amount of timber is to be hauled over it. Descending grades and 
secondary roads are not iced. 

The sprinkler is a rectangular tank built of dressed and matched 
plank, and mounted on a heavy pair of sleds. It holds from 30 
to 80 barrels of water, which will sprinkle from j to f of a mile 
of road. In one type a short piece of 1-inch iron pipe is fitted 
into each of the rear lower corners of the tank directly over 
the sled ruts. An overhanging piece of sheet iron is attached so 
that it hangs over the opening in the pipes and, when the wooden 
plugs are pulled out of the latter, the water plays on this sheet 
and throws a spray over the rut, which on freezing makes a solid 
ice coating. Another type of sprinkler has the openings in the 



SLEDS AND SLED-HAULING 173 

bottom of the tank in front of the rear sled runners. This is 
considered a better method since the runner tends to shape the 
rut and prevents water from collecting in low spots and filling 
up the ruts with solid ice. A scheme tried some twenty years 
ago as a substitute for the sprinkler, was a steam boiler mounted 
on a sled, with pipes which discharged steam in the runners, 
thus melting the snow and ice which on freezing would coat the 
rut with ice. So far as known this system was not adopted, 
although it was tried out both in the Lake States and in the 
Northeast. A water heater, a round wrought steel tube 18 inches 
in diameter equipped with a smoke and a fire door, is sometimes 
placed in the tank. A fire built in it prevents the water from freez- 
ing. Sprinklers may be filled by gravity from a spring or brook, 
by water drawn up in a barrel by means of a cable and horse 
draft, or by a steam pump. 

The rutting and sprinkling are done by a special crew who 
usually operate at night and whose sole duty is to keep the road 
in shape for hauling. Under ordinary circumstances, in addition 
to such men as are required continually at points where grades 
must be sanded, or snubbing devices operated, one man can 
keep 2 miles of main road in repair. One four-horse team and 
two men can operate the sprinkler on from 4 to 6 miles of road. 
Shoveling out deep drifts after storms; banking and skidding up 
roads on side hills, where the sleds slue to one side; keeping a snow 
covering on bridges; shaping ruts on iced roads by cutting them 
out with an ax; filling in low spots on the road with snow, brush 
or other material; and shoveling manure off of the iced roads 
may be necessary to maintain a two-sled road. 

After one season's work a road requires a general overhauling to 
prepare it for the next winter's use. This work is done early 
in the fall at the time road building begins. Bridges are strength- 
ened when necessary, the roadbed built up on slopes where 
weaknesses have become apparent, sags occasioned by the last 
winter's haul are filled, and any general improvements made that 
the previous season's work have shown to be advisable, such as 
the elimination of undesirable curves and grades. 

Operation. — The practice followed in preparing a main two- 
sled road for hauling varies on different operations. Preparation 
of a snow road often begins two or three weeks previous to haul- 
ing, when a crew goes over the road filling in soft places and cut- 



174 LOGGING 

ting out windfalls which may have dropped across the road. A 
forward pair of two-sled runners is then loaded with two small 
logs whose rear ends are allowed to drag on the road where the 
horses travel. Several loads of this character are hauled to the 
landing, followed by heavier loads again dragged on the same 
sled. When the road is thoroughly packed, a few light two-sled 
loads are hauled over the road after each snowfall. 

Previous to hauling, the roads past the skidways are broken 
out by a snowplow and if necessary by shoveling. Then an 
empty or lightly loaded sled is drawn over the road to 
break a track. The snow on the skidways is shoveled off and 
the empty sleds drawn by two or four horses are ranged along- 
side for loading. Logs are sometimes frozen so solidly that they 
cannot be loosened by hand and a small charge of dynamite 
must be exploded in the pile. On steep mountain roads it is 
customary to place partial loads on the sleds at the upper skid- 
ways and "top-out" the loads from skidways on the lower levels. 

Sleds may be loaded by hand, by the crosshaul or by power 
loaders. Hand loading is used where the logs are not large. It 
is a common method in the spruce forests of the Northeast. Two 
skids are placed so that they span the interval between the crib- 
work of the skidway and the sled bunks and the logs are rolled 
over the skids by the loaders. As the load is built up, the skids 
are raised and placed on top of each succeeding tier of logs. 
Large logs are loaded with a team and crosshaul unless the 
skidways are higher than the sled bunks. 

Horse loaders or "jammers" are frequently used in the Lake 
States. These have a derrick and swinging boom mounted 
on a heavy sled, equipped with hoisting blocks and tackle. The 
jammer is drawn from one skidway to another by a team, and is 
placed directly behind the sleds to be loaded with the boom so 
placed that logs may be gripped on the skidway with tackle, 
elevated and transferred to the sleds. Power for hoisting is 
furnished by the team which transports the jammer. 

Power loaders are occasionally used in the Lake States. They 
are mounted on sleds and have a stiff boom and a hoisting en- 
gine driven either by steam or gasoline. They are transported 
from one skidway to another by animals. 

Logs are bound on the sleds by chains. For high loads, oper- 
ators use a set of ten chains. Four ^-inch short bunk or corner 



SLEDS AND SLED-HAULING 



175 



bind chains are used to bind the two outer logs of the bottom 
tier to the rear bunk and the rocker. Four f-inch "deck chains" 
are used to bind the load, one pair being used to hold the load 
after the second tier of logs has been put on, and the other pair, 
after the fourth tier has been loaded. Each deck chain has two 
parts, one part being 24 feet long with one end fastened to a ring 
on one side of the rocker or bunk, and the other part being 2 feet 
in length and attached to the rocker or bunk on the end 
opposite the long chain. The short chain has a ring on the end 
and a secondary chain with a grab hook attached is fastened to 




Photograph hy H. De Forest. 
Fig. 47. — A Sprinkler being filled with Water from a Brook. Adirondacks. 

it. Two f-inch wrapper chains each about 40 feet long, which 
have a ring or bunk hook on one end and a grab hook on the 
other, are passed around the completed load, but are not attached 
to the sled. 

When large loads are hauled, a "potter" is sometimes used 
as an aid in loading. This is a round stick 3 or 4 inches in 
diameter and 2^ or 3 feet long, around the center of which is 
fitted an iron clasp to which is fastened a short piece of chain 
with a hook on the free end. When two pairs of deck chains 
are used, eight potters may be employed, four on each side 
of the load. After the deck chains are placed on the first two 
tiers, the hooks on the potters are caught in links on each deck 
chain. The potters on the far side are held in a vertical posi- 



176 



LOGGING 



tion by a log rolled against them, while those nearest the skid- 
way may be turned down until the sled is loaded, in order not 
to offer interference. 

It is not practicable to attempt to take animal-drawn sleds 
up even occasional grades of 5 per cent or more, unless some hoist- 
ing device is used to pull up the sleds. This may comprise a 
steam boiler and engine driving drums on which a cable is wound 
that is attached to the forward part of the sled. The team usually 









4 








Mn 








11 


'"■• 












.r 




-=-j?; 






1 ^ 






1!«^' 


"•■ .)''. 








fe' 


ii>. 

















Fig. 48. — A Snubbing Device for controlling the speed of Loaded Sleds 
on Steep Grades. The free end of the rope in the foreground is attached 
to the sled. 



is detached before the load starts. In some cases the sleds are 
returned to the foot of the incline by means of a re-haul. 

The problem of lowering sleds down steep inclines is solved 
by the use of some form of snubbing device. The most simple 
type has a 1-inch or larger manila rope one end of which is fastened 
to the rear of the sled. The rope is then passed three or four 
times around a stump at the top of the grade. As the sled de- 
scends its speed is controlled by means of the rope, which is allowed 
to run around the stump as fast as desired. The operator con- 
trols the rope speed by means of a lever as shown in Fig. 48. 



SLEDS AND SLED-HAULING 177 

The rope usually is from 50 to 100 feet longer than the slope so 
that a descending sled pulls the free end of the rope up the grade, 
and causes it to change ends v/hen a sled load descends. 

A patent snubbing device is shown in Fig. 49. This system is 
adapted for any distance up to 2500 feet and, by the use of rol- 
lers, may be used on any degree of curvature under 90°. The 
brake, which is snubbed to a stump at the top of the grade, has 
a heavy timber frame, mounted on steel-shod runners, which is 
faced on top with a f-inch steel plate. Four or six friction 



C\'^ 



■7:dik4h 




L 



Fig. 49. — The Barienger Snubbing Device used to control the Speed of 
Sleds on Descending Grades. 

bases with hard maple faces are fastened to the steel plate. A 
cast-iron grooved wheel with a smooth friction face on the under 
side is mounted on a vertical steel post above each hard maple 
face. A steel spring holds the wheels above the maple blocks 
when the cable is running free. A control lever is provided for 
each two wheels by means of which they can be forced against 
the maple friction face and the speed retarded or the load stopped. 
On low grades one set of friction wheels may be adequate, 
while on steep grades all may be required. The lowering cable 
is |-inch plow steel and should be 100 feet longer than the grade. 
It is fastened to a wire cable sling which passes around the load. 
On well-maintained roads having favorable descending grades, 
four horses can haul from 5000 to 8000 board feet per load, while 



178 LOGGING 

two horses can haul from 2500 to 4000 feet. On unfavorable 
grades the capacity of four horses may be from 2000 to 3000 
board feet, and of two horses from 1250 to 1500 feet. 

The number of daily trips made by teams for given distances 
is influenced by the weight and condition of the animals, the 
character of the road and the time required to load and unload 
the sleds. Horses tire on long hauls with heavy loads, conse- 
quently more timber can be hauled with lighter loads because 
of the greater speed possible. Horses cannot travel more than 
24 miles daily for long periods, and this should be cut down to 
20 miles when possible. The number of round-trips for a given 
length of haul is approximately as follows: 

6-mile haul 2 round-trips 

5-mile haul 2 round-trips 

4-mile haul 2-3 round-trips 

3-mile haul 3 round-trips 

2-mile haul 4-5 round-trips 

1-mile haul 6-8 round-trips 

|- to f-mile haul 10-12 round-trips 

Log Haulers. — As early as 1885 the attention of loggers was 
directed to the problem of introducing some form of mechani- 
cal traction to replace horses on long sled hauls, but it was some 
years before a satisfactory machine was placed on the market. 

In 1889, Geo. T. Glover placed four log haulers on operations 
in Michigan. These were probably the first machines used for 
this purpose and, although they were not a success, they were 
the forerunners of the more recent ones that have proved to 
be of great value. 

The first successful steam log hauler was patented by O. A. 
Lombard of Waterville, Maine, who adopted the general principles 
of the driving gear on geared locomotives, substituting for driving 
wheels a special form of heavy traction device. 

The hauler has a locomotive-type boiler mounted on a heavy 
reinforced channel-iron frame, which also supports the cab and 
coal tender at the rear. The machine is supported in front on 
a narrow tread sled, which is so constructed that it may be run 
either forward or backward. A pilot, who sits on the front of 
the machine, steers the hauler by means of a hand wheel which 
turns the sled. 

The weight of the machine rests chiefly upon two special trac- 



SLEDS AND SLED-HAULING 



179 



tion de.vices placed under the rear end of the boiler. Each has 
a heavy steel runner, hung on a 4|-inch shaft and equipped on 
each end with a heavy box in which an iron shaft carrying a heavy 
steel sprocket wheel runs. Each set of sprocket wheels meshes 
into and carries an endless tread chain 12 inches wide and 14 
feet long, which is armed with calks and furnishes the traction 
surface. The weight of the engine is distributed over the sur- 
face of the tread chain by two tool steel roller chains, which 




Fig. 50. — A Lombard Steam Log Hauler. 



run in a tool steel channel attached to the underside of the steel 
runnerinside of the tread chain. A bearing surface of approxi- 
mately 4^ square feet is given to each tread chain which is suffi- 
cient for tractive purposes and does not tear up the road. 

The boiler, which is equipped with locomotive boiler attach- 
ments, is 15 feet long, 36 inches in diameter and is built for a 
working pressure of 200 pounds. The water tank is placed 
under the boiler directly in front of the fire box and has a capac- 
ity of ten barrels, which will run the hauler for 5 miles. 

The engine has four vertical 6^- by 8-inch cylinders which 
transmit power by a series of gears to the rear sprocket wheel 
on each runner. Two cylinders are placed on each side of the 



180 LOGGING 

forward part of the boiler. The log hauler weighs from 17 to 22 
tons when loaded with fuel and water. 

Steam log haulers are used extensively in the Lake States, 
in the Northeast and in Canada. 

Some advantages possessed by the machine are that the an- 
nual depreciation^ and repairs are less than the depreciation on 
an equivalent number of animals, the necessity of bringing in 
large quantities of feed is obviated, and the machine can be 
operated day and night by employing two crews. Hauls exceed- 
ing 4 miles generally can be made cheaper with a log hauler 
than with animals. 

Under average conditions a cord of 2-foot fairly dry wood 
will run a hauler approximately 8 miles, while a ton of soft coal 
will run it about 24 miles. Watering places must be provided 
along the road at intervals of from 3 to 5 miles. 

The operation of a steam log hauler requires a crew of from three 
to five men; namely, one engineer, one fireman, one pilot and when 
from ten to twelve sleds are hauled one or two trainmen. 

The average speed, with loaded sleds, is 4^ miles per hour, 
and with a train of empty sleds the speed is about 6 miles per 
hour. 

Gasoline caterpillar tractors^ of several types have been 
introduced for sled hauling within the last few years and are 
rapidly replacing the steam driven ones since they weigh less, 
have their center of gravity lower and, therefore, are more diffi- 
cult to upset; require a very small amount of water daily; have 
a more simple fuel problem because sufficient gasoline can be taken 
on at one time to run the machine for a day; they have no boiler 
flues to burn out on steep grades; and one-third less labor is re- 
quired for the operation of a machine because a fireman and 
pilot are not needed. 

The cost of road construction for both types of log haulers is 
greater than for animals because stronger bridges must be built, 
steep down-grades side-banked and timbered, all curves strongly 
side-skidded to prevent the sleighs leaving the road, and a "go- 
back" road built so that the haulers can return with empty sleds 
at full speed. Sharp curves should be avoided because it is 
difficult to keep a train of sleds in the road. 

1 The average annual depreciation is 15 per cent. 

2 See Chapter XIII. 



SLEDS AND SLED-HAULING 



181 



On long, level hauls it is customar}^ to rut and ice the roads 
to increase the hauling capacity. This may be done daily on 
the last return trip from the landing, the rutter and sprinkler 
being attached to the rear of the train. As a rule, however, the 
road is maintained by a separate crew. 

Sleds are made stronger than for animal haul because they not 
only bear a heavier load but are subject to severe strain in stop- 
ping and starting. The gauge usually is about 8 feet in order that 
the hauler may travel inside of the ruts. 

Where the road has steep ascending or descending grades three 
or four sleds compose a "turn" because in the first instance the 




Fig. 51. — Type of Sled used with a Steam Log Hauler. 

machine cannot pull loads of much greater weight and in the 
second, sleds have a tendency to "jackknife" and run out of the 
rut. 

In mountain regions, steam log haulers are used on the main 
road only because the cost of constructing suitable secondary 
roads is too great. Sleds are hauled by horses to a central point 
on the main road and there made into turns for the log hauler. 
In a flat region the hauler may operate direct from the skidway 
to the landing, because of cheap road construction. 

Landings should be arranged so that sleds can be run along 
the side of the rollways and unloaded without respotting. The 
hauler then need not remain during unloading but can at once 
start on the return trip to the skidways with the empties from 
the preceding turn. This method of operation necessitates the use 
of three sets of sleds; namely, one at the skidways, one on the 
road and one at the landing. The increased cost of equipment 
is more than offset by the greater capacity of the hauler and the 
decreased labor cost at the landing. 



182 LOGGING 

Haulers in the Adirondack mountains have carried fifteen cords 
of spruce pulpwood over roads having 10 and 11 per cent grades. 
Distance records of 84 miles in twenty-four hours have been 
reported. The heaviest loads have been hauled in the Lake 
States on iced roads. A single steam log hauler in Wisconsin 
has hauled fourteen sled loads of hardwood in one train, each 
sled bearing from 6000 to 7000 board feet, making three or four 
trips daily on a round-trip of 12 miles. In Minnesota, trains of 
nine sleds, each bearing 12,000 board feet of white and Norway 
pine, have been transported by one hauler, A steam hauler in 
Ontario made three turns daily on a road between 7 and 8 miles 
long hauling from nine to twelve sleds per trip, an average of 
thirty loads. Each sled carried eighty logs, or a total daily haul 
of 2400 logs. The company estimated that the hauler did the 
work of twenty teams. ^ 

A record-^ of one machine for a season's haul in Stetson Town, 
Franklin County, Maine, from January 11 to March 6, 1907, 
running day and night shifts, is shown in the following: 

Length of haul 7.5 miles 

Total miles traveled 2850 

Actual speed 4 to 6 miles per hour 

Sleds hauled 551 

Largest number of sleds in 1 turn 5 

Total sleds used daily 21 

Fuel used 350 cords of 2-foot hardwood 

Elapsed time 65 days 

Running time 53 days, 19 hours, 45 minutes 

Lost time 6 days, 4 hours, 15 minutes 

Total log scale 3,403,332 feet log scale 

Scale per sled 6225 feet log scale . 

Scale per turn 18,052 feet log scale 

Largest train 37,710 feet log scale 

Sixty-two horses would have been required to haul the same 
amount of timber. 

1 See Logging by Steam in Ontario Forests. Canada Lumberman, Toronto, 
Ontario, Canada, September, 1911, p. 77. 

2 From the Mechanical Traction of Sleds, by Asa S. Williams. Forestry 
Quarterly, Vol. VI, 1908, p. 361. 



SLEDS AND SLED-HAULING 183 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE TO CHAPTER XI 

Brown, Simmons: Mechanical Log Haulers and their Development. 

Report of Third Annual Conference of the Woods Dept., Berlin Mills 

Co. et al, Berlin, New Hampshire, Nov., 1915., pp. 22 to 26. 
Innes, J. S. : Tractor Haulage. Canada Lumberman and Woodworker, 

July 15, 1922. pp. 45 and 46. 
SissoN, Stanley H.: Use of Tractors in Winter Log-hauling. Empire 

State Forest Products Asso., Bui. No. 12, Albany, N. Y., Dec, 1921, 

pp. 26-29. 



CHAPTER XII 

WHEELED VEHICLES 

Wheeled vehicles may be used where snow is not available as 
a bottom on which to move logs. They are employed for sum- 
mer logging in the Lake States and the Inland Empire, and for 
year-round logging in the South, Southwest, and the sugar pine 
region of California. 

TWO-WHEELED VEHICLES 

Bummers. — A low truck, called a bummer or self-loading 
skfdder is extensively used in the flat and rolling hardwood 
and in the yellow pine forests of the South, especially in Arkan- 
sas and Louisiana. A similar vehicle also is used in some places 
in the Inland Empire. In the South bummers often are made 
by the camp blacksmith and have solid black gum wheels with 
14-inch faces and a diameter of from 18 to 21 inches. Those 
offered by manufacturers of logging supplies have a skeleton wheel 
24 inches in diameter with a 6-inch tire. The solid wheel is 
usually preferred because it gives a greater bearing surface on soft 
ground. 

Hea\'y steel axles support a wooden bunk from 2^ to 3| feet 
in length which is slightly concave on its upper surface. A 
tongue 5^ feet long is attached to the bunk and serves both as a 
loading lever and as a point of attachment for the draft power. 
Small logs are held on the bunk with chains and large logs with 
tongs attached to the front face of the bunk or to a breastplate 
on the tongue. 

In loading, a bummer is driven up to a log and backed around 
against it near the end. The tongue is then brought to a per- 
pendicular position which permits the attachment of the tongs 
3 or 4 feet from the end of the log (Fig. 52). The team is then 
hitched to a chain on the end of the tongue and driven forward 
until the tongue has been brought to a horizontal position, which 
brings the log on top of the wheels. The trucks are turned by 

184 



WHEELED VEHICLES 



185 



the horses until the log drops on the bunk. The load is then 
ready to start for the skidway. 

Unloading may be accomplished by a reversal of the process, 
or by disengaging the tong points by a blow from a cant hook or 
maul and dragging the bummer from under the log. 

When several small logs are handled at one time, tongs are 
replaced with chains and loading is done from a rough skidway 
consisting of a single skid stick 
with one end raised high enough 
from the ground to enable the 
logs to be rolled on the bunks 
with cant hooks. 

Bummers may be used to ad- 
vantage only in a region fairly 
free from brush, where the bot- 
tom is smooth and hard enough 
to prevent the low wheels from 
miring, and where gentle grades 
to the skidway can be secured. 
They are seldom used for dis- 
tances exceeding 40 rods. Bum- 
mers are less serviceable than 
high wheels on ascending grades, 
since they pull harder. 

In ten hours a bummer will 
handle from 8500 to 14,000 board 
feet of yellow pine for a distance 
of 200 yards, and from 4000 to Fig. 52. 
6000 board feet for a distance of 
450 yards. 

Log Carts. — In all types of carts the logs are swung beneath 
the wheels with the rear ends dragging on the ground. The 
height of wheels ranges from 5 to 12 feet with a corresponding 
variation in gauge. 

High-wheeled log carts are not adapted to hauling on descend- 
ing grades in excess of 25 per cent because of the difficulty of hold- 
ing back the load. They are most efficient on a level or gently 
rolling bottom. 

A cart used in the Coastal Plain region has an arched axle and 
wheels 4^ or 5^ feet high. The hounds of the cart are fastened 




The Method of loading 
Logs on a Bummer. 



186 LOGGING 

on either side of the tongue by a heavy bolt. A bunk rests on 
top of the axle and carries two upright guides between which the 
tongue fits. The latter is held in place by a spring latch. When 
the cart is to be loaded it is driven up to one end of a log, then 
backed until the axle is directly over that part of the log to which 
the chains or grapples are to be attached. The latch on the 
guides is then released, the team is backed for a step or two and 
the hounds are forced into a position nearly vertical which turns 
the bunk through a quarter circle and brings it near enough to the 
ground to permit the grapples or chains to be attached. The 
elevation of the log is accomplished b}^ driving the team forward, 
which brings the hounds and tongue to a horizontal position. 

Wheels of this character may be used in a region where it 
would not be possible to snake, or to use bummers without 
swamping out trails. They can be driven readily over light 
standing brush or in down timber with a minimum of swamp- 
ing. It is not customary to cut trails for them. The capacity 
of the wheels is one large, or from three to four small logs. Two 
horses or two mules draw each cart. 

Carts with larger wheels than those mentioned are in ex- 
tensive use in the South, Southwest, Lake States, sugar pine 
region of California and, to a limited extent, in the Inland Em- 
pire. They formely were used by small operators on the Pacific 
Coast. The wheels are from 7 to 12 feet in diameter and have 
tires from 5 to 10 inches wide. When one or two logs are handled 
they are suspended with grapples, and when several constitute a 
load chains are used. The chief distinction between the several 
patterns of carts is in the mechanism for raising the logs from 
the ground. 

One type of high-wheeled log cart has a heavy wooden ])unk 
and a tongue from 12 to 16 feet long. A chain is attached to 
the front side of and passes over the top of the bunk, ending in 
a ring to which the grapple hooks are fastened. In loading 
the cart is backed over the log or logs and the tongue raised to 
a position nearly vertical, by means of a pole 10 or 12 feet long 
which is fastened on the upper side of the tongue, 3 or 4 feet in 
front of the bunk. This pole also serves to hold the tongue in 
position during loading. The elevation of the tongue lowers the 
grapples to the ground so that they can be attached to the log. 
A team then pulls the tongue to a horizontal position, which raises 



WHEELED VEHICLES 



187 



the front end of the log clear of the ground. The tongue is then 
chained to the log, the horses attached to the front end of it 
and the load is ready to move. By using chains, several logs 
may be handled at one time. 

Carts of this character are used for hauling short hardwood 




Fi(.. ■)■',. — A >lip-i(.iiuuc Loji; Curl, siiowiiifr the Position of the Load during 
Transit. The siiort lever arm above the main tongue is attached to the 
rotating bunk to which the timber grabs are fastened. It automatically 
assumes a nearly vertical position, when the cart tongue is pushed to the 
rear. Texas. 



logs in the Lake States, sugar pine in California and yellow pine 
in the South. 

A type known as the "slip tongue" cart has now largely super- 
seded the older forms. It has a tongue 28 or 30 feet long, which 
slides between the hounds of the cart. It is weighted on the 
rear end so as to lighten the load on the necks of the wheel animals. 
There is a roller directly over the axle, to which the grapples are 
attached by chains.^ Fastened to this roller is a short lever 
arm which is connected to the sliding tongue by means of a chain. 
The cart is driven over a log, a catch holding the slip tongue 
and the lever arm, is loosened, the team backed up and the tongue 
1 See Figs. 53 and 54. 



188 



LOGGING 



slipped to the rear. The roller is so weighted that it revolves in 
a quarter circle, carrying the lever arm to a nearly vertical posi- 
tion. The grapples are then fastened to the logs, and the team 
is started. The tongue slips forward, pulHng the lever arm to a 
horizontal position, and raises the front end of the log from the 
ground. When the short lever arm reaches the catch on the 




^'sSti^v^cJI 



Fig. 54. — A Two-wheeled Slip-Tongue Log Cart hauling Long Logs. Note 
the rotating bunk above the cart a.xle, to which the grab chains are attached. 
Texas. 



tongue it is automatically locked. The team then starts for the 
skid way with the load. 

High wheels are especially adapted to a flat and rolling country 
with a firm, smooth bottom and an absence of heavy underbrush. 
They are most frequently used on hauls not exceeding ^ mile 
but occasionally they are used for distances of 2 or 2| miles. 
In the pine forests of the extreme South they may be used for 
distances which do not exceed 100 feet. When used as a skidding 
rig in the southern pine forests the only road construction required 
is swamping out a trail through the slash along which the teams 



WHEELED VEHICLES 189 

can pass. The practice prevails in some rep;ions of felling the 
timber in strips, beginning at the back side of the skidding area 
where a strip from 100 to 200 feet wide is cut parallel to the rail- 
road and then skidded. The work continues in this manner 
until the railroad is reached. This permits the teamsters to 
haul the greater part of the time through standing timber free 
from slash, which facilitates the work. Some loggers claun that 
the efficiency of a crew is increased 25 per cent by this method. 

Roads are made and roughly graded in the hardwood forests 
of the Lake States where brush is abundant. Since short logs 
only are handled the roads need not be straight and boulders and 
stumps can be passed by a detour. 

From two to six animals are used to haul log carts, depending 
on the character of the roadbed and the size and amount of 
timber hauled. Mules are preferred in the South, and horses 
in the North and West. 

A crew in the southern pine forests often consists of three 
teamsters, one or two "bunch" teamsters, one or two swampers 
and one skidway man. The "bunch" teams yard the logs along 
the roads at places convenient to the log carts. 

In the Lake States, two pairs of wheels and two bunch teams 
are used by a crew. The brushy nature of the country requires 
about four men for the swamping and other men with cant hooks 
to roll the bunched logs together into loads for each log cart. 

In the southern yellow pine region log carts drawn bj^ two 
mules haul from 200 to 500 board feet of long logs at one load. 
When four mules are used, from 800 to 1000 board feet may be 
handled, but six mules are required for more than this volume. 

In the Lake States the load for four horses ranges between 
1000 and 1200 feet log scale, with a maximum of 1800 feet. In 
the sugar pine region of California, from six to seven carts, drawn 
l)y four horses each weighing from 1500 to 1800 pounds are 
used in one camp and will put in an average of from 100,000 to 
125,000 board feet daily. 



Wagons are a desirable form of vehicle for stocking small saw- 
mill plants, transporting timber to the railroad on large opera- 
tions where the haul exceeds 600 feet, and for logging isolated 
tracts on which there is not sufficient timber to warrant the con- 



190 LOGGING 

struction of a logging railroad. They may be used to transport 
logs direct from the stump to the mill for distances of from 2 to 
4 miles, although they are most extensively used to haul logs from 
the stump to a railroad, stream or chute. The average length of 
haul in the flat and rolling pine lands of the South is from j to ^ mile. 

Mule Carts. — In the Coastal Plain region, a type of 4-wheeled 
wagon called the "mule cart" is used on the uplands for hauling 
logs to the railroad. It has two pairs of trucks, the wheels 
of the forward pair being 4 feet, and the rear pair 6 feet, in diam- 
eter. The forward trucks have a straight axle and are equipped 
with a tongue of the usual length for a wagon, while the rear 
pair has an arched axle and bunk to which a tongue is attached 
which replaces the reach in an ordinary wagon. When the 
mule cart is loaded this tongue is chained down to a ring on 
the bunk of the forward pair of wheels. The logs are swung 
under the rear pair of wheels and only the forward ends of the 
logs are raised from the ground. The forward pair of trucks 
may be detached and used for skidding purposes, in which case 
the log is suspended under the axle by means of grabs, or tongs. 
Mule carts do not possess any special advantages over a wagon, 
but are preferred because laborers are familiar with their use. 

The usual maximum length of haul is 500 yards, but it is 
sometimes extended to 1 mile or more in scattered timber. 

The average load per cart varies between 200 and 400 board 
feet, with a daily output of from 3500 to 5000 feet for j mile haul. 

Four-wheeled Wagons. — These are strongly constructed, with 
from 32- to 38-inch front wheels and from 34- to 40-inch rear wheels 
of wood or steel, from 3- to 6-inch tires, ^ extension reach for 
handling logs of various lengths, heavy bolsters with adjustable 
blocks, stiff tongues for oxen and drop tongues for horses and 
mules, and cast or steel skeins, or steel axles. They have a rated 
carrying capacity of from 5000 to 15,000 pounds and range 
in weight from 1300 to 2000 pounds. Spikes are used on the 
back bolster to prevent the logs from sliding forward when haul- 
ing in a hilly region. Steel axles are not as popular as skeins, 
because of the difficulty of repairing them in the camp blacksmith 
shop. 

Log wagon wheels are sometimes boxed with boards to keep 

^ Some loggers prefer from 3- to 3^-inch tires for two animals, and from 4- to 
5-inch tires for four animals. 



WHEELED VEHICLES 



191 



mud from accumulating on the spokes. The box is constructed 
of rough boards nailed to the rims and closely fitted around the 
hub. 

From two to five mules or horses, and from six to ten oxen 
are used for draft purposes, although heavy wagons are some- 
times drawn by traction engines or tractors. 

In some parts of the Inland Empire very heavy wagons are used 
for hauling logs from storage yards or skidways to the logging 



iv^^ie^ 



mi ■M.'MW 





Fig. 55. — A Four-wheeled Log Wagon unloading at a Skidway along a 
Logging Railroad Spur. The graded right-of-way is being u.sed as a road 
and, therefore, the logs are being decked from the front of the skidway, 
instead of from the rear as is the usual custom. Missouri. 

railroad. Those on an operation in Montana had standard height 
wheels with 6-inch tires, and bunks 6 feet long and 10 feet apart, 
with the outer ends fitted with swa}' bars for the attachment of 
binding chains. The rear trucks were equipped with hea\'y hand 
brakes operated by a man who traveled on foot behind the load- 
From 2500 to 4000 board feet were loaded on the wagons by 
gravity from elevated skidways at the terminus of a log slide. 
The road was 1 mile long and mostly downgrade, with some 
pitches of 6 and 8 per cent. Four horses were used for draft 
and each team averaged five round-trips per day between the 



192 LOGGING 

railroad and the log chute and handled from 15,000 to 18,000 
board feet. 

In the sugar pine region of California very heavy 4-wheeled 
trucks of 12 tons' capacity are used for log transportation when 
a traction engine is employed for draft power. These wagons 
have 54-inch solid or skeleton wheels, 20-inch tires, a short coup- 
ling tongue, and are equipped with hand brakes and binding 
chains. From 5000 to 7500 board feet may be loaded on one 
wagon. 

Six-wheeled Wagons. — Wagons with six wheels were placed 
on the market in the South some years ago but they have not 
proved as satisfactory as the eight-wheeled ones. The rear trucks, 
which carry from 60 to 70 per cent of the load, have a rigid frame 
bearing two axles and four wheels arranged in the same manner 
as in the 8-wheeled type. The rear truck is connected to the 
forward one by the usual form of wagon reach. They are designed 
to carry heavier loads than 4-wheeled wagons, and to eliminate 
the heavy draft and difficulty in backing and turning in a short 
compass which are common to the 8-wheeled wagons. 

Eight-wheeled Wagons. — Eight-wheeled wagons are in exten- 
sive use in the southern pine forests, and in the hardwood forests 
of the Mississippi bottoms. 

They are a heavy draft vehicle, more difficult to turn and 
to back than a 4-wheeled wagon but are capable of carrying a 
much heavier load because of the wide tires and the distribu- 
tion of the load over eight wheels. They can be used on a 
dirt road in a shorter time after a rain than 4-wheeled wagons, 
and often a road will improve under 8-wheeled traffic where it 
would deteriorate under that of four wheels. The bunks also are 
lower than on 4-wheelers and the wagon can be loaded more readily. 

On short hauls four or five mules are frequently used with 
8-wheeled wagons, but on long hauls they are not desirable for 
this type of wagon because of its heavy draft, oxen being the 
best, especially for heavy loads and on unfavorable bottom. 
From three to five yoke constitute a team. 

Eight-wheeled wagons are successfully used with traction 
engine draft, three or four wagons each holding from 1000 to 
1500 board feet constituting a train. 

The distinctive features of an 8-wheeled wagon are the for- 
ward and rear trucks which on some types are rigid, consequently 



WHEELED VEHICLES 



193 



sharp turns cannot be made without dragging some or all of the 
wheels. Others have the front trucks so arranged that the two 
sets of wheels can turn independently, thus reducing the resist- 
ance. All wheels are of the same diameter, varying in different 
vehicles from 30 to 36 inches in height. 

The log bunks, with adjustable blocks, are supported midway 
between the wheels of each truck and project slightly above the 




Fig. 56. — An Eight-wlieelcd Log Wagon at the Skidway. Louisiana. 



wheels. A short reach is attached to the forward and rear trucks 
by flexible joints. 

Eight-wheelers have an estimated capacity, on good roads, 
of from 9000 to 20,000 pounds weight. They weigh from 1200 
to 1800 pounds. 

Wagon Equipment. — The equipment used with log wagons 
on southern pine operations is as follows: 

1 ax. 

1 cant hook. 

1 five-sixteenth-inch chain, .30 feet long, the end.s of which are bolted to 
the bunks of the forward and rear trucks. 

1 one-half-inch chain, 12 feet long, with a grab hook on one end and a 
loading hook on the other. This chain and the one above form the 
crosshaul used in loading. 

2 hardwood skids about 7 feet long and 4 inches in diameter. 
1 hickory binding pole. 

Roads. — On short hauls the only preparation made for roads 
is to cut out a right-of-way through the brush. If the bottom 
becomes heavy for travel a new route is selected. When a 



194 LOGGING 

large number of logs must pass over a single route, a good dirt 
road is essential. It should be built on high ground, the streams 
bridged, wet places corduroyed and sufficient repair work done 
to maintain it in good condition. 

The best season for hauling is during the summer months 
when the ground is dry and hard, for maximum loads can then 
be handled on logging trucks with the least amount of trouble. 
In swampy sections and on bottom-land logging often has to be 
suspended during the rainy period. 

Hauling. — A common practice among companies who own 
their equipment and do their own logging is to work several 
wagons to a crew. The logs, after being swamped, are skidded with 
a bunch team to some place convenient to the wagons. The 
wagon teamsters then are concerned only with loading and 
hauling the logs. On small operations and where small con- 
tractors may be operating, each wagon teamster does his own 
swamping, bunching and loading. The former method is con- 
sidered the more efficient.^ 

On a haul of \ mile, one bunch team can skid logs for two or 
three wagons, and for greater distances it can serve more teams 
because of the fewer number of trips made. Each wagon carries 
a pair of skidding tongs and, if the bunch team gets behind, 
the wagon teamster unhooks his leaders or the pole team and 
brings in a few logs. The number of swampers required depends 
on the character of the timber and the under-brush. 

Wagons are loaded by the teamsters, who use a crosshaul rig. 

On short hauls, large logs are not bound to the wagon, but on 
long hauls or when the load is made up of small logs, it is customary 
to pass a binding chain around the load and under the reach. 
This chain is tightened by a hickory binding pole. The loading 
chains are wrapped loosely around the logs, the loading skids 
are placed on the reach, and the wagon is ready to start for the 
skidway. Logs are unloaded by removing the binding chains, 
placing skids in position and rolling the logs off the wagon by 
means of cant hooks or peavies. 

Hauling should be in charge of a team boss, who selects and 

1 The secret of successful logging with cattle is to keep them going con- 
tinuously at their slow gait. Therefore, much depends on the swamper's 
skill in keeping ahead of the hauling team so that the latter will not have to 
wait for loads. 



WHEELED VEHICLES 



195 



directs the preparation of skidways and logging roads, determines 
the best methods and equipment for hauHng timber from par- 
ticular sections, allots given crews to specified work, and sees 
that all men and animals are employed to best advantage. Skid- 
ways should be selected and prepared some days in advance 
of actual use so that the hauling teams will not be delayed by 
lack of storage space. 

On good bottom and level ground two horses or mules should 
handle from 400 to 600 board feet per load and from 6000 to 10,000 




, - i. ''^ Wagon by means of the Cros.- 
is doing his own loading. Missouri. 



feet daily ; four animals should handle from 600 to 800 feet per load, 
and from 8000 to 12,000 feet daily. Five yokes of oxen will 
handle from 600 to 1000 feet of logs per trip, depending on the 
kind of bottom and the size of the timber. 

The average number of trips daily for two horses or mules / 
is approximately as follows: 

J mile and less 12 to 15 trips — _____J 

i to I mile 10 trips ^ ^ , 

^ to f mile 7 trips _^ 

i to 1\ miles 5 trips "^ ° 

IJ to If miles 4-5 trips ^ .- 



196 LOGGING 

TRACTION ENGINES FOR WAGON HAUL 

Traction engines are sometimes used for transporting logs from 
the woods to the mill when the amount of timber to be hauled is 
not great enough to warrant the construction of a railroad, when 
the grades are unfavorable for the use of animals and when 
timber of large size and great weight must be handled. They 
are rapidly being supplanted by motor trucks which are faster 
and more efficient. 

A traction engine to give the best results requires a good stone 
road but it works well on solid earth bottom. The ordinary 
4-wheeled type is not successful in swampy places, on rough roads 
or on dirt bottom during rainy periods because the traction 
wheels soon render the road impassable. 

Four-icheeled. — This traction engine has a locomotive-type 
boiler carrying about 165 pounds' steam pressure, and is equipped 
to burn either coal, wood or oil. The boiler and other parts of 
the engine are mainly supported on two traction wheels running 
on axles attached on opposite sides of the fire box. The diameter 
of these wheels is ordinarily between 5 and 6 feet. The width of 
tire is governed by the character of bottom over which the engine 
is to travel. On ordinary roads from 20- to 24-inch tires are 
adequate even for the largest machines. 

The forward part of the engine is supported on a pair of 
wheels 3^ or 4 feet in diameter with from 6- to 10-inch tires. 
These wheels carry only a small proportion of the total weight, 
their chief function being to aid in steering. This is done by 
means of a hand wheel placed at the rear of the engine in close 
reach of the engineer. 

The engine which develops from 20 to 30-horse-power is of 
the single cylinder type with a heavy flywheel. 

The daily fuel requirements range between 1^ and 2^ cords 
of hardwood, or between 1 and 1^ tons of coal. About 2500 
gallons of water are needed for the above amount of fuel. 

On a Washington operation a 30-horse-power traction engine 
has made a daily round trip of 30 miles, hauling 20,000 board 
feet of green lumber up 15 per cent grades, and down 30 per cent 
grades. This is probabl}^ the maximum capacity of an engine of 
this type. 

Holt Three-wheeled. — This type was developed chiefly for 
use in logging on the Pacific Coast and has a return-tube water- 



WHEELED VEHICLES 



197 



leg horizontal boiler supported on an I-beam frame. Almost 
the entire weight of the machine rests on the rear traction wheels, 
each 7^ feet in diameter with a 24-inch tire. The fore part of the 
engine is supported by a single 4-foot wheel used for steering. 
Provision is made for the operation of the steering gear both by 
hand and by power. A single cylinder 11- by 12-inch balanced 




Fig. 58. 



A Holt Three-wheeled Traction Engine hauling Sugar Pine Logs. 
California. 



valve engine is placed on top of the boiler, and at 165 
pounds' steam pressure develops 60 horse power. Power is 
transmitted to the traction wheels by chains, and either wheel 
may be driven independently of the other. This is especially 
advantageous in making sharp turns. A radius of 25 feet is 
practicable in operating a train of five cars. 

Water tanks with a capacity of from 400 to 700 gallons are 
carried on the frame directly in front of the boiler. The average 
water requirement per day of ten hours is from 2500 to 3000 
gallons. From 1^ to 3 cords of hardwood fuel, 1 to 2^ tons of 
steam coal or from 200 to 300 gallons of fuel oil are required. 



198 LOGGING 

A special type of 3-wheeled wagon is sometimes employed for 
hauling logs and lumber with this engine. The front wheel is 
3| feet in diameter, has a 12-inch tire and supports about one- 
fourth of the load. The remainder of the weight is borne on 
two rear wheels each 4| feet high and with 16-inch tires. The 
load is borne on a frame built to carry from 10 to 12 tons. 

The manufacturers claim that a 60-horse-power engine will 
haul a load of from 40 to 60 tons at a speed of from 2 to 3 miles 
per hour, ascending grades as high as 10 per cent. Thirty thou- 
sand board feet of green lumber loaded on three trucks have been 
hauled up a 10 per cent grade, and 15,000 feet of logs have been 
hauled on two four-wheeled wagons over a rough log road down 
a 17 per cent grade. An engine hauling empty wagons travels 
3 or 4 miles per hour. 

MOTOR TRUCKS 

The use of motor trucks for logging purposes has grown rap- 
idly during recent years, especially in the Central Hardwood 
Region and in the Pacific Northwest. Their chief use is for 
hauling logs from the forest to the sawmill but they also are used 
for hauling camp supplies, pulling sleds loaded with logs, dragging 
timber over roads with steep grades and, when equipped with 
flanged wheels, as motive power for pulling cars on wooden- or 
steel-rail logging roads. 

Motor trucks have proved a satisfactory form of transportation 
for moving logs from scattered areas containing from 500,000 to 
40,000,000 feet log scale, when the maximum-sized logs do not 
exceed 5000 board feet, and the average logs are not more than 
1000 board feet each and not more than 40 feet in length. When 
the timber is of larger size and the area contains more stumpage 
than the above mentioned maximum, a logging railroad would be 
more economical. 

There is a recognized limit to the length of profitable motor 
truck haul for general logging purposes, although loggers are not 
agreed as to what is the maximum. Some state that it is about 
10 miles, while others claim that a 15-mile haul may be profitable 
under favorable circumstances. The character of roadbed, and 
value of the logs are important factors in determining this ques- 
tion because the roadbed governs the size of load which can be 
hauled and the time required to make a round trip, and more 



WHEELED VEHICLES 199 

expense is warranted in hauling valuable logs than those of 
average quality. For example, veneer mills in the Central Hard- 
wood Region have hauled logs on round trips of 85 miles, with 
average loads of from 900 to 1000 feet log scale and the service 
was stated to be as cheap as railroad transportation and much 
quicker. 

Three general types of trucks are used, namelj', light trucks, 
medium trucks with a rated capacity of from 3 to 4 tons, and hea\^ 
trucks rated at 5 tons or more. The light truck represents the 
lowest initial investment but owing to its limited capacity and 
less rugged construction, it is not adapted to heavy or steady 
log-hauling work. The medium- weight truck is adapted to 
conditions where the size of the load is limited by state or county 
road regulations. Many operators rely upon public roads for 
their main lines and build side roads from them to the timber. 
Limits have been set to the amount of timber which may be car- 
ried over public roads on one unit, in those sections in which 
hauling by motor trucks has become extensive. This limit varies 
from 2400 to 3000 board feet in different counties in the Douglas 
fir region. The heavy trucks are preferred on operations on 
which private roads, only, are used since maximum loads, ranging 
from 3000 to 5000 board feet, can be carried on each trip. 

Many makes of trucks are used, including four-wheeled drive, 
and both chain and gear rear-wheel drive. Loggers prefer a 
machine with a wheel base of from 160 to 170 inches, since 
this gives a good balance to the load, and a truck so built can be 
handled on turns and at the loading places easier than one which 
is longer. The frames of trucks with larger wheel bases may 
give trouble, when overloaded, by tending to buckle. A motor 
truck for log hauling should have stronger springs, gears and 
bearings than are placed on ordinary commercial vehicles of the 
same size, because of the severe usage to which the machine is 
subject. Solid, single-tread rubber tires, 12 or 14 inches wide, 
are used on the rear wheels of practically all logging trucks and 
on trailers and are safe for use on dry pole or plank roads having 
9 per cent grades. They will skid on a wet road on grades in 
excess of 7 per cent unless the tires are wrapped with ^-inch 
wire cable, or similar cable is fastened crosswise on the traction 
surface. On good roads and favorable grades, logging trucks 
travel from 10 to 12 miles per hour. 



200 LOGGING 

Trailers are now in extensive use with motor trucks since they add 
greatly to the average load capacity, because all trucks have a 
hauling ability greater than the volume of round timber which 
they can carry. Rubber-tired trailers, with two 40- to 44-inch 
wheels are recognized as the best type, and when operating on 
grades exceeding 9 per cent they should be equipped with brakes. 

They often have double bunks, from 7 to 9 feet long, usually 
8 feet, one being plain and the other having adjustable chock 
blocks. The rated capacity of trailers varies from 5 to 10 tons, 
and usually they carry about 60 per cent of the total load. They 
are connected to the truck by a wooden extension reach which is 
considered more satisfactory than one made from iron pipe 
because the latter bends and breaks more readily and is more 
expensive to repair or replace. 

Success in truck logging is largely dependent on good roads, 
which should be so constructed that they will stand up under 
weights of 20 to 25 tons during all kinds of weather. Trucks 
cannot be operated successfully on dirt or gravel roads during 
wet weather, and dirt roads soon develop chuck holes during 
dry weather unless they are watered.^ 

Various types of plank and pole roads have been developed by 
loggers who have endeavored to improve the traction surface 
in the forest over which they are hauling, especially if the bottom 
is soft or liable to severe wearing. 

Plank roads on tangents have two traction surfaces from 20 
to 30 inches wide which comprise the base on which the truck 
travels. The traction surface should be at least 24 inches wide 
on curves since the trailer has a tendency to cut across the curve 
and to displace the guard rail unless there is ample clearance. 
The stringers comprising the traction surface should not be less 
than 6 inches in thickness, and from 10 to 16 inches in width. 
Two or more pieces form a single stringer, and they are drift 
bolted to crossties spaced about 2| feet center to center. 
These planks are bedded in the ground surface so that they rest 
on a solid foundation. On grades that exceed 8 per cent, the 
planks forming the traction surface are laid crosswise on a sub- 
stantial base of timbers, the spacing between planks being about 
1 inch. This form of track is more expensive to construct than 

1 During dry weather, a dirt road usually can be kept in condition by the 
application, daily, of 1000 gallons of water per mile. 



WHEELED VEHICLES 201 

the longitudinal stringer road, but provides a better traction 
surface. Guard rails may be placed either inside or outside of 
the stringers, except on curves of 10 degrees or more when they 
are placed on both sides. The inside tread gauge both of the front 
and rear wheels is the same, which is not true of the outside meas- 
urements of front and rear tires. For this reason, inside guard 
rails are preferred since trucks steer more readily and trailers 
follow more easily. Inside guard rails should be not less than 4 
inches in height but must not be so high that they interfere with 
the brake drums or driving gear. The guard rails are made from 
small poles spiked both to the crossties and to the stringers and 
when inside ones are used they are braced by small poles which 
are placed between them, about three to a pole length. Roads 
\of this character should have the stumps removed from the right- 
of-way and have a 12-foot crown, ditched on both sides, and if 
necessary in the center, water from the latter being drawn away 
at least every 50 feet. Such a road requires from 80,000 to 100,000 
board feet of stringers per mile, 11,000 linear feet of 8-inch poles 
for guard rails, 2300 linear feet of 6-inch poles for cross braces, 
and about 2000 pounds of spikes and drift bolts. 

The maintenance cost of such a road is about one-half that 
for a logging railroad. 

Several forms of pole roads have been used, among them 
small hewn poles called puncheons placed crosswise; two or three 
small hewed poles laid lengthwise without crossties; and the 
so-called fore-and-aft road which has a surface made from 
hewed stringers placed on crossties. The last type is the most 
satisfactory, the puncheon road having too much vibration and 
the small pole road providing an irregular surface. 

The fore-and-aft road may have the traction surface under each 
wheel made from a single large pole, with a hewed face having a 
flat surface of 16 or more inches, or it may be made from two or 
three smaller poles, the timbers in all cases being supported on 
crossties. The single pole road is considered superior to the 
two- or three-pole one unless the faces of the poles are hewed 
so that they fit closely together because the weight of the load 
comes on the inside edges of the poles, and has a tendency to cause 
them to turn downward, thus loosening the spikes and spreading 
the poles. There also is a loss in traction surface on the two- 
and three-pole road due to the space between the timbers. Un- 



202 LOGGING 

less the poles are on the same level, the tires will not travel on 
a flat surface and excessive tire wear results. 

On the one-pole road, timbers 18 inches or more in diameter 
are used with a hewed upper face 16 or more inches wide. These 
are laid on crossties spaced from 6 to 10 feet apart, depending 
on the solidity of the bottom and the weight of the load. Where 
two poles join, the under side of each is hewed flat for a distance 
of 4 feet on either side of the joint and an 8-foot timber placed 
under it. The stringers also are notched where they rest on the 
crossties and are drift-bolted to them. The timbers are bedded 
for about one-half their diameter and the center and sides of the 
grade are ditched and ample cross ditches must be provided to 
carry the water away from the grade. Either inside or outside 
guard rails may be used, and these are spiked to the poles. 
Concrete roads have been suggested as a substitute for pole and 
plank roads, but their high cost has deterred operators from using 
them. The life both of plank and fore-and-aft roads is from 
three to four years. 

Motor truck loading is done either with a crosshaul and animal 
draft, or with a loading donkey and a gin-pole. The latter 
method is preferred on extensive operations because the load can 
be placed in from five to ten minutes. Since the maximum 
daily output per truck can be secured only when the loading 
and unloading time is kept at a minimum a rapid loading rig is 
necessary. Winches operated by the truck engine have been 
put on the market but have not been extensively adopted by 
loggers. 

The most common unloading method is to elevate the outer 
side of the roadbed at the rollway from 18 to 24 inches which 
is sufficient to cause most of the logs to roll from the truck when 
the chock blocks are removed. 

The maximum practical grades for motor truck work do not 
exceed 6 per cent in the loaded direction and 12 per cent empty. 
Trucks have been operated on grades as high as 35 per cent by 
the use of a power snubbing device which lowers the loaded 
trucks down the incline and pulls the empty trucks to the top. 

The daily capacity of trucks is dependent on the size of truck, 
road regulations, grades, distance, and size of timber. A 5-ton 
truck with an 8^-ton trailer operating over private roads will 
haul an average load of 4000 board feet. The same truck on 



WHEELED VEHICLES 203 

public roads in Washington will be restricted to from 2400 to 3000 
board feet, depending on locality. The average loading time 
ranges from 10 to 15 minutes, the unloading time 10 minutes, 
and the average time required per mile, 10 minutes. The time 
required for a round trip on a haul of 1 mile, therefore, is from 30 
to 35 minutes. 

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE TO CHAPTER XH 

Drissen, J. P.: Time Study of Motor Truck Logging of Yellow Pine. 
The Timberman, August, 1921, p. 97. 

Knapp, F. M.: Motor Truck Logging Methods. Bui. No. 12, Univ. of 
Washington, Engineering Experiment Station, Seattle, April, 1921. 

Mason, Fred R. : Study of Daily Production of Big Wheels. The Timber- 
man, April, 1921, p. 39. 

Meiklejohn, E. N.: Truck Logging. The Timberman, Oct. 1920, pp. 
85 and 86. 

Van Orsdel. John P. : Plans for Motor Truck Logging. The Timberman, 
July, 1921, pp. 97, 100, and 102. 



CHAPTER XIIP 
TRACTORS 

Tractors are used by the logging industry as a substitute for 
animal draft for skidding, for hauling logs loaded on wagons 
and trailers, and also for trailing logs in slides. Comparatively 
small and isolated tracts of timber, which do not justify the build- 
ing of a railroad often present an opportunity for tractor logging; 
also stands which are too light for profitable logging by steam 
machinery, especially if the timber is not too small and the char- 
acter of topography or bottom are unsuited to animal logging. 
Logging by tractors is more destructive to the timber left on the 
area after cutting and to reproduction than animal logging, but 
it is less destructive than power logging machinery. 

The limited knowledge of tractors and their proper use has 
retarded the success of this type of equipment on many logging 
operations. Many breakdowns could be eliminated if competent 
drivers only were hired and they were made financially interested 
in the continuous productive run of the machines. 

The crawler type-^ of tractor has proved to be better adapted 
to logging work than the wheeled type, because the latter often 
is useless on sandy, soft or loose forest soils, on wet clay, and on 
snow and ice, since it has a tendency to mire on soft and to slip 
on hard road surfaces, while the former gives satisfactory results 
when operated on such bottoms, due chiefly to the large area of 
traction contact with the ground surface. Tractors are not 
adapted to very rough topography, but in some cases they have 
been operated successfully on adverse grades as high as 15 per 
cent or more, and hence they may be substituted for logging 

1 Prepared by A. Koroleff. 

2 Crawler tractors also are known under the names of "track-layers" or 
"caterpillars" but these names may lead to misunderstanding because "cater- 
pillar" is an exclusive trade name for tractors made by the Holt Manufac- 
turing Co., while "track-layer" also is a term used to designate a machine 
used in the laying of railroad tracks. 

204 



TRACTORS 



205 



railroad spur lines on up-grade hauls which are too steep for a 
railr )n(l. 

Prior to the World War crawler tractors were rarely used for 
logging purposes, but at the present time, especially in the hard- 
wood and pine regions, there are 2000 or more of these machines 
in use. Crawler tractors were first used only for hauling timber, 




Fig. 59. 



A Holt 10-ton Caterpillar Tractor showing the General Features 
of one of the Traction Members. 



but they are now employed for skidding and yarding, for con- 
struction work on logging roads, and in other auxiliary work. 

The principle of the crawler device was invented in England 
about 150 years ago, but its successful application to tractors 
was made in America about the beginning of the present century, 
when a steam log hauler was built for work on snow and iced 
roads. The crawler traction device was later improved and suc- 
cessfully used on tractors with internal combustion motors. 
At present there are about twenty American models of crawler 
tractors which are used by loggers. 

The modern traction device of a crawler-type tractor has steel 
links or shoes pivoted together by steel pins in an endless belt or 



206 LOGGING 

track which rotates around the idler, the rollers, and the 
sprocket driven by engine power. This endless, flexible belt 
corresponds to the rim of a wheel but its inner face serves as a track 
on which the machine itself travels like a locomotive on a rack- 
and-pinion railroad. Its weight is carried on flanged rollers, and 
a positive drive is provided by the meshing of the driving sprocket 
teeth with the pins of the track. On some tractors the frames of 
the crawler members are built in one piece and are rigid, while in 
others the frames are made in two sections so pivoted together 
that the traction members are somewhat flexible in order that 
the traction device may better adhere to an uneven road surface. 
The chief features of a crawler tractor are : 

(1) A larger area of ground contact than is available under 
any other principle of construction. Modern 5- and 10-ton 
machines of full crawler type, i. e., without front steering wheels, 
have traction members from 10 to 12 inches wide and the length 
of track in contact with the ground may be as great as 7 feet. 

(2) The ground pressure of a crawler tractor is extemely low, 
ordinarily from 4 to 9 pounds per square inch. This is many 
times less than the pressure of wheeled tractors, from two to five 
times less than the ground pressure of a horse, and about the same 
as the pressure of a man's foot. With "swamp special" shoes, 
much wider than the standard size, the ground pressure of crawler 
tractors may be decreased to 2 or 3 pounds per square inch, 
and the tractor then can go over soft and swampy places where 
animals could not be used. 

(3) The long crawler members enable a tractor to bridge 
uneven areas, which results in a great ecomony of power and makes 
possible the successful use of such a tractor on broken ground, 
even where there are ditches and deep holes. Wheeled tractors 
are useless under such conditions. 

(4) The ease of steering. Many tractors which are mounted 
only on two crawler devices may be turned as sharply as desired 
and turned around almost within their own length. This is 
done by the application of the driving power forward or backward 
to one of the traction members while the other one is slowed 
down by braking, released, or completely stopped. 

(5) Crawler tractors, due to their better contact with the 
ground, deliver a larger per cent of motor power to the draw-bar 
than wheeled tractors. The difference in favor of the crawler 



TRACTORS 207 

type increases as the road surface becomes woTse. The some- 
what complicated construction of the crawler traction device 
is its only disadvantage as compared to wheeled tractors. 

Modern crawler-type tractors are driven by internal combustion 
motors, and those used in logging may be divided into two groups, 
namely, the "full crawler tractors" or those mounted only on 
two traction members, and those having the front part of the 
machine supported on a pair of sleds for snow and iced roads or on 
steering wheels.^ 

The tractors of the last group require fairly good logging roads; 
hence they are not practical for skidding purposes. They often 
are used by loggers in the Northeast, both for hauling timber 
and for carrying supplies to the camps. Crawler tractors with 
steering wheels or sleds, have approximately 40 H. P. on the 
draw-bar, a speed ranging from 2 to 6 miles per hour, and weigh 
about 10 tons. Although they are used chiefly for draw-bar 
work they also have a platform about 5^ by 9 feet in size 
on which a portion of the load may be carried. In New Eng- 
land and eastern Canada these machines have largely superseded 
steam log haulers which had about 100 draw-bar H. P., a working 
speed of about 4| miles per hour, and a weight of approximately 
18 tons. 

"Full crawler tractors" are the type best adapted to logging 
because they are not handicapped by front wheels or sleds, and 
they are suitable for work both on very poor roads and on the 
forest floor. The great flexibility of these machines, which is 
important for work on uneven surfaces, is provided by an 
independent, though limited, vertical oscillation of the traction 
members, and also by the "three point" suspension of the body, 
the front part of which is pivoted to the middle of the cross 
equalizing bar, the ends of which rest on the frames of the 
crawler members. Spiral springs are commonly used for better 
cushion. 

Obstacles, such as stumps and stones, from 12 to 18 inches 
high, may be readily overcome by crawler tractors. 

Full crawler tractors may be divided into three classes, accord- 
ing to size, typical machines for each group having the following 
power : 

1 The crawler tractor with a single steering wheel is not adapted for log- 
ging though formerly it was occasionally used. 



208 LOGGING 

2-ton tractors 20 rated brake H. P. 12 rated draw-bar H. P. 
5-ton " 30-40 " 18-25 

10-ton " 60. '* 40 

The motors have four four-cycle vertical cylinders, which have 
a normal speed ranging from 700 to 900 R. P. M. Many tractors 
have three speeds, low from 1 to 2 miles, medium from 2^ to 
3^, and high speed from 4 to 6 miles per hour. Speed is 
varied in much the same way that it is on motor-trucks. Full 
crawler tractors have no differential. Two steering clutches of 
multiple disc, dry-plate type, provide independent and positive 
control of each traction member. 

The consumption of gasoline in logging operations, per working 
day of 10 hours, averages from 8 to 11 gallons for a 2-ton, from 
15 to 25 gallons for a 5-ton, and from 25 to 35 gallons for a 10- 
ton tractor. Gasoline is used as a fuel in most cases, since 
it is often impractical to burn cheaper liquid fuel, even in tractors 
which could use it, because the life of the motor is decreased and 
cylinder oil costs are greater. 

The lubricant expense usually does not exceed from $1.50 to 
$2 daily for a 5- or 10-ton tractor. Anti-friction bearings 
are extensively used in these machines. Crawler members are 
well adapted for work in mud, and their flexible track requires 
no lubrication. 

The useful life of a tractor on a logging operation is from 3 to 5 
years when it is used continuously. The depreciation and 
maintenance charges vary widely with the conditions and 
character of work, the care received and the make of the trac- 
tor. Repair bills may be from $2 to $4 a day, especially when a 
crawler tractor on a logging job is operated by a man who is 
not sufficiently skilled to handle intricate machinery. The care 
of tractors at the camp and minor repairs often are made by the 
drivers, but when there are three or more machines at one camp, 
an expert should be employed to do this work. 

Skidding in open forests may be done with crawler tractors 
without any preparation of the roads. In dense forests the roads 
are of the same type as those required for animal logging. Timber 
is skidded by tractors often in long logs or in tree lengths and are 
cross-cut at the landing because the efficiency of skidding as well 
as of cross-cutting is increased. Skidding in tree lengths may 
be facilitated also, to some extent, by felling trees with the tops 



3 

2^ 



TRACTORS 



209 



in the direction of skidding in case they are to be dragged on the 
ground, or in the opposite direction if long logs are skidded with 
the front end resting on some form of a log carrier. Dragging 
is rarely practiced for distances exceeding \ ox \ mile. How- 
ever, in the Appalachian and other mountainous regions, a number 
of logs may be coupled together in a "turn" and dragged by trac- 
tors for long distances on skidding roads. 

Log carriers supporting only the front ends of the logs, and 




Fig. 60. 



A 10-Ton Holt Caterpillar Tractor drawing Logs loaded on a 
Caterpillar Bummer. Idaho. 



having a capacity of from 2000 to 4000 board feet are used in 
tractor skidding to suit different conditions and seasons of the 
year. Various types of bummers, dollies, trailers, go-devils, 
and big wheels, which differ from those used in animal logging 
chiefly in their stronger construction and larger capacity, also 
are used. Bummers of the crawler type are preferred when 
hauling on soft or swampy bottom, or when hauling very heavy 
loads on bad roads. They usually are of all-steel construction 
and have two free-running crawler-type members of comparatively 
simple construction, and a single or double bunk. The usual 



210 



LOGGING 



capacity is from 10 to 15 tons, and the weight from 2 to 3 tons. 
When timber is moved for comparatively long distances the 
logs usually are loaded on wagons of greater capacity and strength 
than those used for animal draft. Several wagons constitute a 
load or train for one tractor. 

Although cable skidding by tractors has not passed the experi- 
mental stage, some machines are provided with a winch attachment 




Photograph by A. Koroleff. 

Fig. 61.* — Loaded 4-wheeled Log Wagons pulled by a 10-Ton Holt Tractor 
(left), and a Tractor with Empty Wagons returning to the Skidway (right). 
Idaho. 



for bringing logs out of hollows and swamps, and for other condi- 
tions where better work can be done with a cable than with a 
direct draw-bar tractor pull. Some crawler tractors have a two- 
drum winch in order to make possible the mechanical out-haul 
of the skidding cable. The speed of the cable, when skidding, 
is from 100 to 200 feet per minute, the larger drums having a 
maximum capacity of 800 feet of f-inch cable. The winch 
on a tractor also may be used for loading timber, for clearing and 
scraping work in road construction and for stump-pulling. 



TRACTORS 211 

When logs are loaded from a yard, a gin-pole may be used, while 
logs that have not been assembled at one place often are loaded 
by means of a crosshaul or by rolling them by hand methods upon 
the vehicle over skids. Animal power is used chiefly for oper- 
ating the gin-pole and crosshaul, although some tractors are 
provided with a loading winch. The use of a tractor for loading 
is seldom as profitable as some other method because the greatest 
efficiency is secured from the machine when it is kept running 
continuously over the roads. 

The rolling resistance of a given road varies widely with its 
quality and condition and the load which the tractor can move 
may be influenced greatly by the type of vehicle, if any, which 
is used to support the logs. Thus on smooth hard roads, a tractor 
can haul two or three times more volume of logs on wagons than 
it can drag on the ground, while the reverse may be true on an 
uneven or wet bottom because of the inequalities of the ground 
surface and the sinking of the wheels in the earth. 

There are so many types of tractors used by loggers and the 
period for which they have been used has been so comparatively 
short that reliable standards of average output are not available. 
The following table, however, will give an approximate idea of 
the maximum loads in tons which tractors can move under given 
conditions. 

The average speed of crawler tractors when hauling timber, is 
approximately 3 miles per hour while the speed without a load is 
from 4 to 6 miles. On long hauls tractors may cover from 
35 to 40 miles in 10 hours when not delayed at the yard landing. 
The daily mileage of tractors on short hauls, especially in skidding, 
is much less than on long hauls due to the increase in the time 
lost at the loading and discharging points. 

The relative efficiency of tractors as compared to animals 
depends on many factors.^ Other conditions being equal, the 
horse has advantages over the tractor in work which is not tire- 
some and which only occasionally requires a short and powerful 
effort, while the opposite is true on long hauls and on continuous 
adverse grades. As compared to a tractor, animals are handi- 

1 See Tractor Skidding in the Inland Empire by Frank J. Klobucher, The 
Timberman, July, 1922, pp. 114, 116, and 118; also Tractor and Horse Skid- 
ding in the Inland Empire by James W. Girard, The Timberman, Nov., 
1922. pp. 66, 68, 70 and 72. 



212 



LOGGING 



Table VII 

APPROXIMATE MAXIMUM TRACTIVE POWER OF CRAWLER 

TRACTORS' 







Approximate gross load in 


Approximate gross load in tons 






tons which a 5-ton crawler 


which a 10-ton crawler tractor 






tractor with actual draw-bar 


with actual draw-bar H. P. 40, 






H. P. 25, can move at low 


can move at low speed — 2 




Average rolling 


speed — 2 miles per hour 


miles per hour 


Character of 


resistance of 






road surface 


level road in 








lbs. per ton 


Adverse grade, per cent 






Level 


5 


10 


20 


Level 


5 


10 


20 


Earth road.. 


150 


31 


17 


11 


5 


49 


25 


15 


6| 


Deep sand 




















or wet clay 


350 


13 


y 


7 


3i 


21 


14 


10 


41 



1 These values are computed in the following manner, and the same method may be used in 
approximating the tractive power for speeds other than 2 miles. 

Example: Type of bottom, earth road. Grade 10 per cent. Resistance per ton; rolling 150 

pounds, axle 4 pounds, grade 20 X 10 = 200 pounds, total 354 pounds. Grade resistance of a 

10-ton tractor on a 10 per cent grade, 20 X 10 X 10 = 2000 pounds. Draw-bar pull (pounds) 

, ,. . . . 40 X 375 

of a 40 horse power tractor = - 



■ = 7500. (The value 375 is obtained as follows: 



33,000 X 60 _ g^g 
5280 
in which 33,000 represents foot pounds per minute per horse power; 60 equals minutes per hour, 
and 5280 equals feet per mile.) The net draw-bar pull of a 40 h. p. tractor at a speed of 2 miles per 
hour equals 7500 — 2000 or 5500 pounds. The gross load in tons equals 5500 -i- 354 or ISj tons. 
If vehicles weighing 2 tons each are used with tractors in hauling timber weighing 5 pounds per 
board foot, then on a 10 per cent grade a 40 horse power tractor can haul 4600 board feet on two 

(31,000 - 8000 \ 
= 4600 j. 

capped where they cannot get proper footing, such as on loose 
ground and in swamps, and also in heavy work when several 
animals must be used together, since much energy is then wasted, 
due to lack of simultaneous action. The expense of feeding 
animals when idle, their lower average speed, limited working 
period, and the necessity for hiring animal drivers, also are dis- 
advantages connected with the use of animal draft. Studies 
of logging operations where horses and tractors work under 
identical conditions indicate that the ratio between the efficiency 
of horses and tractors varies within wide limits, although in most 
cases, in hauling, one horse is equivalent to two or three tractor 
draw-bar H. P. This is due chiefly to the ability of a horse to 



TRACTORS 213 

increase its pull for a very short distance and for a very brief 
period from three to four times its normal for continuous work, 
while the margin between the rated draw-bar H. P. and actual 
maximum for tractors is comparatively insignificant.^ On the 
other hand, a tractor develops its normal power for any length 
of time while animals, especially under adverse conditions, be- 
come fatigued, and then decrease their pull below normal in 
addition to utilizing a part of the working time for rest. 

Large tractors are preferred to small ones, provided they can 
be worked to capacity, because one driver has control over more 
power, and the wage cost per thousand board feet is less. How- 
ever, there are about as many 5-ton as 10-ton tractors used in 
logging and some loggers believe they are more efficient for 
comparatively short distances. The 2-ton crawler tractors, 
though sometimes used in the forest, are too small for most kinds 
of logging work. 

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE TO CHAPTER XIII 

BrighaM; E. J.: Tractor Logging. The Timberman, Oct. 1920, pp. 86 

and 87. 
GiRARD, James W.: Tractor and Horse Skidding in Inland Empire. The 

Timberman, Nov., 1922, pp. 66, 68, 70 and 72. 
Klobucher, Frank J.: Tractor Skidding Studies in the Inland Empire. 

The Timberman, July, 1922, pp. 114, 116, and 118. 

1 A test of tractors at the University of Nebraska showed that some of the 
best crawler tractors may be overloaded 30 per cent; in actual work, however, 
crawler tractors will not develop much more than their rated power, and in 
any case this margin is very small as compared to a possible 300 per cent 
increase of pull by a horse. 



CHAPTER XIV 
POWER SKIDDING! 

The first patent on power skidding machinery in the United 
States was granted on November 13, 1883, to Horace Butters of 
Ludington, Michigan, and covered an overhead cableway de- 
signed to get logs out of "pot holes" and swampy places in the 
white pine forests. The power for operating the machine was 
supplied by a 8j- by 10-inch 3-drum pile driver, and the cables 
were of manila rope. Perceiving the feasibility of using a 
machine of this type in the cypress forests of North Carolina, the 
inventor built a machine which had the spar and other equip- 
ment mounted on a scow which was floated in the bayous and 
sloughs. It did not completely solve the loggers' problems since 
it was limited to a range of from 700 to 800 feet and conse- 
quently could not reach much of the timber. 

In 1889, William Baptist put a ground system in operation 
in a Louisiana swamp. It consisted of two large drums and an 
engine and boiler mounted on a scow, from which an endless 
cable passed out into the forest for a distance of ^ mile. This 
was later developed into the modern "slack-rope" system now 
used on pullboats. 

A third method called the "snaking system" was a later de- 
velopment in the pine forests of the South. 

CABLEWAY OR OVERHEAD SKIDDING EQUIPMENT 

Overhead logging systems have been used in the eastern part 
of the United States for many years and are now extensively used 
in the Northwest, both for yarding and as a transportation system 
for bringing logs from the yarding engine to the railroad. In the 
latter capacity it functions as an aerial tram. The railroad 
mileage can be reduced by using this method of intermediate 

1 See Logging in the Douglas Fir Region, by W. H. Gibbons, U. S. Dept. 
of Agriculture, Bui. No. 711, Washington, 1918. 

214 



POWER SKIDDING 



215 



transportation which is of special importance in regions of rough 
topography where grade construction is costly. 

The cableway system is especially adapted for logging in 
swampy regions where the bottom is too soft for animals ; in very 
brushy sections; on steep and rocky slopes; in taking timber 
across canyons and gorges, or in bringing it up out of a canyon to 
a plateau or lowering it into a valley ; and in handling dense stands 




Fig. 62. 



- A Steel-spar Cableway Skidder operating in Southern Yellow 
Pine. The loading boom is shown at the left. Texas. 



of small- or medium-sized timber, especially when the physical 
conditions render ground systems difficult and expensive to 
operate. It is operated to best advantage when the topog- 
raphy is such that logging railroads can be laid out at regular 
intervals, but it is also used in very rough regions where the 
railroad must be placed in the valley or at the head of the slope. 
Lidgerwood System. — The pioneer overhead system was the 
Lidgerwood which is the type used chiefly in the East. Western 
loggers use this method but they also have developed numerous 
others. This type is built both for short-distance and for long- 
distance skidding, and may use a tree for a head spar or a steel 



216 LOGGING 

boom which may be lowered when the machine is moved from 
one set-up to another. Some types also are built to operate two 
overhead lines from one spar. The one which uses a tree for 
a head spar and which skids for comparatively short distances 
has a main cable from 1 to Ij inches in diameter suspended 
between two supports known as the "head spar" and the "tail 
spar." These usually are from 600 to 750 feet apart, although 
spans of 5200 feet have been used in mountainous country. 
Head spar trees are located along the railroad at intervals of ap- 
proximately 1000 feet. They are selected by the foreman before 
felling operations begin, must be straight and sound, and should 
have a minimum diameter of 18 inches at 60 feet above ground. 
In order to make the spar more stable the trees are topped before 
the rigging is placed. 

A heavy steel spar mounted on the skidder car now often 
replaces the head spar tree required by the earlier type and 
is so constructed that it can be lowered to facilitate moving the 
skidder from one set-up to another. This spar, for relatively 
short-distance skidding, is about 75 feet high and is so adjusted 
that it can be lowered upon the end of the loading boom when 
the machine is moved from one set-up to another.^ The machines 
used in skidding for distances of several thousand feet usually 
are of a different type. The booms are either cylindrical or 
square in cross section and the base rests upon the framework 
of the skidder. When the machine is moved the spar is lowered 
upon an empty car placed in front. The placement of the blocks, 
the guying of the steel spar and the adjustment of the main 
cable after it has been placed on the ground ready for connecting 
up, requires from 15 to 30 minutes, while a day is needed to take 
down the tackle, move the skidder, and adjust the blocks on a 
head spar tree. The great weight of the steel spar skidder makes 
it unsuitable for use on a light or poorly constructed logging 
railroad. 

Tail trees are selected before felling begins, and should be 
from 150 to 250 feet apart and at least 18 inches in diameter at 
30 feet above ground. 

One end of the main cable is passed around the tail tree at a 

height of 25 or 30 feet and is then carried to a stump or tree in 

the rear to which it is made fast. The tail tree is braced with 

1 See Fig. 62. 



/ 



POWER SKIDDING 



217 



this cable and also with an additional guy rope. The other end 
of the main cable terminates in an eye near the head spar tree 
and is connected, by means of a clevis, to an extension cable 
which passes through a block attached to the head spar tree. 
The extension cable is fastened to a stump 
in the rear by a "block and fall" attach- 
ment, by which, with the aid of a drum on 
the engine, the main cable is tightened. 

The head spar tree is also braced by 
cables as shown in Fig. 64. 

The trolley; which travels back and forth 
on the main cable is operated by an out- 
haul rope and a skidding line. The outhaul 
rope is |- or f-inch in diameter and passes 
from a drum on the engine, through a block 
on the head spar tree, through the trolley 
and also through a block on the tail tree, 
after which it is brought back and attached 
to the rear of the trolley. It serves to 
draw the trolley out along the main cable. 
The f - or |-inch skidding line passes from a 
drum on the engine, through a block on the 

head spar tree, then through a block on the trolley. It serves 
as a point of attachment for tongs or other log-holding devices. 
The logs are dragged up to the main cable by this line, which 




TAIL TREE 



Fig. 63. — A Tail Tree 
showing the Method of 
attaching the Blocks 
to the Tree; also the 
Arrangement of the 
Guy Lines. 




By permission of the Lidgerwood Mfg. Co. 

Fig. 64. — A Cableway Skidder, showing the Arrangement of the Lines for 
Skidding and Loading. 



also suspends them and serves to return the trolley to the head 
spar tree. 

When the trolley is run out from the head spar tree, the skid- 
ding line sags between the two points of support and its weight 



218 



LOGGING 



pulls the tongs against the trolley. The line is run out by means 
of a f-inch slack-pulling line which passes from a drum on the 
skidder through a block on the head spar tree, thence around a 
small sheave in the trolley and back in the direction of the head 




Fig. 65. — Cutting the Top from a Head Spar on which is placed the Main 
Cable Rigging for a Cableway Skidder. Cypre-ss Forest, Louisiana. 

spar.^ The free end of the line is attached to a swivel, through 
which the skidding line passes. A button is fastened on the skid- 
ding line between the swivel and the carriage block. When 
slack is desired, the slack-pulling line is drawn in, which pulls 
the swivel against the button and draws the skidding line towards 
the trolley and thus lowers the end of the line to the ground. 
The distance of the l)utton from the end of the skidding line may 
be adjusted to give any amount of slack desired. This equipment 
has replaced the five or six men who were required for pulling 
slack in the earlier types. 

1 See Fig. 66. 



POWER SKIDDING 



219 



Power for operating the cableway system is provided by a 
vertical, high-pressure boiler and a pair of engines mounted on 
a steel frame which is supported on two sets of trucks, each of 
which is pivoted. The machine is moved from one set-up to 
another by means of a locomotive. On arrival at the location 
where it is to be used, the frame is elevated above the rails by 
hydraulic jacks, the trucks turned in a quarter circle, and a 
short span of track placed under each truck. The machine is 
then lowered and shunted off to one side of the railroad by the 



Ski dding Carr iage 




Fig. 66. 



The Lidgerwood Skidding Carriage, and the Arrangement of 
Operatiixg Cables and Slack-pulling Line. 



side of the head spar tree, where it is blocked up and remains 
until the next move is made. This leaves the main railroad track 
clear for the operation of logging trains. 

Some steel spar machines move about under their own power 
while others are moved on flat cars of special design by a locomotive. 
In the first case the machine is side-tracked at the set-up so as 
to leave the main line clear, while in the second case the machine 
remains on the main line and is elevated above the track by 
means of hydraulic jacks and each corner is supported on blocks. 
When the skidder has been adjusted in position, the carrying 
cars are pushed to the rear of the machine so that empty log 
cars can be spotted under the loading boom. 

The three main drums on the skidder are arranged in a row in 
front of the boiler. The forward drum handles the slack pulling 
cable, the middle one the outhaul rope and the rear one the 
skidding line. 

In operation, the outhaul and skidding drums are interlocked, 
and when the outhaul rope is wound on its drum, the trolley is 
drawn out towards the tail tree, carrying with it the skidding 
line and the slack-pulling line. The speed of the outhaul line 
usually is from. 1200 to 1800 feet, although it sometimes is as 



220 



LOGGING 



high as 3000 feet per minute. When the trolley reaches the 
point at which logs are to be secured the drums are stopped and 
the interlocking device freed. When the slack-pulling line is 
wound on its drum it operates the slack puller which runs out 
the slack for the skidding line. The latter is then carried to a log, 
or logs, which are attached to it by tongs or chokers. Logs can 
be drawn in a distance of from 60 to 75 feet on either side of the 
main cable by the attachment of short extensions to the main 
skidding line. When the logs have been pulled in near the main 
cable the short lines are detached and the logs coupled directly 




Fig. 67. 



By permission of the Lidgerwood Mfy. Co. 

Method of Shifting the Main Cable from One Run to Another. 



by tongs or chokers to the skidding line, which is then wound in, 
and the log elevated wholly or partially from the ground. This 
is accomplished by holding the outhaul in a fixed position by a 
friction brake, until the log is in the position desired. The 
skidding and outhaul drums are then interlocked and as the 
skidding line is hauled in, the outhaul rope runs out, and the log 
is held suspended. On arrival at the railroad the logs are dropped 
in reach of a loading cable, and the trolley again returned for 
another load. 

Logging rotates around the head spar tree and from 18 to 22 
tail trees are required for each set-up, an area of from 25 to 40 
acres being logged from one spot. 

When the steel spar skidder is used it is not feasible to log in 
a complete circle because of the difficulty of operating lines on 
the rear side of the machine. As a rule, an arc of from 275 to 
300 degrees is covered. 

In order to prevent the fouling of the cables in very brushy 
regions it is sometimes necessary to cut runs 5 or 6 feet wide, 



POWER SKIDDING 221 

extending from the head spar to each tail tree. This work is 
done a short time in advance of skidding. One man can cut the 
runs when the brush is of medium size. 

Two main cables are used on spans less than 2500 feet. This 
saves the cable since its ends are reversed at each set up, but 
when the spans may vary several hundred feet in length, the 
difficulty of taking care of the surplus cable on the shorter hauls 
is a drawback. While one main cable is in use, the rigging crew, 
three men, is at work preparing the new tail tree and placing the 
extra main cable in position on the next run. When the timber 
available to one run is skidded, the main cable is dropped to the 
ground and disconnected from the main cable extension; the 
trolley is placed on the new cable, which is then connected 
to the cable extension, and the whole drawn taut for operation. 
It requires from 15 to 30 minutes to make this change. The 
rigging crew then proceeds to transfer the extra main cable to 
the next run. A block is placed on the new tail tree and a f- 
inch cable is dragged from the engine out over the new run, either 
by hand or by a horse. It is then passed through the block 
on the new tail tree, and finally through a block on the tail tree 
just abandoned. The end of the small cable is attached to the 
main cable and by winding the former on a drum of the engine, 
the main cable is dragged around into the new run, having re- 
versed ends. It is then made ready for use by attaching it to 
the tail tree. 

A different procedure is followed in mountainous regions in 
which the length of span may vary greatly. One main cable 
only is used and this is carried on a reel drum on the skidder. 
This drum is actuated by a special compound-geared tensioning 
engine having two speeds, high for pulling in the main cable 
when runs are changed and low for tightening and tensioning 
the main cable. The drum capacity on the longest range 
machines is 5200 feet of 1^ main cable, when a relay system 
or a support-passing trolley is used. The relay method was 
introduced about ten years ago in the Appalachian region 
to log hollows and other places which were not accessible with 
single spans and to reach which would require a prohibitive cost 
of railroad construction. An intermediate tree spar was selected 
on the ridge top that was to be crossed, or at some convenient 
point in the cove that was to be logged.^ The main cable and 
1 See Fig. 68. 



222 LOGGING 

the skidding lines were then run from the skidder to the tail 
tree, the former being supported on the intermediate spar tree. 
The carriage was placed on the main cable between the tail tree 
and the intermediate spar and the logs were then skidded to the 
latter. When the area between these two supports had been 
logged, the trolley was shifted to the skidder side of the inter- 
mediate spar and the logs then brought to the railroad. Timber 
beyond the reach of the tail tree sometimes was skidded to it 




Fig. 68. — A Logging Chance sliowing the Use of an Overhead Cableway 
System in bringing Timber over a Ridge by relaying 

by animals and the range of the machine thus greatly increased. 
A special type of trolley which can automatically pass the sup- 
port on the intermediate spar has been put on the market and 
does away with the necessity of relaying the logs. The trolley 
has two track sheaves which ride on the main cable. Under 
each main sheave below the cable there is a smaller and wider 
sheave which is mounted on a pivoted arm which, by tension, 
holds the lower sheaves directly under the carrying sheaves. 
This prevents the trolley from leaving the cable. The support 
at the intermediate spar is triangular in shape, the base of the 



POWER SKIDDING 223 

triangle being attached to the under side of the cable and the 
support being attached to the side of the triangle next to the spar. 
When the trolley reaches the intermediate support, the lower 
sheave follows along the side of the triangle to the apex and in so 
doing widens the distance between the upper and lower sheave 
so that the trolley will pass the hanger. As soon as the latter is 
passed the two sheaves come together and close the gap. Since 
the trolley is longer than the cable support on the intermediate 
spar, both top sheaves are not on the support at one time and, 
therefore, it is impossible for the trolley to leave the cable. 

The crew for operating a cableway skidder with a slack pulling 
device consists of 13 or 14 men, as follows : 

1 skidder leverman 1 head rigger 

1 fireman 2 rigging helpers 

1 tong hooker 1 tong unhooker 

1 or 2 helpers / 1 run cutter 

j 1 signal man ' 1 loading leverman 

^ 1 top loader 1 ground loader 



The daily output of the Lidgerwood type of skidder in the 
cypress region is from 35,000 to 40,000 feet, in the Northwest 
from 50,000 to 80,000 feet, in the mountains of West Virginia 
on long spans from 30,000 to 35,000 feet, and when used as a 
relay system from 25,000 to 30,000 board feet. These figures 
are averages only, since the output is influenced to a marked 
degree by the size and density of timber, the length of span, and 
the topography of the country. 

MacFarlane System.^ — This was developed in the West pri- 
marily for logging steep slopes, up or down which logs could not 
be successfully taken by the ground methods in general use. 
It has been used successfully for yarding when the span was 2500 
feet. It is also now used for logging in rolling country and to 
move logs from the ground and high-lead yarders to the railroad, 
a process known as "swinging."' 

This system uses a Ij- to l|-inch main cable which passes 
from a drum on the engine up to and through a block in the head 
spar, thence to and through a block on the tail spar tree, the end 

' See Logging in the Douglas Fir Region, by W. H. Gibbons. U. S. Dept. 
of Agriculture, Bui. No. 711, and The Timberman, April, 1911, p. 49, and 
May 1912, p. 27. 

2 See page 245. 



224 



LOGGING 



being fastened to a stump at the rear. Both the head spar and 
tail spar tree are guyed with four Hnes. 

The trolley or carriage is triangular in shape with two 16- by 
3-inch sheaves; with a clevis at the apex to which chokers are 
attached; and also with a clevis on each edge of the block to 
which the haul-back and haul-in lines are attached. The trolley 
is drawn towards the head spar by means of a haul-in line which 
passes from a drum on the engine up to and through a block 




Fig. 69. — The MacFarlane Skyline System of Overhead Power Logging. 

on the head spar and is then fastened to a clevis on the side of the 
trolley next to the spar tree. The trolley is drawn out towards 
the tail tree by means of a haul-back line which leads from a 
drum on the engine, through blocks placed at one side of the run, 
to a block on the tail tree or to some other convenient point of 
attachment, and is then brought back and fastened to a clevis 
on the side of the trolley next to the tail spar tree. 

When skidding is in progress the main cable is pulled taut, 
and the trolley drawn out to the desired point by means of the 
haul-back line. The main cable is then slacked off until the trolley 
is lowered to the ground. The trolley and main cable are then 
dragged to the log if it is at one side of the center of the run. 
When the log has been fastened to the trolley by means of chokers, 
the main line is tightened and held in place by powerful drum 
brakes and the log brought to the head spar tree by the haul-in 



POWER SKIDDING 



225 



line, where the log is lowered to the ground by slackening the 
main cable. As logging progresses the outer block through which 
the haul-back line passes is changed so that the trolley and main 
cable always can be pulled away from the center of the run. 
Logs may be successfully side-lined for 150 feet. 

More power is needed to elevate the logs than is required in some 
other overhead systems, since both the weight of the main cable 

^Three Sheave Tree Jack 

^In. Auto-Lubricating Sky-Line Block 
Win. Auto-Lubricating Sky-Line Block 

\* 




Fig. 70. 



From Bui. 711, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 

The North Bend System of Overhead Logging. 



and of the logs must be raised. The daily capacity of a machine 
of this type is from 50,000 to 100,000 board feet, depending upon 
slope conditions, log size, and length of span. 

Previous to a change in runs, the tail tree spar in the next 
run to be logged is chosen and properly guyed. When logging 
on one run is completed the main cable is pulled to the head- 
spar tree. One end of the haul-back line is then attached to a 
small cable, called a straw line, which has previously been pulled 
out over the new run and when the straw line is pulled in, the 
haul-back line is drawn out through a block on the tail spar 
tree and back to the head spar. 

North Bend System.^ — This is used both for yarding and for 
1 See Fig. 70. 



226 LOGGING 

swinging. The standing line either is stretched between a head 
spar and a tail tree with the ends anchored to stumps, or it leads 
from a drum on the engine to a block on the head spar and thence 
to the tail tree, behind which it is anchored to a stump. When 
the latter method of supporting the standing line is used, a block 
purchase is needed to relieve the strain on the engine. 

The standing line ranges in size from Ij to 1^ inches, 
depending on the length of span and the maximum size of the 
logs handled. A Ij-inch line has proved large enough for 
spans of 1500 feet and for logs containing 2000 board feet. 

The trolley has two 14-inch sheaves, with a clevis on the lower 
end to which the skidding line is attached. This line usually 
is Ig inches in diameter and its length is dependent both 
on the length of span between the head spar and the tail tree, 
and on the distance logs are yarded on either side of the standing 
line, which may be from 150 to 200 feet. 

The haul-back_or trip line is f- or f-inch in diameter and 
passes from fhe drum on the engine, through a block on the head 
spar, then through blocks placed on the edge of the skidding area 
to a corner block near the logs which are being yarded, thence 
to a fall block placed in a bight of the skidding line. The corner 
block is so placed that the fall block, to which both the haul- 
back line and the butt chain are attached, can be drawn to any 
point where a log is to be secured. 

The engine used most successfully with this system is similar 
to that for the MacFarlane. The usual capacity of the skidding 
line drum is 2700 feet and that of the haul-back line drum 
3500 feet. The yarding speed is 600 feet and the return speed 
for the haul-back line about 1500 feet per minute. 

Duplex Aerial System.^ — This is used both for yarding and 
for swinging. Two separate engines, mounted tandem and 
combined in one unit furnish the power. The forward engine 
operates the skidding, haul-back and straw-line drums, and the 
rear engine operates two sky-line drums on which the ends of 
the overhead line are reeled. The sky-line and skidding drums 
have two speeds which can be changed instantly and the haul- 
back line also is geared to a high speed so that the machine can 
be operated faster than ground systems. 

The sky-line consists of a double cable on which the trolley 
1 See Figures 71 and 72. 



i>OWER SKIDDING 



227 




228 LOGGING 

travels. One end of the line is fastened to one of the drums and 
then passes up to and through a block on the spar tree, thence 
to and through a block at the end of the run, thence back to and 
through another block on the head spar tree and then down to 
the other sky-line drum (Fig. 71A). The tail block is fastened 
to the tail spar tree as shown in Fig. 71A. When used as a yard- 
ing machine on uphill or downhill pulls or on level ground the 



''V 



.^ 
















C^ ^'^- '--'^i'^X^-^^^ y '^'?'.^ 



Fig. 72. — A Duplex Aerial Yarder logging a Steep Slope from a Setting 
in the Valley. 

haul-back line block is fastened to a stump near the logs to be 
skidded, the line serving as a slack-pulling device when the sky- 
line is lowered. When yarding in deep canyons, the haul-back 
block is placed near the tail spar and the trolley is run out to 
the desired spot, the sky-line lowered and the chokers attached 
to the trolley. The general scheme of arrangement of cables 
for side-hill logging is shown in Fig. 72. 

This system may be used for spans from 700 to 5000 feet. 
The longer distances may be used when crossing canyons where 
a suitable cable deflection may be secured. The output per day 
may be as high as 100,000 board feet. 



POWER SKIDDING 229 

Other Systems.^ — There are numerous other systems of over- 
head skidding which have been developed in the Northwest, 
which differ only in minor details from each other. Some are 
used for yarding purposes and others for "swinging" or "roading" 
logs. They were first developed to solve some particular logging 
problem of an individual operator and the early types were de- 
signed to utilize available ground-yarding power for their opera- 
tion. Later improvements have led in some cases to the use of 
a special design of power and certain other working parts which 
have made the systems more efficient. 

THE SNAKING SYSTEM 

This is a ground system in which the cables are taken to the 
logs by animals. 

It has a vertical, high-pressure boiler with two, three or four 
independent skidding drums mounted either on a heavy steel 
frame and trucks or on a steel frame which is supported at the 
corners on legs or "spuds." The first type is transported under 
its own power by a chain drive, and the latter type during transit 
rests on a flat car which is drawn by a locomotive. 

The machine has a heavy pulling boom at one or both ends of 
the frame, from the peak of which blocks are suspended through 
which the skidding lines pass. The pulling booms are guyed on 
either side to give them rigidity. 

Self-propelling snaking machines are not equipped with a loading 
device but are supphed with a decking cable by means of which 
logs may be piled up along the track ready for a special loading 
crew. 

When the snaking machine is not transported on its own 
trucks, it is equipped with a loading boom and the logs are loaded 
on cars as they are skidded. The machine is elevated above 
the flat car by means of hydraulic jacks and then the corners are 
blocked up. The log cars are run under the skidder when they 
are brought to the woods and are pulled forward under the 
loading boom by means of a "spotting" cable as required for 
loading. The skidding cables are single lines which are carried 

' See Logging in the Douglas Fir Region, by W. H. Gibbons, U. S. Dept. 
of Agriculture, Bui. No. 711 for a description of some of these systems. Some 
overhead equipment, used chiefly or solely for swinging, is described in Chapter 
XIV. 



230 



LOGGING 




by a mule or horse to the log to which they are attached by a 
pair of tongs or a choker and then drawn in. The animal is 
ridden back to the machine and after the cable has been detached 



POWER SKIDDING 231 

from the log, returns the hne for another log. Runs or trails 
are not cut. 

The railroads are laid out in more or less parallel lines from 1200 
to 1400 feet apart and the timber is logged halfway back from 
each side of the track. The road often is placed on the higher 
ground because a better drained track can be secured and the 
timber can be pulled up hill as readily as down. 

A practice sometimes followed is to fell the timber in two 
strips beginning on the back edge of the area and cutting a sec- 
tion from 300 to 400 feet wide. This is skidded before the timber 
on the next strip is cut. The ground is thus kept free from debris 
and the timber can be drawn in easier than where there is slash 
to interfere. Trees are seldom felled with reference to the loca- 
tion of the railroad track although skidding of long logs is simpli- 
fied if they are thrown away from the direction in which they are 
to be pulled, because the top then offers the least interference. 
The necessary swamping is done by the sawyers at the time 
the timber is felled. 

A crew of seventeen or nineteen men and nine animals, either 
horses or mules, is necessary for a four-line machine. 

1 foreman 2 levermen 

1 fireman 2-4 tong unhookers 

4 tong hookers 4 riders 

1 wood chopper 1 wood hauler 

1 night watchman 

The foreman of the crew has general supervision of the opera- 
tion and often acts as the leverman on the loading engine, when 
the skidder is equipped with one. Each leverman operates 
two drums on the skidder. The fireman performs the usual 
duties. The tong unhookers are stationed at the machine and 
detach the tongs or chokers from the logs as they are dragged in, 
and attach the cable to the single-tree for hauling back to the next 
log; they also may act as signalmen, transmitting orders from the 
tong hookers at the stump to the levermen. The tong hookers 
attach the tongs or chokers to the logs, swamp an occasional 
limb when necessary, and control the speed of the log by signals 
to the leverman. The riders, usually negro boys, ride the animals 
from the machine to the next log. The animals drag the cable 
to the desired point and then are brought back to the machine 
to repeat the process. The wood choppers and haulers cut and 



232 LOGGING 

supply fuel for the boiler. The night watchman guards the 
machine at night, cleans up, and raises steam in the morning 
readj^ for the crew. 

If the skidder is equipped with a loader boom and engine the 
following extra men are required : 

1 loader leverman, usually the crew foreman 

1 top loader 

1 ground loader 

The top loader chooses the logs to be loaded and, standing 
on the car, directs their proper placement on the load. The 
ground loader places the loading tongs on the logs to be loaded, 
acting under the orders of the top loader. 

Eight animals are used for skidding, four being worked from 
one to two and one-half hours and then allowed to rest while the 
others are in use. The ninth animal is used to haul the wood 
cart which transports fuel for the engine. 

The daily capacity of each line is about 35,000 board feet, 
with a daily average of 125,000 feet for a 4-line machine, where 
logs up to 40 feet in length are handled. Daily records of 4-line 
machines, bringing in whole trees, have run as high as 295,000 feet. 
This amount, however, cannot be approximated as an average 
even under favorable circumstances. 

Snaking machines are adapted to logging open stands in fairly 
level or rolling country, free from swamps, rocks, gullies and heavy 
underbrush. The heavy slash which results from dense stands 
and unfavorable ground conditions interfere with the return of 
the lines from the machine to the stump by animals 

THE SLACK-ROPE SYSTEM 

This was developed chiefly in the cypress swamps of the 
South, where extensive areas of forest could not be logged with 
animals, and where railroad construction was not practicable. 
It is also extensively used on the Pacific Coast and in the southern 
pineries and to a limited extent in some other regions. 

The system uses a heavy pulling cable, and a lighter one for 
returning the main cable from the skidder to the point from 
which the logs are to be dragged. 

The power for the slack-rope system consists of an upright 
boiler, and two or more large drums driven by one or more pairs 
of engines. 



POWER SKIDDING 233 

Pullhoats. — In the cypress forests, the slack-rope skidder is 
mounted on a scow, and the machine complete, consisting of an 
upright, high-pressure boiler of from 60 to 80 horse-power with 
two engines operating two main drums and usually a third small 
drum, is called a pullboat. The large drums are placed tandem, 
one having a capacity of from 3000 to 4000 feet of from |- to 
l|-inch main cable, and the other at least twice as much f-inch 
messenger cable. An equal amount of f-inch line is wound on 
the small drum and is used to pull out the messenger cable when 
runs are changed. Four rings are spliced at 50-foot intervals 
to the main cable near the outer end and to these the chain and 
cables holding the logs are coupled. 

Pullboats are anchored in canals, bayous or lakes and the 
roads radiate or "fantail" in a half circle for a distance of from 
3000 to 3500 feet, although some of the larger machines can be 
operated for 4500 feet. Distances in excess of 3500 feet are 
not desirable because breaks in the cable are more or less fre- 
quent and on very long hauls the loss of time in locating and 
repairing them is excessive. 

The canals, dug by large dredges, are from 40 to 50 feet wide, 
and about 6 feet deep and often are several miles in length. 
Although at first intended solely for logging purposes, some canals 
in recent years have been built with the idea of ultimately using 
them for drainage purposes. The early operators had difficulty 
because they started to use the canals from the mill end, and so 
much debris and mud was drawn into the water, that frequent 
dredging was necessary to keep the channel open. The practice 
now is to dig the canal and then to begin logging at the far end, 
working toward the mill. Log barriers also are used, which pre- 
vent most of the refuse from falling into the canals. 

Pullboats operated from the shores of lakes or from wide bayous 
are moored to nests of piling driven off-shore, and the timber 
usually is pulled in straight lines. 

In laying out a pullboat job it is necessary to locate and cut 
out main and secondary roads down which the logs are dragged 
to the canal or bayou. The foreman may locate the main and 
secondary roads on a map in the office before going to the field, 
and determine the points on the boundary at which roads will 
terminate, and the angle at which they should run toward the 
pullboat. The far end of the cable passes through a sheave 



234 



LOGGING 



block fastened to a tail tree. These are 150 feet or less apart 
because logs cannot readily be side-lined for distances greater 
than 75 feet. After determining on the map the approximate 
location of the tail trees the foreman starts at some known point 
along the boundary, paces off 50 yards, selects the nearest suitable 
tail tree, and blazes it so that it will not be cut by fallers. He thus 
proceeds entirely around the tract. After the tail trees are 




Fig. 74. — The Arrangement of the Roads down which Logs are dragged to 
the Pullboat. This system is known as fantaihng. The figure is adapted 
from an actual operation in a Louisiana cypress swamp. 



spotted, the route of the roads is blazed out from the boundary 
towards the pullboat. On the completion of the work the roads 
will radiate out from the skidding center in the manner shown 
in Fig. 74. 

The advantage of this system over the "every road a main 
road" method is that it greatly reduces the mileage of runs and 
is, therefore, much cheaper. The roads must be well cleared 
out, otherwise the logs will catch on stumps and other obstruc- 
tions and cause numerous delays. They are usually cut by 
contract at a stated price per 100 feet of road, with a further 
payment for each merchantable tree felled and cut into logs. 
One man will cut from 60 to 500 feet of road daily, depending 
on the number of trees to be cut, number of stumps to be removed, 
and the amount of rubbish on the ground. Workmen regard 



POWER SKIDDING 



235 



road building as one of the more profitable forms of work in the 
cypress forest. 

After the roads have been cut and the timber felled, the logs 
are prepared for pulling by a "sniping" crew, which may work 
by the day or by contract. The duty of this crew is to "snipe" 
the forward ends of the logs, bore two opposite 2-inch holes about 
one foot from the forward end of the loa-, anrl swamp out a trail 








Fig. 75. — A Sheave Block attached to a Tail Tree on a Pullboat Operation. 
Note the method of supporting the block; also the cross on the tree which 
denotes its selection as a tail tree. 



so that the log can be dragged to the main road. A four-man 
crew will prepare from 75 to 100 logs daity. 

A pullboat having moved to a skidding site, the main and 
messenger cables are run out. A sheave block is adjusted at the 
far end of the road and two f-inch cables are carried from the 
pullboat to the sheave block; one end of the cable is passed 
through it and the two sections are then joined together. At the 
pullboat one end of the |-inch cable is attached to the messenger 



236 LOGGING 

cable and the other end is reeled in on the small drum. This 
drags the messenger cable out over the road, through the sheave 
block and back to the skidder. The small cable is then detached 
and the end of the main cable fastened to the messenger. The 
pullboat is now ready for operation. When one road has been 
pulled, it is customary to change only the main cable, leaving 
the messenger in the first run logged until the distance between 
the sheave blocks becomes several hundred feet. It then does 
not get in the way of logs coming down the main road, is less 
subject to damage, and less time is required in changing runs. 
In changing from one run to another, the sheave block is left at 
the head of the first road and another is placed at the head of 
the next road to be pulled. The f-inch cable is carried from the 
pullboat out over the new road, through the sheave block and 
then across to the first run where the main cable is detached from 
the messenger cable, and the latter connected to the |-inch line. 
The main cable is drawn to the machine and, by reeling in the 
small cable, the messenger cable is pulled over into the new run 
and along it to the pullboat. The messenger and main cables 
are again coupled together and the equipment is ready to log the 
new run. A piece of telephone wire fastened to the whistle on 
the pullboat is strung along the outer edge of the run and signals 
are given to the engineer by pulling on the wire. The sheave 
blocks are usually placed by a special crew before the change is 
made and the |-inch cable is run out by this crew unless the 
distance is long, when the entire pullboat crew is required. Ten 
or twelve men can string out 2600 feet of f-inch cable in about 
three hours. 

The logs are prepared for skidding by the insertion of plugs 
or "puppies" in the holes previously bored by the sniping crew. 
CyliriHncaT plugs 2 inches in diameter and 12 inches long are 
connected in pairs by two sections of ^-inch chain 24 inches long 
fastened to a 6-inch ring. The plugs are driven into the log and 
the ring on the plugs is fastened by a short chain to the main 
cable. The log is now ready to be hauled out to the main road. 
This requires some maneuvering if there are stumps, logs or 
trees in the line of the log being hauled. When once the log is 
dragged into the main run, it is left there until a tow of four logs 
is secured. Each log is fastened by a short chain or cable to 
one of the rings on the outer end of the main cable. The boss 



POWER SKIDDING 237 

then gives the order to go ahead, which the whistle boy trans- 
mits to the skidder and the logs start down the road. 

During the early periods of modern pullboating a device called 
the Bap tist cone w as_pla ced over the ends of logs to enable them 
to slip over and under obstructions. These cones' were made 
of steel but were too heavy to handle, when made strong enough 
to withstand the rough treatment and they were abandoned, 
in favor of sniping. Tongs are not satisfactory because they 
lose their grip as soon as the draft on the cable is lessened. When 
a tow that is being dragged down a main road is stopped, as it 
frequently must be, the tongs drop off and a man must be sent 
to readjust them. For this reason, plugs or puppies are preferred. 
The crew of a pullboat is divided into two sections, one of 
which attaches the logs to the main cable and the other operates 
the machinery and rafts the logs. 

The woods crew of seven men consists chiefly of negroes as 
follows : 

1 foreman 3 side-line men 

1 plug setter 1 whistle boy 

1 head hooker 

The plug setter adjusts the plugs or puppies. The side-line 
men carry the skidding lines from the main run to the logs and 
connect them with the puppies. The head hooker's duty is to 
attach the logs to the main cable by short chains. The whistle 
boy transmits the orders of the boss to the engineer by means of 
a code of whistle blasts. 

The crew at the pullboat consists of five men, as follows : 

1 engineer 1 wood-passer 

1 fireman 1 deck man 

1 rafter 

The engineer and the fireman perform the usual duties. The 
deck man uncouples the logs as they are brought up to the pull- 
boat, removes the plugs and chains, and poles the logs around to 
the rafter at the rear. He also attaches the removed chains and 
plugs to the main cable by which they are returned to the woods 
crew. The rafter makes the logs up into cigar-shaped raft units 
about 125 feet long. The wood-passer supplies the pullboat 
with fuel wood which has been previously cut and piled along 
the banks of the bayou. A flat boat is used for this purpose. 
About three cords daily are required for a single boiler. 



238 LOGGING 

An average day's work for a pullboat crew is from fifty to 
seventy-five logs; the output is often less, however, because of 
cable breakage. 

Re-haul skidder. — The slack-rope system has been extensively 
introduced into the southern pine region in recent years to log 
timber standing on a bottom unfavorable for the use of animals, 
such as swampy areas; to log dense stands where the slash is 
heavy; and also to log open stands in which there is a heavy 
growth of underbrush. This method is most commonly used 
in the shortleaf pine region. One common type of re-haul skid- 
der, the Clyde, is self-propelling and is mounted on a special 
design of steel car. Heavy semi-rigid booms project from each 
end of the car and from the outer ends of these booms blocks are 
suspended through which run the various lines needed in the 
operation of the skidder. Some machines are designed to operate 
one line from each boom, while others are so equipped that two 
lines may be operated from each end of the skidder. In some 
cases, operators convert a four-line snaking system into a two- 
line re-haul by using one-half of the skidding lines for out-haul 
lines. Each set of lines requires two drums, one for the main 
skidding line and one for the out-haul, and if two lines are operated 
from each end, a double set of drums must be provided. In 
addition a drum for a straw line, one for a decking line and small 
drums or thimbles for tightening the boom stays are necessary. 
The capacity of the drum carrying the skidding line is about 1000 
feet of |-inch cable, and that of the out-haul drum, about 
2500 feet of f-inch cable. The straw line drum carries from 
2500 to 3000 feet of f-inch cable which is used in running 
out the out-haul line when logging is shifted from one run to 
another. The decking line is f-inch and about 150 feet long 
and is used to deck or pile the logs parallel to the railroad. One 
end of each boom stay is fastened to a stump or tree at one side 
of the track and passes through a block on the end of the boom 
and to a small drum on the machine, which is used to tighten 
the stay when it has been adjusted. 

Re-haul skidders do not have loading equipment and this 
work must be done at some later time by an independent load- 
ing unit. The usual skidding distance for machines of this 
type is from 600 to 800 feet. Railroads, therefore, are located 
approximately one-fourth of a mile apart. 



POWER SKIDDING 239 

Operators using this method frequently log only one or two 
runs from each line at a given set-up, pulhng at approximately 
right angles to the track. The distance between set-ups along 
the track is about 200 feet when the above practice is followed 
and the machine, therefore, skids from 5 to 7^ acres before 
moving. A self-propelling machine can be moved from one set- 
up to another and the lines readjusted, when the stand is fairly 
open, in about twenty minutes. When the brush is dense and 
the straw line must be pulled out by hand instead of by a horse, 
it may require one-half hour. The crew for operating a 4-line 
re-haul skidder consists of from seventeen to eighteen men, and 
in addition one horse for pulling the straw line out to the ends 
of the runs when lines are being placed in position. 

The daily capacity of a re-haul skidder in southern yellow pine 
forests ranges from 100 to 125 logs, 25,000 to 35,000 board feet, 
per line. 

Ground yarding. — This method, in which the lines follow the 
general ground level from the yarding machine to the tail blocks, 
is in use chiefly in the Northwest and in the Inland Empire, y^ 
Ground yarders are used both for yarding logs direct from the 
stump to the railroad and also as an intermediate system of 
transportation between the yarding engine and the railroad where 
it is not practicable to place the railroad within reach of the 
initial yarding unit. In some cases the logs may be relayed 
two or more times before they reach the loading point. 

Yarding engines are mounted on a steel frame and have a ver- 
tical high-pressure boiler which ranges in size from 48 by 96 inches 
to 80 by 153 inches; a two-cylinder engine ranging in size from 
9 by 10, to 13 by 13 inches; and three drums driven by compound 
gears. The skidding line drum has a capacity of 1500 feet of 
cable, the haul-back line drum from 3300 to 3500 feet, and the 
straw line drum about 3500 feet. The machine, with a water 
tank at the rear, usually is mounted on a sled which has two 
runners about 3 feet in diameter and from 35 to 60 feet in length.^ 
The machine is moved for short distances under its own power, 
being dragged over the ground on the sled by means of cables 
which run from the machine to trees or stumps in the line of 
proposed travel. When long moves are made it is placed on a 

1 Yarding engines often must be moved up or down slopes and over a bad 
bottom. A sled provides .an admirable base for this purpose. 



240 



LOGGING 



car and hauled by rail to the new set-up. Some loggers now 
mount their machines on cars instead of sleds. 

The yarder is set up at one end of a landing along a logging 
railroad or at some intermediate point between the stump and 
the railroad if a" swing" machine is to be used at the landing. 




From Bui. 711, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 

Fig. 76. — A Logging Chance showing the Location of the Ground Yarding 
Roads, Pacific Coast Forests. 



The area logged from one set-up is determined chiefly by topogra- 
phy and stand of timber per acre. It is often irregular in shape, 
due to topography, being delimited by ridges, gullies, or the 
practical yarding range. The latter may be as short as 500 
feet when conditions for railroad construction are very favorable. 
As a rule, the average distance is from 600 to 900 feet but in some 
cases logs are skidded for distances as great as 1500 feet. 



POWER SKIDDING 241 

The yarding engine location is carefully chosen in advance of 
logging, sometimes before the railroad is located because a good 
setting for a yarder may be more important than the best railroad 
location. When the yarding engine has been moved to the log- 
ging site, the crew runs out the yarding lines. The strip first 
logged is often parallel to the railroad. The first step is to drag 
the straw line by hand from the machine out over the first run 
to be logged, at the end of which it is passed through a tail block. 
It is then carried along the back side of the setting for a distance 
of about 300 feet where it is again passed through another block 
and then pulled back to the machine, thus enclosing a fan-shaped 
area. The trip line is then fastened to the end of the straw 
line, and the latter pulled in to the machine carrying the trip 
line around the outer edges of the area to be logged. When 
the end of the trip line reaches the machine, it is disconnected 
from the straw line and attached to the main cable and the machine 
is then ready for operation. 

When the first run has been logged, the main cable is detached 
from the trip line, and the latter pulled through the blocks until 
it is at the end of the next run which is to be logged. The straw 
line having been carried out over the second run is passed through 
a new tail block and connected to the end of the trip line which 
is then drawn in to the machine and the trip line detached from 
the straw line and attached to the main cable. 

Additional trip line blocks may be needed between the tail 
trees or between one of the tail trees and the machine in order 
to reduce wear on the cable. A- diagrammatic scheme of the runs 
on a logging chance is shown in Fig. 76. 

The main skidding cable usually runs direct from the machine 
to the block on the tail tree, although there may be angles in the 
line, the cable passing through blocks, or working against rollers 
where the bends occur. ^ 

The first work of the yarding crew is to clear the area around 
the landing of debris which would interfere with yarding or load- 
ing, following which the yarding of merchantable timber begins. 

The main cable to the end of which a butt chain- is attached 

1 The practice of pulling in a straight Une is now followed more extensively 
than formerly because of the delays incident to placing and tending the blocks 
at the bends in the line. 

2 A short, heavy chain fastened to the main cable, with a hook on the free 
end in which the choker sockets or eyes are caught when logs are being yarded. 



242 LOGGING 

is run out by the trip line to the first logs to be yarded which are 
those nearest the machine. The choker^ is then placed around 
one end of the log and the free end of the choker caught on the 
butt chain hook. The log is then drawn to the landing where 
it is loaded on cars. When a swing donkey is used, the log is 
dropped by the yarder within reach of the outer end of the main 
cable of the swing donkey and the log is then pulled to the landing by 
the auxiliary machine. One large log, or several small ones may 
be yarded at one time, the number depending on the volume of 
the logs, the size of equipment and ground conditions. 

Additional blocks may be necessary in order to side line logs 
around stumps or other obstructions. 

When the logs available from one end of the landing have been 
yarded, the yarding engine is shifted to the other end and the 
process repeated. From two to four hours are required to move 
the yarding engine from one end of the landing to the other and 
from five to ten hours to move from one landing to another, 
including the work necessary to rig the loading machinery and 
to set the lines for yarding. 

The crew required for operating a system of ground yarding 
varies with different camps and with the difficulty of the " chance" 
in the same camps. Under average conditions twelve men are 
used. 

1 hook tender 1 chaser 

1 swamper 1 signal man 

1 sniper 1 engineer 

2 rigging slingers 1 fireman 

2 choker men 1 wood buck 

The hook tender is the boss of the yarding crew, and the amount 
of work done depends largely on his ability. He plans the work, 
shows the swamper where roads are to be cleared, designates 
the logs that are to be skidded and the order in which they are to 

1 A choker is a piece of cable from If to If inches in diameter and 
from 15 to 30 feet long. One type has a socket on one end which is caught in 
the butt hook, and a flat hook on the other end. The free end of the choker 
is passed around one end of the log, forming a noose, and the flat hook is then 
caught over the cable. The <)ther type has an eye on each end, one of which 
is caught on the butt hook. The other end of the cable is thrown around 
the log in the form of a noose and a sliding hook on the choker is caught in 
the eye. The latter type does not come loose as easily as the flat-hook type 
and is preferred when working on rough ground. The flat-hook type is easier 
to handle and often is used in high-lead yarding. 



POWER SKIDDING 243 

be taken, and directs and assists the rigging slingers in their 
work. The head rigging sHnger is the hook tender's assistant 
and working alone or assisted by one or two helpers, he unhooks 
the chokers from the butt chain when the main cable has been 
returned to the log, hooks up new turns of logs, and sets "lead" 
and other blocks when they are required. The swamper works 
just ahead of the rigging crew, knots the logs, chops out the 
small trees and brush, cuts roots and improves the runs so that 
logs can be brought in without being hung up. The chief duty 
of the choker men is to place the chokers in position on the log. 
The sniper rounds the forvvard ends of the logs so that they will 
more easily slide over obstructions. The chaser passes logs by 
the butt-chain blocks and unhooks the logs at the landing.^ 
The signal man transmits the orders of the hook tender, rigging 
slinger, or chaser to the engineer either by pulling on a wire at- 
tached to the whistle of a yarder or by means of an electric whistle 
control operated by batteries. 

The daily output of ground yarding equipment is extremely 
variable but ranges between 40,000 and 80,000 board feet. In 
some cases a higher output has been secured for short periods 
and in other cases it has fallen below the minimum men- 
tioned. 

High-lead yarding^ — In this system the main cable passes 
from the machine through a block suspended 125 or more feet 
in the air from a nearby spar tree and from thence to a block at 
the far end of the run. The haul-back line follows the general 
ground level. Although this method was known in the West as 
early as 1905, it was not extensively used until about 1915 since 
which time many installations have been made.^ This method 
is not commonly employed in other regions due to the absence 
of trees of a suitable size and height for spars. The system has 

1 When the butt chain blocks are some distance from the landing an extra 
man maj^ be needed to tend them. Their use is becoming less frequent for 
this reason. 

2 See Fig. 77. 

5 The high-lead method was used in the South some years previous to 1905. 
A patent on a high-lead system for western use was granted to H. R. Robinson 
in 1905 and in a later suit brought to collect roj-alty from loggers who used 
that method it was brought out that similar patents had been issued several 
years previously and that machines built under the earlier patents were in 
operation before the Robinson patent was granted. 



244 



LOGGING 



been used in exceptional cases for distances as great as 2000 feet, 
but this is not considered profitable as a general practice. 

The chief advantages of the high-lead over the ground system 
are (a) the front ends of the logs are elevated and, therefore, 
do not hang up on stumps, rocks and other obstructions, or dig 



36 High Lead Block 




9 xlOK Duplux Loading Engi 
with third drum for snubbing cars /-^ 



From Rul. 711, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 

Fig. 77. — Arrangement of High-lead Skidding and Loading Equipment. 
Pacific Coast. 



into the ground so much when crossing depressions; (b) a special 
landing is not required, although the saving in cost due to this is 
largely offset by the cost of rigging the spar tree; (c) two moves 
only are necessary to log an area at one landing as compared to 
four for a ground system; (d) the loading area can be kept rela- 
tively free from debris and yarding, therefore, may be more 
continuous; (e) and a higher skidding speed^ may be used as soon 
1 Two-speed engines are used, the lower speed being employed to haul the 
logs up to a point where the forward end of a log can be elevated, and the 
higher speed to bring the log from this point to the landing. The change 
from one speed to another may be made instantaneously. 



POWER SKIDDING 245 

as the log reaches a point near enough to the spar to have the cable 
exert a lifting tendency. This distance depends upon the height 
of the spar tree and the configuration of the ground but seldom 
exceeds 600 feet. 

A main spar tree from 15 to 20 feet from the center of the rail- 
road track is selected at the proposed setting and the top is cut 
off at a point from 150 to 200 feet above ground. The spar is 
then guyed with from six to nine lines. ^ In case a suitable tree 
is not available at the setting a spar may be moved to the site, 
although this method is resorted to only under exceptional cir- 
cumstances. 

The yarding engine is placed from 150 to 250 feet from the spar 
tree in order to relieve the strain on the spar. The main cable 
is supported on a high-lead block of special design, which is sus- 
pended under the guy lines at an elevation of from 125 to 175 feet. 

A standard type of ground yarding engine may be used for 
high-lead yarding, but a special three-drum type with higher 
drum speeds is necessary if the operator secures the full advantage 
of the system. Some operators now mount their yarders on steel 
cars instead of on sleds, and place them on a siding near the spar 
tree, lashing the car to the latter. 

The cables and chokers are similar to those used for ground 
yarding but cables of a smaller size are often used because there 
is less wear on them. 

The crew required to operate this system may consist of eleven 
men, provided the spar rigging is done by a special crew, which 
may rig for two skidding units. 

1 hook tender 1 engineer 

1 rigging slinger 1 fireman 

3 choker men 1 wood buck 

1 signal man 1 wood splitter 

1 chaser 

The output per crew may exceed that for a ground system operat- 
ing under like conditions by from 15 to 30 per cent. 

SWINGING AND ROADING 

Overhead, ground yarding and high-lead equipment are fre- 
quently used in the Northwest to bring logs from a yarding ma- 
chine to the railroad spur or to some driveable stream or other body 

1 When nine guy hnes are used, six radiate from a point near the top of the 
spar, and three from some point lower down. 



246 LOGGING 

of water on which the logs can be floated to destination. This 
process is called "swinging" when the distance for which the 
timber is moved is relatively short and ground improvements 
are not made. "Roading" is a term frequently applied to the 
movement of timber for comparatively long distances, and of- 
ten presupposes some form of ground improvements such as the 
installation of fore-and-aft roads. The two terms often are used 
indiscriminately, however, and the term roading may be applied 
to short distance hauling without ground improvements. 

There is no standard practice with reference to swinging and 
roading because operators are not fully agreed as to the merits 
of this system especially for logging on a relatively flat chance. 
The tendency some years ago, when railroad spurs began to 
displace skid roads, was to put the railroad within yarding dis- 
tance of every log. This practice was feasible as long as ground 
conditions were favorable for comparatively cheap railroad grade 
construction. Many logging operations are now located in a 
region of rough topography where the cost of railroad construc- 
tion is high and modern swinging and roading methods have been 
developed to reduce the mileage of high-cost railroad that would 
be necessary to bring every tree within a single yarding distance. 

Ground and high-lead swinging are used preferably on the gentle 
slopes while some form of overhead system has proved the best 
in mountainous regions, especially for bringing logs up or down 
steep slopes, and across gorges. 

The ground and high-lead systems of swinging often are operated 
by the standard type of yarding engine which may be used either 
for yarding or swinging. In general a simple-geared engine is 
preferred when the ground system is used. The crew consists 
of five or more men, depending on topography and output. 
The minimum crew comprises an engineer, fireman, wood buck, 
hooker-on, and a chaser. 

The distance for which swinging is carried on with ground or 
high-lead equipment varies with the topography and the aim is 
to so locate the swing donkeys that the yarding operations will 
not be held up. Sometimes the distance for a single haul is 
1200 feet, but in general, it is but little greater than the yarding 
distance. 

When some form of overhead system is used to swing logs, the 
distances may be 1200 feet or more since it is practicable to haul 



POWER SKIDDING 247 

for longer distances than when the logs are dragged along the 
ground. The Lidgerwood, MacFarlane, North Bend and other 
overhead skidders are used in addition to other types which 
have been developed especially for this purpose. The use of a 
double-sky line system for swinging logs in the redwood region 
is shown in Fig. 78.^ The logging railroad is located in a gulch 




Adapted from The Timberman. 
Fig. 78. — A Duplex Aerial Cableway System used to swing Logs from Two 
Yarding Engines located on opposite Sides of a Canyon. 

and higher up on both sides of the slopes yarding donkeys are placed 
which bring the logs under the overhead cable. A log is picked 
up on one side of the gulch and dropped within reach of the load- 
ing rig along the railroad, and the trolley is then run to the op- 
posite side of the gulch and a log brought from there to the rail- 
road. The machine thus alternately serves two yarding engines. 
The installation of this machine obviated the necessity of building 
expensive railroad grades up the slopes to the yarding engines, 
and enabled the operator to get his logs to the railroad with a 
minimum of damage from breakage. Special equipment has 
been devised to handle logs on very steep grades or to lower timber 
from a higher to some lower level. Some types of such equipment 
are discussed under aerial trams.- 

Roading was formerly used extensively in connection with the 
ground system of yarding to move the logs from the yarding 
engine to the railroad or to some stream or body of water on which 

1 See The Timberman, August, 1922, p. 144. 

2 See Chapter XV. 



248 LOGGING 

the logs could be floated. Some of the earlier road engines were 
capable of operating for distances of 1 mile, and sometimes the 
logs were relayed by two or more machines. One road engine 
now seldom hauls for more than 3000 feet and at this distance 
it will handle the output of two ground yarding engines. For 
long-distance hauling, skid roads or pole roads were installed. 
The system is less frequently used today than formerly because 
a skid road or a pole road often costs nearly as much as the grade 
of a spur logging railroad and the cost of moving logs by road 
engine is more costly than by railroad. Today many loggers 
have replaced the road engine, either with an overhead system 
of transportation or with a short-distance ground system which 
does not require a skid or pole road, or else the logging spur is 
built to the setting of the ground yarder. Roading is most ex- 
tensivel}^ practiced in certain sections of the Northwest in which 
a large part of the log input is rafted to market and in which a 
pole-road haul of from 1 to 2 miles will reach a driveable stream. A 
road engine is similar to a simple-geared yarding engine, but the 
drum capacity is much greater. It is mounted on a sled in the 
same manner as a ground yarding machine and is moved about 
from one setting to another under its own power. 

The main cable is 1 or 1| inches in diameter with a f- 
or f-inch haul-back line. The cable is operated on the slack-rope 
system with the road engine located at the landing and a heavy 
tail-sheave at a point a short distance behind the yarding engine. 
The haul-back line which is placed near the main road, but 
outside of it so that it will not interfere with the operation of the 
main cable, is hung in snatch blocks located at suitable points. 
The main cable follows the road and is kept in place by blocks 
or by rollers where turns are made. Several logs aggregating 
from 6000 to 11,000 board feet are fastened one behind the other 
by grabs, and form turns which are attached to the main cable by 
a chain or short piece of cable which is coupled to the grabs on the 
forward log. The turns are made up by a grab setter. A 
chaser follows the logs to the landing, often riding in a rigging 
sled hollowed out of a log, which is attached to the rear log. The 
chaser can signal to the road engineer at any point along the line 
by pulling on a wire stretched along the road which is connected 
to the whistle on the engine. On arrival at the landing the chaser 
aids in placing the logs on the landing, removes the grabs from the 



POWER SKIDDING 249 

logs and returns with the grabs in the rigging sled to the yarding 
machine. 

A dirt road often is used for distances under 2000 feet, but when 
the length of haul exceeds this a fore-and-aft or a pole road is 
constructed. 1 Skid roads- were used extensively at one time, but 
they have been abandoned by most operators, although some 
still build skid roads when the conditions are favorable for their 
use. They are more expensive than pole roads since a well 
constructed grade is necessary and from 80,000 to 100,000 board 
feet of construction timber is required per mile, exclusive of bridges. 

The road should be as straight as possible because curves 
increase the frictional resistance and reduce the hauling ability 
of the engine and increase the wear on the cable. Rollers are 
placed on stumps or posts, or fenders are put alongside the road 
at curves to reduce the wear on the main cable. 

During the early period of logging in the Northwest the road 
engine sometimes was replaced by a geared locomotive and the 
logs were dragged between the rails from the yarding engine to 
the landing. As a rule, the logs were dragged over the cross- 
ties, but on a road of some permanency planks were spiked on 
the ties to protect them. A plan sometimes followed was to 
have a spur track from | to 1 mile long running out from each 
end of the landing, with a donke}^ working at some point on each 
spur. The engine went out one spur and with a short cable it 
coupled to a turn of logs, made up in advance, and dragged them 
to the landing. It then went out the other spur and brought 
in a turn from it, alternating in this manner throughout the day. 
A water tank with a 1^-inch escape pipe was used to wet the 
track to facilitate the passage of the logs. On a 1-mile haul 
one engine handled daily the output from two yarding 
engines. 

FUEL REQUIREMENTS 

Wood is the fuel most commonly used in power skidders in 
all parts of the country, although coal and fuel oil are used in 
regions where they are readil}^ available. 

From the steam-producing standpoint wood is a fairly satis- 
factory fuel for average logging conditions since it can be secured 
on the operation and is seemingly cheap. When heavy demands 
1 See page 268. = See page 148. 



250 LOGGING 

are made on the boilers for power, wood is not as satisfactory 
as fuel oil or coal and, in some parts of the West, wood has been 
replaced by fuel oil and in other regions where coal can be easily 
obtained it has been substituted frequently for wood. The use 
both of wood and of coal represents a high fire hazard because 
of the heavy spark discharge and this has led to a preference for 
fuel oil when it can be secured at a reasonable price. 

Wood fuel often is cut from merchantable logs which have been 
skidded to the machine. Cull logs are sometimes used, but they 
provide an inferior fuel and their use is limited on that account. 
In the southern pine region, "fat" pine is a common fuel because 
of its high heat value. It is, however, harder on boiler flues 
than most other kinds of wood because of the marked changes 
in the temperature of the fire box. When "fat" wood is first 
thrown on the fire, the early combustion of the volatile gases 
creates an intense heat. Before the wood has been consumed 
to the point where more can be put on the fire, the temperature 
in the fire box will have dropped to a marked extent. The con- 
stant rise and fall of temperature causes a continual contraction 
and expansion of boiler tubes which often leads to tube leakage. 

The amount of wood fuel consumed by a skidder is dependent 
on the length of haul, the size of the logs and the character of 
fuel wood. In general an overhead, a re-haul, and a snaking 
skidder in the South each burn from four to five cords of 2-foot 
wood daily. A 11- by 13-inch yarding engine in the Northwest 
will use daily from 1000 to 1600 feet log scale of timber which is 
equivalent to from four to six 2-foot cords. 

Coal is considered a better fuel than wood, but is fully as 
hazardous from the forest fire point of view and in many places 
is as expensive as fuel oil, hence the latter is preferred. The coal 
requirements for a skidder range from 1 to 1| tons daily. 

Oil is considered the most satisfactory fuel for yarding engines 
and skidders which are located on a railroad because of the 
low forest fire hazard connected with its use, the ease with which 
it can be placed in the storage tanks, and the ability of the fire- 
man to maintain an adequate steam pressure when heavy de- 
mands are made for power. It is claimed that oil burners may 
have from 15 to 25 per cent greater efficiency than wood burn- 
ers because of the ability to always hold a high head of steam. 
A yarding engine will consume from five to eight barrels of fuel oil 



POWER SKIDDING 



251 



daily, the average being about five gallons of oil per thousand 
board feet of timber yarded. 



SPARK ARRESTERS 

The laws of most forested states require the use of some form 
of spark arrester on wood- and coal-burning skidding machinery. 
There are several types of spark arresters for stationary engines, 
C, 



1 W ^ 




wnffi 


k 


J. 


1 




Q 


I \ 



Fig. 79. — The South Bend Spark 
Arrester adapted to Power Skid- 
ding MachinerJ^ 




The Boomerang Spark 
Arrester. 



two of which are here described. A spark arrester will not com- 
pletely prevent the emission of live sparks from skidder power 
plants which are operated under forced draft, but the fire hazard 
can be decreased by properly screening the stack. 

The South Bend Spark Arrester^ is used almost exclusively 
on power skidders in the southern yellow pine region, and also 
to some extent in the Northwest. 

It has a round tapering shell (A) of sheet metal, an outlet (B) 
at the side for the discharge of sparks and cinders; and a sheet 
metal cover (C). A cone-shaped screen (D) attached to the 
sheet iron cover hangs within the stack, apex downward, and 
deflects the cinders into the spark receiver at the head of the out- 
1 See Fig. 79. 



252 LOGGING 

let pipes. The steam, smoke and gases escape through the screen, 
in which the cinders do not clog because of its conical form. 
The screen can be raised by means of the lever lift (E) when it 
is unnecessary to use an arrester or when firing up the boiler. 
The Boomerang Spark Arrester is used by many loggers on the 
Pacific Coast. This has a heavy |-inch mesh round screen 
(A), slightly flaring toward the top, on which is mounted a heavy 
sheet iron cone (B). The latter ends in a boomerang (C) to the 
open end of which a screen conveyor tube (D) is attached. The 
smoke passes out through the screen while the sparks travel 
straight up through the steel cone where they are diverted into 
the boomerang and led into a receptacle by the side of the engine. 
As the sparks do not come in contact with the screen it does not 
become clogged. 

ELECTRICAL DRIVE 

Loggers and the manufacturers of electrical equipment have 
been interested for many years in the development of logging ma- 
chinery driven by electrical power, but only a relatively few 
installations of such equipment have been made. As early as 
1908 an electric road engine was tried out in British Columbia, 
but it did not work satisfactorily because of the inability of the 
motor to vary its speed, and take up the slack in the line on down- 
grade pulls. One of the earliest installations of yarding engines 
with electric drive was made in 1911 and since that time marked 
improvements have been made in such equipment, especially 
since 1918. Although the loggers, in general, have not accepted 
the electric-drive idea in its present stage of development, some 
have made installations which are giving satisfaction. The modern 
electrically-driven donkey engine is a combination yarding engine 
and loader mounted on one sled about 60 feet long. The two-speed 
motor driving the yarding drums has a rated horse-power of 300 
which, by gearing, may be increased to 1200. The loading drums 
are driven by a 75 horse-power, two-speed motor. The skidding 
drum has a capacity of 1800 feet of 1^-inch cable. The gear 
shifts, frictions and whistle are operated by compressed air. 
Power for driving the motors is brought to the vicinity of the 
yarding engine by transmission lines which carry about 13,000 
volts, which is stepped down by a transformer located near the 
machine, to 600 volts. 



POWER SKIDDING 253 

The combined yarder and loader weighing from 70 to 80 tons 
is moved about from one point to another on a specially designed 
steel car. Modern electric yarding engines have proved to have a 
logging capacity equal to those using steam power. 

One of the chief advantages which will result from the more 
extensive adoption of electric logging machinery is the great 
reduction in the forest fire hazard. Further, fuel and water are 
not required and the services of a fireman can be dispensed with. 
Power lines can be installed at approximately the cost necessary 
to pipe water to a steam yarding engine. 

Those who have experunented with electrical power, state 
that its use should not be attempted unless adequate power is 
available at a reasonable price. 

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE TO CHAPTER XIV 

Berry, E. J.: Advantages Accruing to the Adoption of Electricity in 

Logging. The Timberman, August, 1912, pp. 32 and 33. 
Clark, E. T.: Pacific Coast Logging. West Coast Lumberman, Maj^ 1, 

1920, pp. 51 to 118. 

Cole, C. O. : Difficulties Confronting Electric Log Haulage. The Timber- 
man, August, 1912, pp. 36 and 37. 
Dickinson, M. H.: Single Main Cable Logging. The Timberman, Nov., 

1921, pp. 96 C and 96 D. 

Frink, Francis G.: Washington High-Lead. The Timberman. Sept., 
1915, p. 46. 

Gibbons, William H.: Logging in the Douglas Fir Region. U. S. Dept. 
of Agriculture, Bui. No. 711, Washington, 1918. 

Gray, R. E.: Progress in Electric Logging. The Timberman, Nov., 1921, 
pp. 62-64. 

HiNE, Thomas W. : Utility of the Duplex Logging Engine and the Duplex 
System of Yarding. The Timberman, August, 1910, pp. 36 and 37. 

K ALB, Henry A.: Utilization of Compressed Air for Snubbing Logs. The 
Timberman, August, 1912, p. 53. 

McGiffert, J. R.: Development of Cableway Skidder. American Lum- 
berman, Oct. 22, 1921, pp. 56 and 57. 

Mereen, J. D.: Substitution of Electricity for Steam in Modern Logging 
Operations. The Timberman, August, 1912, pp. 29 and 30. 

Murray, L. T.: Railroad Construction vs. Donkey Hauls. The Timber- 
man, Nov., 1921, pp. 60 and 61. 

Murray, L. T. : Changes in Types of Donkey Engines. The Timberman, 
Nov., 1922, pp. 50, 52, and 55. 

O'Hearne, James: Wire Rope. The Timberman, Nov., 1922, pp. 40 and 
41. 

Taylor, W. S.: Different Stages in the Evolution of Overhead System of 
Logging. The Timberman, Jan. 1914, pp. 30 and 31. 



254 LOGGING 

Thompson, Jas. R.: Use of Electricity on Logging Operations. The 

Timberman, August, 1910, p. 64L. 
ViNNEDGE, R. W.: A Composite Flying Machine. The Timberman, Oct. 

1913, pp. 33 to 36 incl. 
ViNNEDGE, R. W.: Overhead Logging Systems. The Timberman, Nov. 

1922, pp. 45-50. 
Williams, Asa S. : Logging by Steam. Forestry Quarterly, Vol. VI, No. 

1, pp. 1-33. 



CHAPTER XV 
AERIAL TRAMWAYS 

Aerial tramways are used for carrying logs and other forest 
products up or down steep slopes, where other forms of trans- 
port are not feasible. 

A common type has a stationary main cable stretched between 
the terminals of the tramway. It may be a single span or 
it may be supported at frequent intervals on trestles or masts. 
The trolleys carrying the loads run on this cable, and are 
drawn along it by a smaller endless power-driven traction line. 

Tramways are seldom justified, except where other means of 
transport are not practicable. Their chief use has been for 
moving products in mountainous regions, especially where deep 
gorges must be spanned or ridges crossed. They may be built 
to operate on steep grades, and are relatively cheap to construct 
and operate in a very rough country as compared to a railroad. 
The amount of power required is comparatively small. 

They have been installed in the United States only to a very 
limited extent although frequently used in Europe and India 
especially for the transport of firewood. Their use in this country 
will increase as logging operations reach the more inaccessible 
stands of timber at the higher elevations. Aerial trams have 
advantages which flumes and slides do not possess, because the 
two latter require descending grades for operation and they are a 
one-way system only, while the aerial tram, on the other hand, 
operates successfully both on ascending and descending grades, 
and provides a means of transportation in both directions. 

Gravity tramways of several types have been used in this 
country to bring logs from benches to some form of transportation 
on the lower levels. One such installation in Tennessee was 
designed to bring logs from a plateau to the logging railroad about 
3700 feet distant. The f-inch standing line followed the general 
slope of the ground and was supported at intervals of from 150 
to 250 feet on brackets of varying length which were fastened to 
255 



256 LOGGING 

trees. The cable rested, free, in a slot in a casting bolted to 
the end of the brackets, except in depressions where one end of 
a piece of strap iron was riveted to the outer side of the casting 
and the other end passed over the cable and was nailed to the 
bracket. 

A log was carried by a pair of trolleys, each having two sheave 
pulleys which ran on the upper side of the cable. Two short 
chains each having a ring on one end and a "grab" on the other 
were used for attaching the logs to the trolleys. 

Five sets of trolleys were joined together by a |-inch cable, 
which was wound around a drum, equipped with a friction brake, 
which was placed at the head of the tramway and served both 
to control the speed of the descending load and to return the 
empty trolleys to the head of the tramway. Power for the 
latter purpose was supplied by a 6-horse-power gasoline engine. 

The logs were loaded on the tramway from a set of balanced 
skids which were placed so that the short ends of the skids were 
directly under the main cable. Horses brought the logs to the 
base of the balanced skids upon which they were rolled. The 
grabs were then driven and the skids elevated until the rings 
oto the grabs could be fastened in the hook on the trolleys. 

The maximum capacity of the tramway was 6000 board feet 
per turn, and approximately thirty minutes were consumed in 
making one round-trip. 

A similar tramway has been used in the Northwest for elevating 
logs from canyons to plateaus. The cable was suspended between 
two points and the loaded trolleys were hauled to the top by a 
hoisting engine. 

A special adaptation of a single-wire tramway^ has been used 
on an operation in the Northwest for lowering logs on grades 
up to 60 degrees. The main cable was 1| inches in diameter 
and 1500 feet long. It was attached at the head of the tramway 
to a large tree at a height of 75 feet. The tree was braced se- 
curely on three sides with guy wires. A 16-inch sheave block 
was spliced to the lower end of the main cable and through this 
block a 1-inch cable 150 feet long was passed. One end of the 
latter was attached to a stump and the other to the drum of a 
yarding engine, both stump and yarding engine being in front of 
and equidistant from the sheave block. The main cable could 
1 See The Timberman, Aug. 1909, p. 24. 



AERIAL TRAMWAYS 



257 



be lifted several feet above ground by tightening the secondary- 
cable with a few turns on the drum. The logs were attached by- 
chokers to a traveling block that ran on the main cable. The 
load descended by gravity, its speed being controlled by a |-inch 
cable which was attached to the rear of the traveling block, 
and then passed through a block fastened to the tail tree and thence 
down the slope to a drum on the engine. The trip line was held 




Fig. 81. — A Single- wire Tramway used in the Northwest. The details of 
the trolley and the method of attaching logs to it are shown in the en- 
larged cut. 

in position by several blocks placed at suitable intervals on the 
slope. This line also served to return the block to the head of 
the tramway. In case of a break in the machinery or of the load 
becoming unmanageable the main cable could be dropped to 
the ground and the load stopped. 

A system of this character may be used for distances of 3000 
feet when there are no pronounced elevations between the two 
ends of the tram. 

Logs containing from 5000 to 6000 board feet have been success- 
fully handled. The hourly capacity of this tramway was 
12,000 board feet, when the logs averaged from 300 to 500 feet. 
Three men were required to operate the tram. 

A single-wire gravity tramway^ used in the West had a If -inch 
main cable 2100 feet long suspended between a tree on the upper 
slope and one at the base of the grade, as shown in Fig. 82. Auto- 
matic trips were placed on the main cable at the loading and 
1 See The Timberman, April, 1912. 



258 



LOGGING 



unloading points. The snubbing line passed through a 2-sheave 
trolley and had a ball near the free end which engaged a catch 
in the trolley and served to hold the load in position, and to trip 
it at the lower end. Power for returning the trolley to the head 
of the tram was furnished by a drum on a yarding engine at the 
head of the slope. A cable was fastened near the ends of a log 
that was to be transported. A hook on the end of the snubbing 
line was then caught in a ring midway between the ends of the 
cable and the log hoisted into the air. When the ball on the 







>ter Stop 
DETAILS OF TROLLEY 



Adapted from The Timberman. 
Fig. 82. — A Single-cable Aerial Tramway in use in the Pacific Coast Forests 
for lowering Logs on Steep Slopes. 



snubbing line struck the catch in the trolley, the latter was freed 
from the stop at the head tree and with its load passed down the 
main cable by gravity, the speed being controlled by the yarding 
engine. On reaching the lower end of the cable the trolley was 
automatically tripped and the log lowered to a skidway along a 
railroad. Poles 100 feet long were handled with ease. The 
average time required to traverse the distance from the head to 
the foot of the tramway was one and one-quarter minutes. 

One of the early successful attempts made to move logs for 
long distances by an aerial tramway system was undertaken in 
Idaho in 1912 when a line \\ miles in length was installed 
to bring timber out of a region in which the cost of railroad build- 
ing was prohibitive. It was later modified and used to bring 
out timber from other portions of the forest. This system was 
not used, however, when logging railroad construction costs were 
within the limits which the company considered justifiable. 



AERIAL TRAMWAYS 259 

The tramway was built with a standing line 1| inches in 
diameter which was suspended from spars, spaced from 500 to 
2000 feet apart, depending upon the configuration of the ground 
surface. The stationary return line for the trolleys was |-inch 
since the chief load which it had to support was the weight of 
the empty carriers. An endless |-inch traction line, run at a 
speed of 250 feet per minute, furnished the tractive force for moving 
the loaded and empty carriers. This traction line was driven by 
a 7- by 9-inch yarding engine, on the single-drum of which a 
capstan was bolted. The traction line was wound three times 
around the drum and then passed through three 10-inch blocks 
at the end of the line, so arranged that two of the blocks, spaced 
on either side of a central one, acted as spreaders and prevented 
too sharp an angle in the traction cable. The standing line was 
"built in units 2000 feet in length, the ends of which were moored 
to stumps or trees. The ends of two sections of cable were 4 feet 
apart, the intervening space being spanned by a section of U- 
shaped metal track. There were curves as high as 43 degrees, 
the standing line at such places being supported on masts spaced 
100 feet apart. 

The logs were loaded from a skidway at which the elevation 
of the standing line was 4 feet. A choker, placed near each end 
of the log was caught in a slot on the lower part of a trolley, and 
the traction cable was placed on top of the choker in the same slot. 
Loads were spaced from 50 to 200 feet apart, the cable being 
stopped whenever a log was loaded. The capacity of this system, 
operated by a crew of 18 men, was 15,000 board feet per hour. 

The design of the hanger and trolley used on a line similar to 
that in Idaho is shown in Fig. 83. The trolley is made of cast 
steel and has two 12-inch sheave wheels hung on. a frame pivoted 
at a so as to allow it to travel up and down the hanger segment 
o on which the standing line d rests. The endless traction line 
is shown at h and e. The hanger hook is pivoted at c in order 
to give flexibility to the suspended load so that it can swing in a 
forward or backward direction. The grip for holding the trac- 
tion line is shown at / and also at e, the weight of the load serving 
to hold the grip k against the cable. A chain is wrapped twice 
around the end of a log and caught in the hook m at n which 
is then closed as shown in the cut and locked with the clevis I. The 
release of the load is accomplished by raising the clevis I w^hich allows 



260 



LOGGING 



the hook m to open. The main cable is supported on a segment o 
which is pivoted to the hanger so that it will rock slightly towards 
the load when it approaches. Supports for hangers are placed 
from 350 to 500 feet apart depending on topography. 

Another type, known as the endless cable tramway, has been 
used for the transportation of shingle bolts. A tram of this 




Fig. 83. — The General Form of the Trolley and Hanger used on Some 
Western Aerial Tramways. 

character built in California had a |-inch moving cable supported 
at frequent intervals on 16-inch sheave wheels attached to cross- 
arms fastened on heavy poles. 

The cable was driven by a donkey engine geared to a 6-foot 
vertical drum around which the cable was wound several times 
and then passed out over the sheave blocks. About halfway 
between the two extremities the tramway turned a right angle, 
the cable passing around two loose drums at this point. 

Shingle blocks were brought to temporary platforms by chutes 
and were attached by hand to grips which were fixed at intervals 
along the cable. The bolts were tripped automatically at the 
terminus. 

One hundred grips were operated on the line one-half of which 



AERIAL TRAMWAYS 261 

were traveling loaded and the remainder returning empty to 
the loading point. The average output per hour for the tram- 
way was thirty cords of bolts. 

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE TO CHAPTER XV 

Anonymous: A Newly Patented Aerial Logging Railway. Western Lum- 
berman, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, December, 1912, pp. 40-41. 
Anonymous: Heavy Duty Cable Tramway. The Timberman, Sept., 

1914, pp. 31 and 32 B. 
FoRSTER, G. R.: Das forstliehe Transportwesen, Wien, 1888, pp. 242-250. 
FuJiOKA, M.: Notes on Aerial Wire Tramway. Tokyo, Japan, 1915. 
Gayer, Karl: Forest Utilization. (Schlich's Manual of Forestry, 2nd. 

edit., pp. 346-352; translated from the German by W. R. Fisher.) 

Bradbury, Agnew and Company Ltd., London, 1908. 
Nestos, R. R.: Aerial Snubbing Device. The Timberman, April, 1912, 

pp. 49 and 52. 
Newby, F. E.: Handling Logs on Steep Ground with a Gravity Cable 

System. The Timberman, August, 1910, pp. 31-32. 
Riley, F. C: The Opsal Aerial System. The Timberman, Sept., 1914, 

pp. 33 and 34. 
Rogers, C. G.: Note on the Setikhola Wire Ropeway. Indian Forester, 

Feb., 1902, Vol. XXVIII, No. 2, pp. 69-73. 
Steinbeis, Ferdinand: Die Holzbringimg im bayerischen Hochgebirge unter 

den heutigen wirtschaftlichen Verhaltnissen, Munchen, 1897, pp. 31-39. 
Wettich, Hans: Moderne Transportanlagen im Dienste der Holzgewinn- 

ung und Holzindustrie. Centralblatt fiir das gesamte Forstwesen, Oct., 

1912, pp. 451 to 460. 



CHAPTER XVI 

TIMBER SLIDES AND CHUTES ^ 

Slides_are^ channels used chiefly for transporting logs, although 
pulpwood, crossties, firewood, and acid-wood, may also be handled 
in this manner. There are two general types; namely, earth 




A Two-pole Running Log Slide. Idaho. 



slides and timber slides, both of which may be combined to form a 
single slide. 

They are in frequent use in Pennsylvania, the Appalachian 

1 The theory of slide design is treated exhaustively in Beitrag zur Kenntnis 
der dynamischen Vorgange beim Abriesen des Holzes in Holzriesen, by Dr. 
F. Angerholzer v. Almburg, Centralblatt fiir das gesamte Forstwesen, April, 
1911. 

262 



TIMBER SLIDES AND CHUTES 263 

mountains, Idaho, Montana, the Northwest and, to a limited 
extent, in New England and New York. 

Slides are built in the valleys of streams or down the slopes 
of mountains but they are seldom carried across watersheds 
because the cost of spanning depressions is too great. They 
vary in length from a few hundred feet to several miles. Th^ 
are chiefly used in mountainous regions where the stands are 
light, the country broken, and the slopes so steep that logging 




Fig. 85. — The Lower End of a Trailing Log Slide. Note the corduroy bot- 
tom over which the tow team travels. Idaho. 



railroad construction is not justified. They are occasionally 
built in a flat country for transporting logs for short distances. 

Earth Slide. — An earth or ground slide is used for short 
distances on steep grades where the soil is free from rocks and 
debris that would hinder the movement of logs. It is a fur- 
row which is made by dragging logs over the proposed route. 
If the earth is easily stirred no previous preparation is necessary, 
otherwise the soil must be loosened in places by a pick. 

An improved form called the "trail slide," has a furrow made 
in a manner similar to the ground slide, with the addition of 
a continuous ''fender" skid on the lower side of the trail. 
These skids are from 12 to 18 inches in diameter and are fas- 



264 



LOGGING 



tened together by a lap joint pierced with a 2-inch wooden pin, 
or with a |-inch iron spike. The joint may or may not be sup- 
ported on a cross-skid. Fender skids are kept in place by stakes 
driven into the ground on the outer side. Slides of this character 




Fig. 86. — A Trailing Two-pole Log Slide in process of construction. Idaho. 



are desirable on side-hills, where there is a tendency for the logs 
to leave an earth trail. 

Timber Slide. — A timber slide has a trough or chute made 
of round or sawed timbers supported on cross-skids. On low 
grades where logs will not run by gravity it is necessary to clear 
out a right-of-way 10 or 12 feet wide which serves both for the 
slide and as a pathway for the animals which draw the tow of 
logs. Where the grade is sufficient to cause the logs to run by 
gravity, a right-of-way 8 feet wide is ample. 



TIMBER SLIDES AND CHUTES 



265 



A common form of round timber slide has two parallel timbers 
supported on cross-skids placed from 8 to 15 feet apart. The 
timbers are from 9 to 18 inches in diameter and from 20 to 60 
feet long and are cut from trees having a minimum taper. A 
log 6 or 8 inches in diameter with a hewed face or a 4- by 8-inch 
plank may be placed between the two slide timbers and fastened 
to the cross-skids. The poles are placed from 4 to 6 inches apart 










^^bS^'^'-* 







Fig. 87. — The Terminus of a Log Slide. Idaho. 

at the base on a two-pole slide and from 8 to 15 inches apart when a 
third pole is used. The timbers usually are placed with their 
butts up grade because they sliver less, and are joined together 
by a simple lap joint. They are sunk into a skid directly be- 
neath them and fastened to it by Ij- or 2-inch hardwood treenails, 
or |- by 12-inch iron spikes. In order to strengthen the slide 
the joints are always broken. 

On level stretches a slide is built on the ground and requires 
a minimum of bracing and support, while on steep pitches and 
in crossing depressions it is supported on crib work and is thor- 
oughly braced because rigidity is important. 

When the round logs are in place and securely fastend to the 



266 



LOGGING 



cross-skids, men are setjjo wjork to iies^ th e inner fac es of the 
slide timbers. This is particular work because any irregularities 
on the face of the slide will cause logs to jump. The scoring line 
is laid off with a chalk line and the timbers then scored with a 
felling ax and finally hewed smooth with a broadax. 

A common method of dumping logs from a slide is to build 
one side several inches lower than the other. Another method 




Whip-poor-will Switch used for throwing Logs from a Slide. 



used where there are several dumping grounds is to hew down 
the side of the slide on the dump side and place a switch called 
a " whippoorwill " diagonally across the shde timbers. The 
lower part of the slide ends at a landing, where the grade should 




Fig. 89. 



A Sawed-timber Slide, a Form sometimes used when Sawed 
Material is available. 



be level or slightly ascending to check the speed of the logs. 
When the log strikes the switch it is shunted off. When it is 
desired to send logs past a given dump the upper end of the switch 
is removed and placed across the depression on the slide timber 
and fastened by two heavy treenails. 

The life of a pole slide is from six to ten years, when kept in 
repair. 



TIMBER SLIDES AND CHUTES 



267 



Trailing slides may be made from sawed timbers when the 
latter can be readily secured. A type of patent portable slide 
used in Pennsylvania and New York is shown in Fig. 90. The 
timbers are three in number and are made 8 feet long for ease in 
handling. Maple and birch are preferred for timbers, which 




;<-3"->|< — 6" — 5j 

Fig. 90. — The Sykes Trailing Log Slide. 



may be made from the lower grade material. They meet over 
the center of a plate, Fig. 90a, which may be placed flat on the 
ground, or supported on crib work when it is necessary to elevate 
the slide in order to prevent abrupt changes in grade. The main 
slide timbers A are made in the form of a trapezoid, two being 
sawed from one rectangular piece as shown in Fig. 90b. 

A slide of this character is well adapted to conditions where 
a trailing chute can be used to. advantage and is more economical 
than a pole slide because the various parts can be used repeatedly. 
When a slide is being built the materials are brought to the 
foot of it and then dragged by horses to the upper end where con- 



268 LOGGING 

struction is in progress. When a slide is being dismantled the 
process is reversed and the timbers, as they are taken from the 
plates, are drawn down the slide to its lower terminus. Since the 
slide timbers are not spiked to the plates they can be easily re- 
moved or put in place. 

A right-of-way about 20 feet wide is required when a team is 
used to draw the logs. This gives ample room for the slide struc- 




FiG. 91. — A Fore-and-aft or Pole Road used with a Road Engine. Pacific 
Coast. 

ture and for a runway along the side of it. Tows of 1000 board 
feet have been handled at one time, and in small timber one 
team will put in about 7000 board feet daily on a 1-mile haul. 

On the Pacific Coast, slides called "fore-and-aft" roads or 
"pole chutes" are used for trailing logs from yarding engines 
to a landing, when power for moving the logs is provided by a 
road engine. 

A fore-and-aft road has a trough from two to five poles wide, made 
from long straight timber with a minimum diameter of 10 inches. 
The ends of the poles are beveled, fitted together and drift- 



TIMBER SLIDES AND CHUTES 269 

bolted to skids placed transversely under them at intervals of 
from 10 to 15 feet, thus providing a stable foundation. Side 
braces placed at intervals of 15 or 20 feet prevent the poles 
from spreading. The slide follows the ground level except where 




Fig. 92. — A Timber Chute for bringing Logs dowTi Steep Slopes. New 
Hampshire. 

it crosses deep depressions or streams, when it is supported on 
cribwork. The roads are built as straight as possible to decrease 
the loss of engine power through friction. 

A fore-and-aft road requires from 90,000 to 120,000 board feet of 



270 LOGGING 

timber per mile according to the amount of cribbing neces- 
sary. 

Chutes also are used on the Pacific Coast as the terminus 
of a skid or pole road, where the logs are dumped into a stream, 
pond or other body of water. These chutes have a head which 
is cross-skidded like a skid road, the "slip" or chute proper and 
the "apron" or terminus. The cross-skids at the head offer less 
friction than a pole chute and enable the logs to be readily started. 
The poles in the chute proper are drift-bolted to heavy cross- 
stringers set at 10-foot intervals on the upper part, and 
closer together near the base where the strain is greatest. Side 
poles serve as fenders to keep the logs in the chute. The apron 
extends out over the water, nearly parallel to the surface, in 
order to prevent the logs from striking bottom. The change 
in gradient from the slip to the apron must be gradual or the 
impact of the logs against the latter will soon destroy it. Chutes 
are used only when no other form of transport is feasible for 
even under the most favorable operating conditions many logs 
are broken or damaged. 

In the Northeast chutes similar to the one shown in Fig. 92 
are occasionally built for bringing logs down steep slopes. 

Another form of rough chute used in the same region is built 
as follows: A strip 5 or 6 feet wide is cleared down the slope. 
Logs are then snaked to a skidway at the head of the cleared 
strip ready to be sent down by gravity. The first logs that go 
down are used to form a crude trough of parallel logs down which 
the bulk of the timber passes. Chutes of this character work 
best after a heavy frost or a light snowfall. 

In parts of the Appalachian region the logs are frequently 
brought down the beds of the mountain streams. Where the 
grades are steep and the bottom is smooth, little preparation is 
needed, but where the bed is rough, poles are laid lengthwise in 
the stream. The logs are started at the head of a cove and pass 
down the slide with great rapidity, collecting in a rough-and- 
tumble skidway at its base. Although timber is often damaged 
by breakage this is offset by the cheapness of transportation. 

Rail Slides. — Slides for short-distance transportation of logs 
by gravity have been made from steel rails mounted on suit- 
able blocking, where grades are too steep for the use of wheeled 
vehicles. Standard-sized crossties, spaced 10 feet apart, serve as 



TIMBER SLIDES AND CHUTES 271 

a support for the slide structure. These may be laid directly on 
the ground or supported on crib work if it is necessary to elevate 
them in order to avoid abrupt changes in grade. Blocks 3 or 4 
feet long with one end beveled at an angle of 45 degrees are sawed 
from crossties, and drift-bolted on top of the sills so that there 
is a space of about 24 inches between the nearest points. Two 
45-pound steel rails, spaced 10 inches center to center, are then 
fastened with railroad spikes to the sills between the side blocks. 
Another rail also is spiked near the top of each sloping face of 
the side blocks. Rail joints are braced with angle bars, properly 
bolted. The advantage of this type of slide is that it can be 
readily moved from one site to another and can be installed by 
the logging railroad steel-laying crew at a daily rate of from 40 
to 60 feet of slide per man. On one operation a slide of this type 
was used to lower logs from the top of a steep grade to a loading 
point along the logging railroad. The logs were brought to the 
slide on wagons, and unloaded on skids which sloped down from 
the upper side towards a set of dead rollers at the head of the 
slide. The logs were pushed forward on the rollers by hand to 
the slide down which they moved by gravity. This type of slide 
is well adapted to moving rough logs since the projecting stubs 
do not catch on the slide. 

UPGRADES .-' 

The grade is an important feature of all slides. On trailing 
slides the grades are so low that logs will not run by gravity, 
and animal or other power is required to keep them in motion. 
Running slides have a grade which is steep enough to cause the 
logs to move by gravity. 

Slides vary in gradient at different points along the line and 
in some parts they may be trailing slides and in other sections run- 
ing slides. The grade necessary to make logs run by gravity 
depends on the character and condition of the slide, the kind and 
size of the timber and whether the slide is used dry, greased or 
iced. The greater the weight of the log the faster its speed, hence 
large or long logs will run on lower grades than small or short 
ones. Heavy hardwood logs will run on lower grades than 
most softwoods, and peeled logs will run on lower grades than 
unpeeled ones. 

Earth slides with a 25 per cent grade may be used during the 



272 



LOGGING 



summer but if the grade is as low as 10 per cent they are used 
to best advantage during cold weather when they can be iced. 

During the warm season, horses often are used to drag logs 
in earth slides. Several logs are fastened together by grabs 
into a "turn" and a team is attached to the forward log. In cold 
weather animals can be wholly or partially dispensed with. 

Iced timber shdes are most efficient and, therefore, may be 
used on the lowest grades; those lubricated with skid grease 
rank next; while dry timber slides are the least efficient. 

The following table of grades for running timber slides is from 
European practice:^ 



Material transported 


Per cent of grade 


Dry slide 


Ice slide 


Firewood 


20-35 

30 

1^20 


6-12 
3-6 


Crossties 


Logs 





Grades of 25 per cent are considered best for dry running 
timber slides in which large logs are to be handled, although 45 
per cent may be used on short stretches if the slide is built strong 
and rigid. The minimum grade should not be less than 10 
per cent. 

Timber slides with maximum grades of 80 per cent and an 
average grade of 60 per cent have been operated, but are not 
desirable because of the heavy loss through breakage. 



Curves on slides must be laid out with reference to the length 
of material to be handled and the size of the chute. Sharp 
curves are always undesirable and especially so on steep pitches 
because the wear is excessive and logs are liable to jump out of 
the slide. 

It is necessary on 2- and 3-pole slides to elevate the outer 
timber, the amount of elevation depending on the degree of 
curvature, the grade and the character of material that is being 

i From Forest Utilization, by Karl Gayer. (Vol. V, "Schlich's Manual of 
Forestry," p. 32r).) 



TIMBER SLIDES AND CHUTES 273 

transported. A radius less than 200 feet is not desirable for 
any form of slide. 

OPERATION 

Running slides are more expensive to operate than trailing 
ones because of their higher construction and maintenance ex- 
pense, and the added cost of returning to the slide the logs which 
have jumped out of it. 

Logs usually are rolled directly into slides either from large 
skidways on which many logs are stored in advance of chuting, 
or from small skidways where the logs are sent down as they 
are yarded. In some cases skidways are dispensed with, the 
timbers being spread apart at the head of the slide and the logs 
dragged directly into it. 

Logs are sent down singly on running slides. When a part 
or all of the slide is a trailing one from ten to forty logs are made 
up into a turn, but if there is 
a possibility of the logs run- 
ning even for a short distance 
they are not fastened together. 

In making up a turn on a 
trailing slide a log is rolled 
from the skidway into the 
slide, and is then hauled down pj^ 93. -An "L" Hook used for 
a log length by a tow horse or attaching the Tow Line to the 
team, so that the next log may Turn of Logs. 
be rolled in. Both are then 

moved ahead for another log length by attaching the tow 
line to the rear of the last log. The process is repeated until 
a turn is made up. The team is then hitched to a chain or rope 
from 30 to 50 feet long, at the end of which is an " L" hook, 
swamp hook, grab hook or "jay grab." The hook is then attached 
to the last log and the tow is started for the landing, and if the logs 
begin to nm in the slide it may be readily detached. The logs 
are dragged to the landing, or until the grade becomes sufficient 
for them to run, whereupon the tow is started down the slide 
and the team returns to the head for more logs. The tow is 
picked up by another team on the first "dead" stretch and dragged 
to the next running portion of the slide. 

Caterpillar tractor draft has been substituted successfully 




274 



LOGGING 



for animal draft both in the Northeast and in the West. 
Machines as small as the 2-ton and as large as the 10-ton 
class have been used. They possess advantages over animals 
on long hauls, both because of their greater average speed and 
because they do not mire as badly as horses on bad bottom. 
On a 1-mile haul in eastern Oregon, a 10-ton caterpillar tractor 
has made from twelve to sixteen trips per day, hauling about 
3500 board feet per trip, doing work which formerly required 
six teams. 

During the summer season the "slow" stretches of a slide are 
watered, or are greased with skid grease or crude petroleum to 



r^lr^ 




Fig. 94. — Two Common Forms of Goose-necks used for checking the Speed 
of Logs on Heavy Grades, and the Manner of placing them in the Shde 
Timbers. 



reduce friction. During the cold season such stretches are 
iced by throwing water on them at night. If the stretch is 
short and the water is close at hand it may be poured on with a 
bucket, otherwise a barrel is used in which two holes are bored 
in one end, one hole being over each slide stick. The barrel is 
then filled with water and lowered down the slide during the 
night. 

On steep slopes where logs run fast and are apt to leave the 
slide, several devices are used to check the speed. A common 
one is a "goose-neck" or "scotch" made from 1^- or 2-inch 
round or square iron fashioned as shown in Fig. 94a and b. 
It is placexl in a hole bored through a slide timber and the prong 
digs into the logs as they pass over it and their progress is 
retarded. Logs will leave the slide unless the goose-necks are 



TIMBER SLIDES AND CHUTES 275 

placed opposite each other. The holes in which the goose-necks 
are fitted are bored entirely through the slide timbers so that 
dirt cannot accumulate in them. When not in use the goose- 
necks may be removed or dropped into notches cut into the 
slide timbers for that purpose. 

Another form of brake has a log one end of which is pivoted 
to a framework erected above the slide. The free end is armed 
with spikes that drag on the logs as they pass under them. 

On long slides which have both very steep and slight pitches the 
use of animal draft for moving logs on the slow places is at times 
impracticable, especially in summer, because of the long steep 
climb from the lower to the higher elevations. Donkey engines 
placed at the foot of slides have proved successful both in holding 
logs back on steep grades and in pulling them over level stretches. 
A |-inch line is used and, in a tow of from 6 to 10 logs, the 
main cable is attached both to the rear and the front logs. It is 
necessary to select large round logs for the front and rear, other- 
wise the tow has a tendency to buckle when being pulled along 
the slide. Straight chutes are essential when a yarding engine is 
used because logs will leave the chute when the pull comes on a 
curve. The greatest success in the use of a donkey engine in 
connection with log slides is in dry trailing chutes. The daily 
capacity of one slide in Idaho which was 2000 feet long was 
from 20,000 to 30,000 board feet. 

The control of logs on a chute so steep that the logs either left 
the slide before they reached the bottom or were badly damaged 
at the bottom by breakage was solved by an Oregon logger in 
the following manner. ^ The chute was 1600 feet long and the 
difference in elevation between the head and foot of the slide 
was 600 feet, A 6 horse-power gasoline engine was installed 
at the head of the slide and belted to the shaft of a donkey drum, 
which was equipped with a hand brake and a friction clutch. 
The engine was run continuously, power being transmitted from 
the shaft to the drum by the friction clutch. A ^^-inch cable 
was wound on the drum and to the free end a 14- by 40-inch 
round hold-back block was attached to the under side of which 
a 4- by 6- by 30-inch rudder was fastened which served to keep 
the hold-back block in position. The cable was attached to 
the base of the front end of the hold-back block and then carried 
1 The Timberman, March, 1915, p. 36. 



276 



LOGGING 



diagonally through the block to the upper rear end.^ The slide 
timbers were spaced 5 inches apart and the cable ran in this 
space underneath the turn of logs. An automatic dump was 
installed at the foot of the slide by cutting a rectangular section 
15 by 60 inches in size from the slide timbers."^ A turn of logs 
was made up at the head of the slide behind the hold-back block 




Fig. 95. 



Adapt,:,! fmm The Timbern 

A Snubbing Device for lowering Logs down a Chute. 



and then lowered by gravity, the speed being controlled by 
means of a friction brake. When the hold-back block reached 
the automatic dump the pressure of the logs behind it caused 
it to turn downward into the slot in the slide and the logs passed 
over it. The friction was then thrown into gear and as the drum 
reeled in the cable the hold-back block was pulled up to the head 
1 See Fig. 95a. ^ See Fig. 956. 



TIMBER SLIDES AND CHUTES 277 

of the slide. A round trip was made in 8 minutes, from 1500 
to 2500 board feet being lowered at one time. Two men were 
required to operate this system, one to roll logs into the chute 
and the other to manipulate the drum. 

Several slide tenders are required to keep slides greased and 
watered, adjust goose-necks and make repairs. As a general 
rule, several kinds and sizes of logs are run indiscriminately 
during the day, and it is necessary to use goose-necks on large 
logs and to remove them for the slower running small logs. Where 
logs have jumped out, laborers are required to return them to 
the slide. This is done by building an improvised chute from the 
ground to the slide, and dragging the logs up with a team and 
tow line, or by rolling the logs up by hand on spiked skids. This 
work is done after the season's sliding has been completed. 



Slides vary greatly in cost depending on their character, the 
amount of- cribbing required, the number of curves, the season 
of the year in which they are built and the efficiency of the labor. 

Running slides are the most expensive form to construct, 
because they must be built stronger and more rigid than other 
forms. Curves require about one-third more labor to build than 
straight stretches. Slides constructed during the winter cost 
about 25 per cent more to build than during warm weather and 
arc often troublesome in the spring when the frost leaves the 
ground. 

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE TO CHAPTER XVI 

VON Almburg, Dr. F. Angerholzer: Beitrag zur Kenntnis der djTiamis- 
chen Vorgange beim Abriesen des Holzes in Holzriesen. Centralblatt 
fiir das gesamte Forstwesen, April, 1911, pp. 161-179. 

FoRSTER, G. R.: Das Forstliche Transportwesen, pp. 45-68. Mortiz 
Perles, Wien, 1888. 

Gayer, Karl: Forest Utilization. (SchUch's Manual of Forestry, Vol. V, 
pp. 316-322; translated by W. R. Fisher.) Bradbury^ Agnew and Co., 
Ltd., London, 1908. 

KuBELKA, August: Der Riesweg als Holzbringungsanstalt des Hochge- 
birges. Centralblatt fur das gesamte Forstwesen. Wien, Aug.-Sept., 
1903, pp. 325-377. 

ScHONWiESE, Heinrich: Die Wegriesen im Reichforste Cadino. Central- 
blatt fiir das gesamte Forstwesen, Aug.-Sept., 1903, pp. 377-387. 

Stoddard, E. I.: Chute Logging in Eastern Oregon. The Timberman, 
July, 1920, p. 35. 



CHAPTER XVII 
FOREST RAILROADS 

POLE ROADS 

Pole roads were formerly used by lumbermen because the 
material for construction could be secured on the operation at 
no expense except for labor and stumpage but they are primitive 
in character and are now seldom used except on an occasional 
small operation where sawed wooden rails or steel rails cannot 
be secured at reasonable cost. Animals are used as draft power, 
although on down grades the cars may descend by gravity under 
control of a brakeman. Pole roads are seldom built for dis- 
tances greater than from 2 to 2^ miles. 

A 25-foot right-of-way is required from which all brush must 
be removed and stumps grubbed out or cut level with the ground. 
The grade is then established. Turnouts for returning teams 
are provided at intervals of from | to | of a mile. On a track 
of this character, ascending grades greatly decrease the hauling 
ability of animals. The maximum grade for loaded cars hauled 
by two animals is 1.5 per cent. Where eight horses are used 
trams with 15 per cent ascending grades on the route to the woods 
and 3 per cent ascending grades for loaded cars en route to the 
mill have been used successfully. 

The roads have a gauge of 5 or 6 feet, and the rails are long, 
straight poles from 9 to 12 inches in diameter, with as little 
taper as can be secured. They are hewed on the inner face to 
reduce friction on the wheel flange and are laid with the 
butts all in one direction, the top of one pole being lap-jointed 
to the butt of the following one. When they are not of the 
same size at the joint they are hewed down until the car wheels 
can pass over them readily. 

On a hard bottom the poles are laid directly on the ground 
and are ballasted to make an even track. They are braced 
at frequent intervals by stakes driven close to them on the out- 

278 



FOREST RAILROADS 279 

side. At curves where the track is likely to spread, braces are 
placed between the rails and also between the outer rail and trees 
or stmnps. Poles are held together at the lap-joints and fastened 
to the cross-skids by means of wooden treenails from 1| to 2 inches 
in diameter, which are driven into the ground through a hole bored 
in the pole and skid. Cross-skids are used only on soft ground 




Fhotofjraph by H. R. McMillan. 

Fig. 96. — A Pole Tram-road for Summer Use. The poles are removed 
during the winter and the right-of-way used as a sled road. Idaho. 

and are spaced from 6 to 8 feet apart. They are short round 
blocks placed under the rails but they do not extend across the 
track as they would interfere with the foothold of the draft 
animals. 

A crew for building a pole road comprises six men and one 
team. When the poles can be obtained along the right-of-way 
a crew will cut and peel the necessary ones and build 500 feet of 
straight track daily. Curves require about one-third more labor 
than straight track. 



tl. C. State Colk^^ 



280 



LOGGING 



The maintenance of a pole road is low. The chief items aside 
from the occasional replacement of a pole, are the removal of 
splinters from the rails, usually with a spade, and greasing the 
rails with skid grease. One man can maintain 2 miles of track 
on half time. 

The cars are built with a heavy framework of sawed timbers 
mounted on four wheels, each of which is about 42 inches in 




Photograph by H. R. McMillan. 

Fig. 97. — A Car used on a Pole Tram-road. The capacity of this car is 
approximately 1400 board feet. Idaho. 

diameter with a slightly concave face, a 4-inch flange on the inner 
side and a 2-inch flange on the outer. Each wheel turns on a 
2-inch fixed axle provided with a side play of 6 inches so that the 
wheels can adjust themselves to the inequalities of the rail and 
the uneven gauge. 

The bunks are 10 feet long and from 10 to 12 feet apart. A 
reach which passes through the body of the car and projects 2^ 
feet beyond the bunks serves as a point of attachment for the 
draft power. 

Cars of tliis character drawn by two horses will carry 1400 
board feet per load. A team will haul loaded cars from 8 to 10 
miles daily. 



FOREST RAILROADS 281 

On an Idaho pole tram 1^ miles in length, two horses hauled 
from 7500 to 9000 board feet daily, each car load containing 
approximately 1600 feet. On the Pacific Coast a team of eight 
horses hauled 20,000 feet daily on a 1^-mile tram road, each 
car averaging 5000 feet. 

Two horses are commonly used although on the Pacific Coast 
as many as eight are employed on some of the roads. 

Light geared locomotives have been used to a limited extent 
but they are not adapted to this type of rail. 

STRINGER ROADS 

The stringer road soon superseded the pole road on operations 
where a sawmill was available for sawing rails. 

The early stringer roads were operated by animal power but 
light geared locomotives or motor trucks are now used almost 
exclusively except for stocking very small mills. 

Stringer roads have a greater capacity than pole roads and 
may be used to stock a single-band mill. They are employed 
chiefly on operations where suitable hardwoods are abundant for 
rails, where the operation is remote and the cost of transporting 
steel rails is excessive, and when the length of haul is comparative- 
ly short and the daily output limited. Such conditions exist in 
the hardwood region of the Appalachian mountains where this 
type of road is common. 

The disadvantages of a stringer road as compared with steel- 
railroads are that the rails become soft and wear out rapidly in 
rainy and wet weather; wheel flanges climb wooden rails more 
readily than steel ; the cost of repairs and materials for a year's 
operation will largely meet the first cost of steel rails; and the 
road is about 75 per cent less efficient. 

The right-of-way for a stringer road must be carefully graded 
and crib bridges or trestles built where necessary. The grades 
should not exceed 3 per cent on the main line and 8 per cent 
on spurs. The preparation of the roadbed is as expensive as 
for a narrow-gauge steel road, the only saving effected being 
the original cost of rails. 

A stringer road 3 or 4 miles in length is limited in capacity to 
40,000 or 50,000 board feet of logs per day. 

The rails are 6 by 6 inches in size and are composed of two 
sawed pieces, each 3 by 6 inches, placed one on top of the other. 



282 



LOGGING 



They are fastened to the crossties and to each other by wire 
spikes. The top rail must be of some wood that will not splinter 
readily, such as beech and hard maple. Sometimes the rail is 
also covered with strap iron to prevent wear. The lower rail 
may be made of an inferior grade of timber such as wormy oak. 
The rails are spiked to round crossties from 8 to 12 inches in 
diameter and 7 feet long, which are cut along the track and are 




A Stringer Road in the Appalachian Mountain Region. 



spaced from 18 to 24 inches apart on main lines, and from 24 to 
30 inches on spurs. The gauge is 3| or 4 feet. 

The cost of maintenance of a stringer road in constant use is 
high because the rails sliver badly and break, requiring such 
frequent repairs after the first six months that the road must be 
practically rebuilt in two years. 

The cost of constructing stringer roads, exclusive of the value 
of the timber used, ranges between $800 and $1200 per mile, 
but if many bridges are required the cost is higher. 

Geared locomotives are used, the weights varying from twenty- 
five to thirty tons on main lines and from fifteen to seventeen 
tons on spurs. Larger ones are too heavy for a wooden track. 

A light-woi.ulit, 2-truck, 8-wheeled skeleton car is preferred for 



FOREST RAILROADS 283 

those roads. The wheels are 20 or 24 inches in diameter with a 
6-inch tread which helps to keep them on the tracks where the 
gauge is too wide. Cars of this character, built for handling logs 
up to 20 feet in length, are from 22 to 24 feet long with bunks 
7h or 8 feet wide, and are equipped with handbrakes. Each 
car weighs about 2 tons, has a rated capacity of from 15,000 
to 20,000 pounds weight and usually carries from 1000 to 1200 
board feet of logs. 

A more simple type of stringer road for use with motor trucks 
has been used successfully in the South during the last few years. 
The track consists of 3- by 4-inch wooden rails spiked on 2- by 
8-inch stringers placed on the ground. Crossties are not used 
to support the track. In one case, power was furnished by a 
2^-ton motor truck with double-flanged steel tires, which 
pulled a two-wheeled trailer. The latter had double-flanged 
steel tires and the wheels were mounted on fixed axles which 
permitted a side play of several inches. This equipment carried 
from 1000 to 1500 board feet per load, and a round trip of f 
mile was made in from 20 to 30 minutes. 

STEEL-RAIL ROADS 

The successful use of steel-rail logging roads began in 1876, 
when Scott Gerrish, a logger in southern Michigan, built a 
railroad for transporting logs from Lake George to the Muskegon 
River down which they were driven to the mill. 

Rail transport is gaining in favor in all sections of the country 
and with high stumpage values will become the preferred form 
of transport except where conditions are especially favorable for 
motor truck transport or for floating and rafting. The only 
region in which their use is not extensive is in the New England 
States where water transportation has been the custom for years, 
due chiefly to the fact that many of the merchantable species 
will float. The region also is traversed by numerous streams 
and trunk lines have not penetrated the forest regions to any 
extent. 

Advantages of Railroad Transportation 

(1) Accessibility. Railroads have made large areas of timber 
accessible which otherwise could not be logged because of the 
lack of streams for floating logs, or the absence of suitable manu- 



284 LOGGING 

facturing sites and shipping facilities on the natural water out- 
lets. 

(2) Independence of climatic conditions. Rail transport ren- 
ders a logger practically free from climatic influences since he 
is not dependent on a snowfall to furnish a bottom for hauling, 
or on flood waters to float his logs. This enables him to operate 
throughout the year, with possible short interruptions due to 
heavy rainfall or snowfall. 

(3) Market conditions. The use of railroad transport does 
not force the manufacturer to anticipate market conditions 
months in advance, because logs can be cut and hauled to the mill 
on short notice and special requirements for long timbers or for 
a heavy cut can be readily met. The plant can be closed during 
dull market periods without carrying on hand a large quantity of 
logs in the forest, subject to damage from fire, insects, and sap- 
stain. The operator can turn over his money at frequent in- 
tervals and need not invest a large sum in advance in logging 
expenses. 

(4) Utilization of hardwoods. The logger is able to bring 
out all species. This reduces logging expense, because of the 
heavier stand per acre secured. 

(5) No loss of logs in transport. 

(6) Clean logs. Rail transport lands the logs at their desti- 
nation free from gravel, sand, iron and other foreign matter. A 
hardwood manufacturer operating on one of the large rivers esti- 
mates that clean logs can be manufactured 15 cents per thousand 
cheaper because of the saving in saws, saw-filing expense and 
lost time on the part of sawmill labor. This saving is very 
appreciable in large plants. The value of some hardwoods, such 
as basswood for cooperage stock and birch for spool stock, is 
strongly influenced by the brightness of the wood, and even 
though such species can be floated their value is often reduced 
by exposure to weather and water. 

Railroads for logging purposes can usually be constructed 
much cheaper than trunk roads because higher grades and sharper 
curves can be used and also because the roadbed need not 
always be placed in first-class condition to do satisfactory work. 
In a rough region, however, the initial expense is great and 
the cost may be prohibitive if many miles of road must be con- 
structed to reach a tract. Under normal circumstances, rail- 



FOREST RAILROADS 285 

roads are chiefly adapted to large operations since the construc- 
tion charge must be distributed over a large tonnage if the cost 
per thousand board feet of timber handled is to be kept within 
reasonable limits. 

CHOICE OF GAUGE 

The choice of a narrow- or standard-gauge road for logging 
operations should be governed by the size of the operation, the 
topography, the amount of capital available for investment, the 
initial cost of construction and equipment and also by the cost 
of operation, because the increased construction cost of a stand- 
ard-gauge may be more than compensated by a reduced operating 
charge. 

Narrow-gauge roads can be constructed cheaper than standard- 
gauge because (1) the width of cuts and fills is less; (2) sharper 
curves^ can be used because of the shorter wheel-base of 
locomotives and cars; (3) the cost of track laying is less per mile 
owing to the use of lighter rails and ties; (4) the initial expense 
for rolling stock and motive power is not so great. 

There is little difference in the cost of trestles and other timber 
work for narrow- and standard-gauge roads. A narrow-gauge 
road is desirable for a limited output in a rough region because 
the cost may be one-third less thaiTTEat oF'a standard-gauge. 
It therefore appeals to loggers with limited funds. It is also 
desirable in light or scatte red stand s__vvhgxe-tbe^track must be 
movecTTrequently^ On soft bottom the tra xik is e asier to keep 
in operating condition awing~~1:Trt!ieTighteFequipment used and 
the smaller loads hauFed. 

Where a large tonnage is handled, standard-gauge roads are 
more economical to operate because larger locomotives and cars 
can be used and the cost of operation per thousand board feet for 
wages, fuel, oil and repairs for the heavier locomotives and cars 
will be less because of increased hauling capacity. 

Standard-gauge is also desirable because trunk-line cars may 
be operated over the logging road. This is a great advantage 
where logs, pulp wood, tanbark and other forest products are 
to be shipped to outside points, since cars can be loaded in the 
forest and hauled to destination without reloading. 

1 Curves as high as 50 degrees have been negotiated by narrow-gauge geared 
locomotives but a lower degree is desirable for efficient work. 



286 LOGGING 

RIGHTS-OF-WAY 

The right of loggers to build railroads across the lands of others 
is not recognized by the courts except where the roads have been 
chartered by the State. In the latter case the right of Eminent 
Domain is granted, and a line can be forced across foreign hold- 
ings by condemnation proceedings and the payment of just com- 
pensation to the owner.^ 

Many logging roads are not incorporated because the route 
does not tap a section in which any tonnage, other than that 
of the owners, originates. Further the incorporation of the 
road subjects it to regulations governing the hours of labor for 
train crews, use of air brakes, height of draw bars on the equip- 
ment, filing of tariffs, and the submission of reports to the 
State Railroad Commission. 

Chartered roads must be prepared to handle freight and pas- 
senger traffic, and many logging companies do not feel justi- 
fied in maintaining the necessary equipment for this purpose, 
especially since the handling of outside traffic at times interferes 
with the operation of logging trains. 

Where the owner of a non-chartered road desires a right-of- 
way across the property of another the land may be bought at 
private sale, although this course is seldom desirable unless the 
road is ultimately to become a "common carrier," inasmuch as a 
narrow strip of property is of little value to the owner and is 
difficult to sell at the conclusion of logging operations. The 
more frequent practice is to lease land for a right-of-way for a 
period sufficient to permit the removal of timber. Such leases 
can usually be secured on terms satisfactory to all parties, al- 
though exorbitant rental is sometimes demanded, when the 
topography compels the location of the road within restricted 
limits, such as in a narrow valley. 

When timber rights are purchased without the fee to the land, 
the contract of sale should specify that the purchaser has the 
right to construct such roads as are necessary to secure the 

1 In the case of Healy Lumber Co. vs. Morris, 33 Washington 490, the 
Court held that a logging company performing no public function was without 
power to condemn a way for a logging railroad, notwithstanding the legislature 
had purported to confer on it that power. The state constitution grants the 
right to take private property only for private ways of necessity and, therefore, 
such necessity must be proved. 



FOREST RAILROADS 287 

timber. Even if such a stipulation is not made, some courts^ 
have ruled that a sale, or grant of standing trees imphes a right 
of access and the use of the land for the purpose of cutting the 
timber and afterwards removing the logs. Unless some specific 
date is mentioned on which these rights terminate, the buyer is 
entitled to a "reasonable time" for removal of the timber. In 
case of litigation the length of time covered by the contract is 
decided by the courts after consideration of the specific case. 
The use of a strip of land as a right-of-way for a logging railroad by 
and with the consent of the owner does not give the logger the 
permanent use of such property unless there has been a specific 
grant by the land owner, or unless the road bed has been in use 
for a period long enough to establish a legal right to it by adverse 
possession.^ 

LOCATION 

The location of the main line of a logging railroad is of great 
importance, for the engineer must preserve a proper balance 
between the cost of construction and the maintenance and 
operating charges. He must choose between an expensive road- 
bed with low grades and easy curves, or a cheaper roadbed with 
increased maintenance and operating expenses. 

(1) Roads in a rolling or rough region usually enter the tract 
at the lowest point and follow natural drainage, because it often 
affords the best grade out of the region and the operator can 
bring his timber to the main line on a down grade. Roadbeds 
along natural drainage should be placed above high-water mark 
when possible, although on roads which are to be used only 
for a short period, it may be cheaper to build near the stream and 
suffer a few washouts rather than incur a very heavy construc- 
tion expense. 

(2) The shortest possible route is desirable, but it is better 
to increase the length of line if heavy cuts, fills, and bridge and 
trestle construction can be avoided. 

(3) "Velocity" grades are often used to advantage in crossing 
"draws" or depressions but they are feasible only on straight 

^ See a decision of the Supreme Court of Tennessee. Carson vs. Three 
States Lumber Company (Tenn.), 69 Southwestern Reporter, 320. 1902. 

2 See Brandon vs. Umpqua Lumber and Timber Co. 146 Pacific Reporter 
46. 1915. 



288 LOGGING 

track, for it is dangerous to run trains at high speed on a curved 
track which has a descending grade. In addition to their in- 
fluence on the hauhng ability of a locomotive, steep pitches 
are a disadvantage on a road because the track tends to work 
towards the lower levels and not only is the expense of main- 
tenance greater than for a fairly level road but also the danger 
of wrecks is increased. 

(4) Where logging railroads must cross ridges or ascend or 
descend very steep grades in a short distance, "switch backs" 
are preferable to doubling back with a curve since the latter 
method often necessitates a heavier construction expense. Switch 
backs and inclines often are the only means at hand for securing 
timber from elevations above or below the main line. 

(5) Grades should not exceed 3 per cent and curves should 
not exceed T2degrees on roads that are to be used for several 
years and over which a large amount of timber is to be hauled, 
although in a rough region these figures are often increased in 
practice. 

Location in a region without marked topographical relief, such 
as the flat pineries or the cypress swamps of the South, presents 
no special difficulties. The main object is to bring the railroad 
to the timber by the shortest and cheapest route. The con- 
struction cost is low on dry lands in these regions, because only 
limited quantities of material, chiefly earth, must be moved to 
make the roadbed. Where swamps are crossed piling is used 
and numerous bridges or trestles may be required, but even here 
the cost per mile is less than the average in a mountainous region. 

In the flat and gently rolling regions of the South the main 
lines often are located by the woods foreman, although in many 
cases, engineers could be employed to advantage. In a rolling 
or rough country, location presents difficult problems, because 
roads must be confined chiefly to natural drainage and often the 
only means of access to timber is over a route requiring heavy cuts 
and fills and expensive bridge and trestle construction. The loca- 
tion of logging railroads in a rough region should be done by a 
location engineer who is an expert logger. Good railroad engineers 
without logging experience are usually a failure at logging rail- 
road work because they are not able to subordinate some of their 
ideals regarding standard railroad construction to the demands 
of practical logging. Some companies have sufficient work to 



FOREST RAILROADS 289 

furnish continuous employment for logging engineers while others 
secure their services only when needed. 

Spur lines are located with less care than the main lines for 
they are shorter and of cheaper construction, since they are 
to be used only for a brief period and a limited amount of timber 
is to come out over them. They should follow natural drainage 
in order to provide a down-haul for animal logging, but if power 
skidders are used the roads may be placed on high ground and 
the logs dragged up grade, as it is often cheaper to construct 
and maintain a road on the higher ground, the skidding machine 
will bring logs up grade as easily as down, and the logs do not 
acquire momentum and foul the cable, or catch so readily behind 
stumps or debris. 

In fairly level regions, where animals are used for logging, 
spurs are preferably located so that the maximum haul from any 
part of the operation will not exceed f of a mile, except for small 
isolated tracts, which do not warrant the expense of building a 
railroad to them. Where a snaking system is used and the aim 
is to log all parts of the tract by this system, spurs should be placed 
approximately parallel to each other and from 1200 to 1600 feet 
apart, for the maximum efficient radius of the machine does not 
exceed 800 feet. In cypress and other forests where the area is 
logged by the cableway system, the spurs are placed parallel and 
from 1200 to 1400 feet apart. On the West Coast, overhead 
systems often operate for distances of from 1000 to 1200 feet 
from either side of the railroad. In mountainous sections spur 
roads follow main and secondary drainage. Distances greater 
than 3000 feet are not considered desirable for overhead skidding 
systems although the spans may be as long as 4000 feet, when 
the stand is light or railroad construction costs are too high for 
the amount of timber secured. On the Pacific Coast some opera- 
tors build their spur roads to the yarding engines. Where spur 
construction is costly the logs may be brought to the main line 
by road engines, swing donkeys, slides or flumes. In the Appala- 
chian region spur construction is limited, and railroads are con- 
fined to the larger branches of the streams. 

The grades and curves permissible on spurs are greater than 
on main lines because a slow speed is maintained, and lighter 
motive power is used. For the sake of efficiency and safety it 
is always desirable to keep grades and curves as low as possible, 



290 LOGGING 

although short spurs may have ascending grades as high as 6 
per cent for loaded cars, and from 8 to 10 per cent for empty ones, 
and curves as high as 40 degrees, although they should not exceed 
15 degrees under average conditions. 

Geared locomotives, only, are suitable for steep grades and 
sharp curves. The short wheel base permits the locomotive to 
make sharp turns, and increased power is secured through the 
gearing. However, on steep grades and sharp curves a geared 
locomotive can haul only a few cars at one time. 

Methods of Location. — Main line location is preceded by re- 
connaissance work which enables the engineer or logger to de- 
termine the problems which confront him and to select one or 
more feasible routes. In this work a topographic map is very 
helpful and is now considered an essential part of the equipment 
of an operator in a rolling or rough region. Such maps may be 
prepared in connection with a timber cruise, but if not available 
previous to railroad location they are prepared in connection with 
reconnaissance. Contour intervals varying from 10 to 50 feet 
are used depending on the accuracy required and the roughness 
of the country. Relative differences in elevation are of more 
importance than absolute differences, because the logger is chiefly 
interested in the location and height of ridges, degree of slope, 
width of valley bottoms, size and character of streams, and like 
factors which have an influence on cheap railroad construction. 
There is no standard method in use by engineers for collecting 
data for the preparation of topographic maps. The aneroid 
barometer, hand level and pocket compass may be the only 
instruments used, although control points both for distance and 
elevation may be established by chained compass or transit lines 
and a line of "Y" levels run along section or other lines. One 
method used by a western logging engineer on his reconnaissance 
survey, preliminary to location, is to run out and blaze all section 
lines; determine distances by pacing, which are checked on quarter- 
section and section corners; and secure elevations by means of 
an aneroid barometer. A rough topographic map is prepared 
from this data and furnishes a basis for the preliminary location. 

Having roughly determined the route of the road, the pre- 
liminary location follows. The engineer is aided in this work by 
one or two rod men and two or more axmen, depending on the 
density of brush along the route. When an expensive road is to 



FOREST RAILROADS 291 

be built, engineers recommend the use of a transit in preliminary- 
work, because of the accuracy demanded in final results. Some 
use a railroad compass and a hand level of the Abney type both 
for main lines and spurs. In a fairly level country the railroad 
compass will meet all needs, in fact some find a small staff com- 
pass ample. 

The engineer, having traveled over the proposed route one or 
more times and knowing the problems to be solved, locates a line 
of tangents and sets stakes marked with the station number, at 
100-foot intervals along the right-of-way. As the line pro- 
gresses, the engineer, by trial, selects the points which will keep 
his grades and curves within the limits set for the line. Several 
trial lines may be necessary to secure a satisfactory grade. 

On spur lines in a rough region and on main lines in a fairly 
level region, the preliminary survey is dispensed with. A rail- 
road compass or a box compass is often used in lieu of a transit, 
and in many sections the woods foreman or superintendent 
replaces the engineer. 

A common method in the pineries of the South is to locate a 
line of tangents by the use of three 6-foot straight pickets, along 
which the locator sights, placing center stakes at 100-foot in- 
tervals. 

The final location of the line of tangents is followed by the 
location of curves. Loggers have a number of rule-of- thumb 
methods of locating curves, which, although somewhat inaccurate, 
are satisfactory for railroads where a high degree of engineering 
ability is not demanded. Many who use rule-of-thumb methods 
determine the deflection angle by eye and lay' off trial curves, 
persisting until they find one which will connect their two tan- 
gents. Several methods are in general use by logging engineers 
for laying out curves on logging roads, among them the tangent- 
offset method; offsets from chords produced, the field man using 
a table of offsets for a given degree of curvature; by computing 
in the office from a plotted traverse the offsets from stations on 
a line of tangents followed by field location; and by the use of 
a transit or compass to lay off stations on a curve by means of 
deflection angles. 

On main line work in a rough region, the location survey is 
followed by a line of levels which furnish data for a profile map 
on which the "elevation of grade" is shown. This is preliminary 



292 LOGGING 

to making an estimate of the cost of moving earth and rock. 
The cubic yardage is computed from cross sections^ taken along 
the proposed grade at each station on level or fairly level ground, 
and at every point where there is a decided change in the con- 
figuration of the surface. 

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE TO CHAPTER XVII 

Clark, E. T.: Pacific Coast Logging. West Coast Lumberman, May 1, 

1920, pp. 81 to 92. 
Ellis, L. R. : Necessity for an Accurate Topographic Map in Logging 

Operations. Timberman, July, 1911, pp. 49-53. 
Henry, H. P.: Advantages of Topographic Surveys and Logging Plans. 

The Tunberman, August, 1912, pp. 65-67. 
Peed, W. W.: Necessity for the Logging Engineer in Modern Logging 

Operations. The Tunberman, August, 1910, pp. 47-49. 
Rankin, R. L. : Practical Topographical Surveys for Building Logging 

Roads. The Timberman, March, 1912, p. 27. 
Van Orsdel, John P. : How to Obtain the Highest Practical EflBciency in 

Woods Operations. The Timberman, September, 1910, pp. 48-51. 
Van Orsdel, John P.: Topographic Survey and its Economic Value in 

Logging Operations. The Timberman, August, 1910, p. 64. 
Wood, A. B. : Accurate Topographic Map is a Good Investment in Logging 

Operations. The Timberman, August, 1912, p. 67. 

1 See "Earthwork and its Cost," by H. P. Gillette. McGraw-Hill Book 
Co., New York, 1912, pp. 175-182. "Highway Construction," by Austin 
T. Byrne. John Wiley and Sons, N. Y., 1902, pp. 447-454. "Theory and 
Practice of Surveying," by J. B. Johnson. John Wiley and Sons, New 
York, 1901, pp. 438-471. 



CHAPTER XVIII 

RAILROAD CONSTRUCTION 

The construction of the roadbed for a logging railroad usually 
precedes logging by a few weeks, although it may be several 
months or a year in advance which is an advantage because the 
roadbed has an opportunity to settle before the steel is laid and 
the road operated. This gives a more stable track and one that 
is cheaper to maintain. In regions subject to heavy rainfall 
and where the earth washes badly, this practice is not desirable 
since the roadbed will suffer through erosion. 

CLEARING THE RIGHT-OF-WAY 

Previous to starting the grading of the right-of-way, it is 
necessary to cut and remove the standing timber, brush and 
stumps which will intefere with the roadbed. This work often is 
done by contract at a stated price per acre, with or without an 
additional pajonent for all merchantable saw logs cut. 

Main line rights-of-way are generally cut 100 feet wide in order 
to prevent the track from being covered with "down timber" 
during wind storms. On spur roads the right-of-way is from 18 
to 50 feet wide. In the South, however, rights-of-way for spurs 
often are made 120 feet wide in order to provide skidway space 
on each side of the track. The right-of-way crew fells the timber, 
removes the stumps from the roadbed, if necessary, and cuts 
the brush from the skidway site. The timber adjacent to the 
roadbed usually is not felled until the surrounding area is logged, 
because insects seriously damage felled timber that remains in 
the forest during the warm months. When the skidway sites 
are cleared by the skidding crew the cost is greater than when it 
is done by a special crew both because of the enforced idleness 
of the teams and the low efficiency of teamsters when performing 
swamping work which is usually distasteful to them. 

The timber cut from a right-of-way may be used for saw 

logs, culverts, trestles, bridges, corduroy and for filling in low 

places to reduce the amount of earth required for fills. Material 

of merchantable value both from green and " dead-and-down " 

293 



294 LOGGING 

timber is cut into saw logs and piled on skidways along the right- 
of-way outside of the grade line. 

On main lines and spurs all stumps should be removed from 
the roadbed unless they are on the site of a proposed fill and will 
be covered with at least 1 foot of earth; or so located that they 
will not furnish a bearing for any part of the track; or the 
character of the ground is such that the removal of the stump 
during wet weather will cause a soft spot which cannot be kept 
up during the rainy period. 

Where the skimps are to be covered with earth they are cut 
off near the ground. Those on the right-of-way outside of the 
roadbed may be cut at any convenient height that will not in- 
terfere with the passage of locomotives, log cars, skidders or other 
equipment. Stumps may be removed by blasting with powder 
or dynamite, by grubbing or by burning. Blasting often is the 
cheapest method, but it disturbs the earth for some distance 
around the stump. The portions of the roadbed from which 
stumps have been removed by blasting often remain soft for 
months afterward and during wet weather may be difficut to 
keep in proper condition. As a rule, southern pine stumps from 
24 to 30 inches in diameter will require one day's labor for grubbing. 
Small- and medium-sized trees can best be removed by cutting all 
roots from 3 to 4 feet from the base of the tree and allowing the 
weight of the crown and bole to aid in pulling out the stump. 

The construction of the roadbed follows the felling of the 
timber and the removal of stumps. This covers the move- 
ment of earth and rock for cuts and fills, the construction of 
trestles, culverts, cribbing and other timber structures. 

FILLS AND CUTS 

Fills on a logging road should be 12 or 14 feet wide on top for 
a standard-gauge road and 10 or 12 feet wide for a narrow-gauge. 
The standard slope for an earthwork fill is 1^ : 1.^ When the 
fill is made from solid rock, a 1 : 1 slope may be ample. 

^ The angle of repose or slope that a face of earth makes with the horizon- 
tal when not subjected to the elements is as follows: 

Compact earth ,50 degrees or f to 1 

Clay, well drained 45 degrees or 1 to 1 

Gravel 40 degrees or 1 ^ to 1 

Dry sand 38 degrees or 1 ^ to 1 

Wet sand 22 degrees or 2^ to 1 

Vegetable earth (loam) 28 degrees or If to 1 

Wet clay 16 degrees or 3 to 1 



RAILROAD CONSTRUCTION 



295 



In cuts the roadbed must be wide enough to give room for a 
drainage ditch on either side. These will requires about 3 addi- 
tional feet each, and the cut should be about 16 feet at the base. 
They must be wide enough to permit the passage of any equip- 
ment that may be taken over the road. In earth cuts the ratio 
of slope is 1^ : 1 and in solid rock cuts the walls are perpendicular 
or nearly so. 

Main lines are graded up carefully, and suitable ditches main- 
tained. Even on level sections it is desirable to elevate the 





Fig. 99. — Two Methods of constructing a Grade for a Logging Railroad. 
a, main line spur, b, secondary spur. The ditch is cut to the dotted line 
when the track is surfaced. 



track and put in ditches, because of the cheaper cost of main- 
tenance during wet weather. 

Types of main line spur tracks used in southern Arkansas 
are shown in Fig. 99. The earth from the ditches is sufficient 
for ballasting the ties and the grade costs but little except for 
the ditches. 

On spurs a minimum of fill and cut work is done and ditching 
is not resorted to unless absolutely necessary. 

When fills of 2 or more feet are to.be made on spur roads, it 
is a common practice to fill the bed of the grade with logs, if 
nonmerchantable timber is close at hand, and to place a cover of 
earth over them to give a bearing for the ties. This practice 
cheapens the cost of construction, especially when earth for a 



296 LOGGING 

fill must be taken from a "borrow" pit. This type of roadbed 
will last for at least one year. 

The movement of earth and rock in the construction of cuts 
and fills is most frequently done by contract. The unit on which 
payment is based is the cubic yard, the material being measured 
"in place," that is, in the natural bank before it has been dis- 
turbed. It is customary to classify the material to be moved 
and to regulate the prices accordingly. The classification and 
quantity of material moved are determined by the supervising 
engineer. 

The following standard classification is in extensive use : 

(1) Earth. — Loam, sand, gravel or clay. Material that can 
be handled with a pick and shovel, or that can be plowed readily. 

(2) Hardpan. — Very dense clays and gravels, cemented with 
iron oxide. Soft shales that are easily worked may also be 
included. 

(3) Loose Rock. — Shales and other rock that can be quarried 
without blasting, although blasting may be resorted to occa- 
sionally. 

(4) Solid Rock. — Material requiring blasting for removal. 
The contract price per cubic yard for the removal of earth 

or rock usually includes excavating, hauling, and placing the 
material in a fill or a waste pit. It is not customary to pay for 
making a cut and also to pay for a fill made from the same ma- 
terial; in other words, payment for a given cubic yard is made 
but once. Grading contracts may have an "overhaul" clause 
which provides that for all earth hauled more than a specified 
distance ("free haul"), the contractor shall be paid a stated 
sum per cubic yard for each 100 feet of overhaul. On logging 
operations the length of free haul ranges from 100 to 500 
feet. 

The price paid for moving material varies greatly in different 
regions and is influenced by the length of haul, the kind of ma- 
terial moved, the character of classification, the degree of ac- 
curacy used in actual classification and the season of the year; 
the cost of winter work being about 25 per cent higher than that 
of work done during the summer. 

The average work on logging roads except on the Pacific Coast 
usually presents no special problems and can be performed with 
simple equipment which does not require a heavy financial 



RAILROAD CONSTRUCTION 297 

outlay. Loggers are able, therefore, to contract with local men 
on favorable terms. 

MOVEMENT OF EARTH^ 

The movement of earth for road construction, railroad grades 
and trails may be performed in various ways among which the 
following are in general use: 

(1) With pick and shovel, the earth being loosened by the 
pick and then thrown directly out of the cut. 

(2) Loosening by pick or plow and transport on wheel- 
barrows, two-wheeled dump carts or dump wagons. 

(3) Loosening by plow or by dynamite and transport on 
drag scrapers, wheeled scrapers or dump cars with horse draft. 

(4) Steam shovel, either casting the dirt on or off the grade or 
placing it in dump or flat cars for transportation away from the 
site. 

(5) Power drag scraper, moving material from cuts or to fills. 
The first three methods are used by owners of comparatively 

simple and inexpensive outfits. Steam shovels and power drag 
scrapers are used chiefly in the West where a large amount of 
earth and rock often must be moved in making a logging railroad 
grade. 

Plowing. — Contractors usually assume that a team and driver, 
with a helper to hold the plow can loosen 25 cubic yards of fairly 
tough clay, 35 cubic yards of gravelly loam, or 50 cubic yards of 

1 Earth of various kinds increases in bulk when disturbed for removal, as 
shown in the following table : 



Character of material 



Earth, freshly loosened 

Clean sand and gravel 

Loam, loamy sand and gravel 

Dense clay, dense mixtures of gravel and clay. 
Unusually dense gravel and clay banks 



Increase in 


bulk 


Per cent. 


14 to 50 


14 to 15 


20 


33 to 50 


50 



Shrinkage in volume of embankments is dependent on the method used to 
compact them. Loose earth with rainfall as the only compacting element 
will be about 8 per cent above normal at the expiration of a year. Earth 
compacted with two- wheeled carts or scrapers occupies from 5 to 10 per cent 
less space than it did "in place" and wUl shrink sUghtly more during the 
next few years. 



298 



LOGGING 



loam, per hour, A pick-pointed plow drawn by four or six 
horses and with two men riding the plow beam, is required for 
breaking up tough clay or hardpan, the usual rate being from 15 
to 20 cubic yards per hour. Thirty-five cubic yards of ''average 
earth" per hour is considered satisfactory work.^ 

Pick Work. — The pick is used only for light work and in 
confined places. In one hour a man will loosen from 1.6 to 2.3 
cubic yards of earth, from 0.7 to 1.1 cubic yards of gravel, or 
0.9 cubic yards of hardpan.^ 

Picking and Shoveling. — Pick-loosened earth is nearly always 
handled with a shovel. This method of moving earth is of 
importance in forest work because most light railroad grades are 
constructed in this manner, and it is also used in trail building. 

The following table' shows the average amount of cubic yardage 
picked and shoveled by one man per hour. 



Hardpan (clay and gravel) 

Common earth 

Hardpan 

Clay (stiff) 

Clay 

Sand 

Sandy soil 

Clayey earth 

Clay, fairly tough 

Sandy soil, frozen 

Gravel or clay 

Earth 



Capacity per 
man per hour 



Cubic yards. 

0.4 

0.8-1.2 

0.33 

0.85 

1.00 

1.25 

0.8-1.2 

1.3 

0.9 

0.75 

0.7-0.8 

1.1-1.2 



Cost per cubic 
yard' 



Cents. 

37i 

45^ 
17^ 
15 
12 

19-12i 
12 
17 
20 
20 

13-14 



Authority 



M. Ancelin 
Cole 



Gillette 



Billings 
Hodgson 



1 Wages 15 cents per hour. 

The hourly output per man shoveling average soil is 1.4 cubic 
yards, but this may be increased to 2 cubic yards under efficient 
supervision. 

With Dynamite. — A logging operator in Mississippi describes' 
a method of making cuts in gumbo 5 feet or less in depth when 
the earth is to be "wasted." The reported cost was 50 per cent 
less than with the usual methods of moving earth. 

Holes of the required depth and 20 inches apart were made 

1 The data on output are taken from "Earthwork and Its Cost," by H. P. 
Gillette. McGraw Hill Book Company, New York, 1912. 

2 See American Lumberman, July 15, 1911, p. 50. 



RAILROAD CONSTRUCTION 



299 



with a round, sharpened bar. The outside row of holes had a 
degree of slant that would produce a cut with sides of the desired 
slope. After covering the site of the proposed cut with holes, 
they were loaded with 60 per cent dynamite. The center holes 
were loaded heavier than the others and were primed for electric 
firing. The explosion of the central charges fired the others. 
The length of cut blasted at one time did not exceed 200 feet. 
A large amount of the earth was thrown entirely out of the cut 
and the remainder was handled readily with a drag scraper. In 
tight wet earth one ton of 60 per cent dynamite will loosen earth 
for 1600 linear feet, where the maximum cut is 5 feet. 

Wheelbarrows. — Barrows are not profitable for moving earth 
except on short hauls, for stony soil, and in places unfavorable 
for the use of horses. The average load on level runs is approxi- 
mately 250 pounds or ^V o^ ^ cubic yard of earth, and on fairly 
steep grades yV of a cubic yard, "place measure." 

The average amounts moved, per barrow, on a level in ten 
hours and the cost per cubic yard for picking, shoveling and 
moving, when wages are 15 cents per hour, are as follows:^ 



Distance 


Quantity 


Cost per cubic 
>ard 


Feet 
100 

75 
50 
25 


Cubic yards 

10.5 
11.1 
11.8 
12.5 


Cents 
22.50 
21.25 
20.00 
18.75 



Tivo-wheeled Dump Carts. — These are used for transporting 
material for distances varying from 75 to 500 feet, and are es- 
pecially serviceable on short hauls and in narrow cuts. 

The average load of dump carts on level roads is 0.37 cubic 
yards, and on steep ascents 0.25 cubic yards, "place measure." 

On short hauls one driver attends two carts, leading one to 
the dump while the other is being loaded. On long hauls he 
may handle two carts by taking both at one time. The carts 
are loaded at the pit by shovelmen. 

When wages are 15 cents, and horse hire 10 cents per hour 
the average day's work on level ground for a one-horse cart of 

1 The figures on the amount of work performed and costs are based on datn 
contained in "Earthwork and its Cost," by H. P. Gillette. 



300 



LOGGING 



f-cubic yard capacity, and the cost per cubic yard for plowing, 
shoveling and hauling average earth are as follows •} 



Distance 


Quantity 


Cost per cubic 
yard 


Feet 

100 
200 
300 
400 


Cubic yards 

40.0 
33.3 

28.5 
25.0 


Cents 

20.25 
21.50 
22.75 
24.00 



Dump Wagons. — When a wagon is used, a flat-bottom, two- 
horse type is preferred, which usually has the following capacity: 



Character of road 


Capacity 


Very poor earth road 


Cubic yards 
0.8 

1.0 
1.6 


Poor earth road 


Good hard earth road 





A team will travel 20 miles per day on fairly hard earth roads, 
that is, 10 miles loaded and 10 miles without a load. On poor 
roads and soft ground 15 miles is the maximum distance. These 
rates of travel include occasional stops for rests. 

When wages are 15 cents and horse hire 10 cents per hour, 
the cost per cubic yard, and the average amounts of earth moved 
daily are as follows:* 



Distance 


Quantity 


Cost per cubic 
yard 


Feet 


Cubic yards 


Cents 


300 


75 


20.1 


400 




20.8 


500 




21.5 


600 




22.2 


800 


50 


23.6 


1000 


34 


25.0 


2000 


26 


32.0 


3000 




39.0 


4000 




46.0 


5000 




53.0 



^ The figures on the amount of work performed and costs are based on data 
contained in "Earthwork and its Cost," by H. P. Gillette. 



RAILROAD CONSTRUCTION 



301 



Drag Scrapers. — A drag scraper is a steel scoop used for 
moving eartii for short distances. It is the preferable form for 
stony ground and for soils filled with roots. It is drawn by two 
horses. 

The No. 2 scraper, weighing about 100 pounds, is the one 
commonly used. Its actual capacity, "place measure," is -^ of 
a cubic yard of tough clay; \ cubic yard of gravel; or \ cubic 
yard of loam. 

Drag scrapers work in units of three on short hauls, the teams 
traveling about 50 feet apart in an ellipse. They are loaded 
by an extra man as they pass the pit and are dumped by the 
teamsters. On a 50-foot haul the average ten-hour output for 
a drag scraper is 62 cul)ic yards of earth and gravel, and 40 cubic 
yards of stiff clay. Earth for scraper work is loosened with a 
plow or by dynamite. 

Wheeled Scrapers. — The wheeled scraper has a steel scoop 
hung low between two wheels The following sizes are in 
common use: 

Number 1 wheelers are used for short hauls and steep rises 
and should replace drag scrapers under these conditions except 
where the soil is rocky or full of roots. Snatch teams are re- 
quired for loading No. 2 and larger scrapers, and even then it is 
impossible to fill the bowl in tough clay. Shovels must be used 
for this purpose. 





Weight 


Actual capacity,' 
" place measure." 


No 1 


Pounds 

340 to 450 

475 to 500 

575 

625 to 800 


Cubic yards 

i 


No 2 


No. 2i 

No 3 





' When the bowl is level full of earth. 

When wages are 15 cents and horse hire 10 cents per hour tne 
cost per cubic yard and the amount of earth moved daily with a 
No. 1 scraper is approximately as follows:^ 

1 The figures on the amount of work performed and costs are based on data 
contained in "Earthwork and its Cost," by H. P. Gillette. 



302 



LOGGING 



Distance 


Quantity 


Cost per cubic 
yard 


Feet 


Cubic yards 


Cents 


100 


4S.0 


8.75 


200 


34.0 


11.50 


300 


26.6 


14.25 


400 


22.0 


17.00 


GOO 


16.0 


22.50 



Cars with Animal Draft. — Horse-drawn dump cars, ranging 
in capacity from 1 to 3 cubic yards, may be advantageously 
employed where large quantities of earth are to be moved for a 
distance of several hundred feet. They are generally run on 
16 or 20-pound steel rails, with 6- by 6-inch by 5-foot unballasted 
ties spaced about 4 feet, center to center. The cost of laying 
such a track averages $100 per mile, exclusive of the value of 
the material, 

A dump car with a capacity of 2 cubic yards weighs about 
1 ton and holds about 5400 pounds of earth. A horse can pull 
a loaded car on a level all day, and can go up 4 per cent grades 
occasionally, if frequent rests are given. The hauling ability 
of heavy horses pulling cars up different grades is approximately 
as follows : 



Grade 


One horse 


Two horses 


Level 

1 per cent. . . 

2 per cent 

3 per cent 

4 per cent 


Cubic yards 

2.00 
1.10 
0.64 
0.37 
0.18 


Cubic yards 

5.0 
3.0 
2.0 
1.5 
0.75 to 1.10 



When wages are 15 cents and horse hire 10 cents per hour a 
2-cubic-yard dump car drawn by one horse will move approxi- 
mately the following yardage daily : 



Distance 


Quantity 


Cost per cubic 
jard 


Feet 

1000 
2000 
3000 
4000 


Cubic yards 

85 to 90 
60 to 65 
35 to 40 
20 to 25 


Cents 

0.17 
0.18 
0.19 
0.20 



RAILROAD CONSTRUCTION 303 

The cars are loaded by shovelers, each handling from 15 to 
18 cubic yards daily.^ 

Steam Shovels. — Several types are used on logging railroad 
work where deep cuts or high fills are to be made or heavy ditch- 
ing done. When a large quantity of earth is to be moved and the 
work is more or less continuous the standard swinging type of 
shovel with a 1^-cubic yard bucket is preferred. The shovel 
with a self-propelling mechanism, may be mounted on trucks, for 
use on rails, or on wheels. This type of shovel is best adapted 
to moving dirt and broken rock, although sometimes it is used 
for removing logs, windfalls and other debris from the right-of- 
way. When mounted on wheels it tends to bog down in soft 
places and, therefore, some difficulty is experienced in using such 
a machine on logging operations. 

Shovels mounted on caterpillar treads and equipped with a 
f-yard dipper often are preferred to either of the types first 
mentioned because they can be moved ahead of the completed 
track. Those operated by a 30 horse-power gasoline engine have 
proved satisfactory, especially in places in which it is difficult 
to secure water for a steam-operated machine. The daily gaso- 
line requirement is approximately 12 gallons, which amount can 
be readily packed to the shovel from the end of the railroad line. 
Such machines have an average capacity of from 20 to 25 cubic 
yards of material per hour, and on easy work the maximum may 
be from 40 to 48 yards. 
When a general utility machine is desired, the so-called ditcher 
tj^pe often is used. This is a combination crane, steam shovel, 
pile driver and wrecker which operates from rails laid on top of 
cars or on the ground. This type of machine has the same dis- 
advantages as the standard steam shovel in that it can be used 
only at or near the rail head. The cost of moving earth and rock 
by means of some form of shovel is less than by hand methods 
when the cut or fill is large. Shovel work often compares favorably 
in cost with hand methods even where the yardage is small. 

Power Drag Scrapers. — These sometimes are used in making 
heavy cuts and fills. Power is provided by a two-drum yarding 
engine which operates a main line attached to the fore part of 
the scraper which pulls it forward and a re-haul which returns 

1 The figures on the amount of work performed and costs are based on data 
contained in "Earthwork and its Cost," by H. P. Gillette. 



304 LOGGING 

the scraper to the working point. The efficiency of this method 
is less than that of a shovel since there is a good deal of lost time 
incurred especially on long hauls or on stony ground. The 
average output per hour of scraping time on one operation was 
16.7 cubic yards of earth. ^ 

ROCK EXCAVATION 

Previous to excavation, rock is broken by an explosive into 
fragments that can be handled readily. 

It is transported chiefly in carts, wagons and cars, although 
it may be moved for short distances on wheelbarrows or thrown 
out by hand in shallow cuts. 

A cubic yard, place measure, of rock increases from 60 to 
80 per cent when broken up. On an average only 60 per cent 
as much yardage of rock can be hauled as of earth. 

Payment for the removal of rock which is classified as "loose 
rock" and "solid rock" is on the basis of the cubic yard, "in 
place." 

A. BLASTING 

The holes in which charges are placed are usually bored with 
hand drills. The diameter and spacing of holes depend upon the 
kind of explosive used, the character of the rock and the method 
of handling it. As a rule, the holes are spaced a distance apart 
equal to their depth, although in hard rock they often are placed 
closer together. Close spacing increases the amount of drill 
work required and the quantity of explosive used, although it 
is often more economical because of the smaller size of material, 
which makes handling cheaper. 

Drilling? — Hand drilling usually is preferred for logging work 
because of the limited amount of rock moved and the difficulties 
of transporting drilling machinery and equipment to the site of 
the work. Power driven drills are used on some operations on 
which there is a large amount of rock work to be done. Most of 
these drills are operated by compressed air piped from a compressor 
on the shovel or from a special air-compressing equipment, driven 

1 See Logging in the Douglas Fir Region. By W. H. Gibbons, Bui. No. 
711, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, page 188. 

2 See Handbook of Rock Excavation, by H. B. Gillette, McGraw-Hill 
Book Co., Inc., New York, 1916, pp. 21 to 36. 



RAILROAD CONSTRUCTION 305 

by a gasoline engine, which is moved forward over the proposed 
route in advance of actual rock removal. 

There are three forms of drills used for hand work; namely, 
the "churn drill," "the jumper drill" and the "hand drill." 

Churn Drill. — This is the most economical form of drill for 
holes up to 30 feet in depth and from 1^ to 2^ inches in diameter. 

The drill is a If- or 1^-inch round iron bar of the required 
length, on one end of which is welded a steel chisel bit from 
30 to 100 per cent wider than the diameter of the rod. Several 
rods of different lengths are required for drilling a deep hole. 

The drill is operated by raising it from 18 to 24 inches and 
allowing it to drop. One man can operate a drill for holes 3 feet 
or under in depth, two men for those of medium depth and three 
or four men for the deepest holes. 

Trautwine gives the following as an average ten hours' work 
for a churn drill : 



Charaoter of rock 



Diameter of 


Depth of 


hole 


hole 


Inches 


Feet 


13 


7 to 8 


13 


5 to 7 


l| 


3 to 5 




8 to 9 


If 


9 to 10 



Hard gneiss, granite or siliceous limestone 

Tough compact hornblende 

Solid quartz 

Ordinary limestone 

Sandstone 



Jumper Drill. — These are shorter than churn drills and are 
operated by two or more men; one, sitting down, holds the drill and 
revolves it about | of a revolution after each stroke, while the 
other men strike the drill head with 8- or 12-pound sledge 
hammers. 

The drill rods are of |-inch octagon steel and the bits are Ij 
or IJ inches wide. The maximum depth for efficient work with 
a three-man jumper drill does not exceed 8 feet. 

Since it can be held on the exact spot, this drill can be used 
for smaller holes than a churn drill. It is also best for con- 
glomerate rock, because it is not so easily deflected by pebbles. 

The amount of work performed in ten hours by three men, one 
holder and two strikers, using a jumper is approximately as fol- 
lows for holes 6 feet in depth :^ 

1 From "Handbook of Rock Excavation," bj' H. B. Gillette, p. 26. 



306 



LOGGING 



Character of rock 


Feet 


Granite 


7 
11 
16 


Trap (basalt) 


Limestone 





Hand Drill. — The hand drilling method is similar to jump 
drilling, except that the operator sitting down holds the drill with 
one hand and strikes the drill with a 4^-poimd hammer held 
in the other hand. These are used only for holes of small diam- 
eter, 3 feet or less in depth. This drill may be used for hori- 
zontal or inclined bores. 

Hand drill rods are made of octagon steel and range in size 
from f of an inch in diameter, with a f- or 1-inch bit, up to a 
|-inch rod with a l|-inch bit. A 1-inch drill rod is the maximum 
size practicable. Chisel-shaped bits, similar to those for jumper 
and churn drills, are used. 

B. EXPLOSIVES^ 

Explosives for blasting belong to two general classes: 

1. High explosives which require an intermediate agent for 
explosion, such as a fulminate detonator. 

2. Low explosives which can be fired by direct ignition. 
High Explosives. — For blasting purposes these are marketed 

in the form of dynamite, giant powder, gelatine, and some other 
similar products. The more powerful forms are composed of a 
mixture of nitro-glycerine and some absorbent, such as sawdust 
and wood pulp, while the lower grades contain explosive salts 
in addition. Nitro-glycerine undergoes no change when com- 
bined with the absorbent, the latter acting only as a cushion and 
as a means of solidifying the liquid. 

High explosives are made of varying strengths and are graded 
on the percentage of nitro-glycerine they contain. The standard 
grades range from 75 per cent down. Those most frequently 
used are 40 and 60 per cent, the former being preferred for many 
classes of work. 

High-grade dynamite explodes with great suddenness and will 
shatter rocks and stumps into small fragments. It is especially 

^ The author is indebted to pubhcations of the E. I. DuPont de Nemours 
Co., for many facts regarding explosives. 



RAILROAD CONSTRUCTION 307 

suitable for very hard rock or where small drill holes are necessary. 
Medium grades are best for soft rock because their explosive 
force is not so violent and sudden, and the tendency is to heave 
up large masses of rock rather than to shatter them into smaller 
fragments. 

Dynamite which is rather soft resembles brown sugar. It 
is packed in paraffine coated paper shells or cartridges, the stand- 
ard size being Ij by 8 inches and containing one-half pound. 
Other sizes, from |-inch to 2 inches in diameter and 6 inches and 
over in length are also manufactured. Dynamite cartridges are 
packed in sawdust in wooden boxes containing 25 or 50 pounds 
each. 

Dynamite freezes between 38 and 55 degrees Fahrenheit and 
when frozen must be thawed before use. Thavv^ing kettles which 
are best for this work consist of a double galvanized iron bucket 
having an inner water-tight receptacle for dynamite and an outer 
receptacle for warm water which must not exceed 100 degrees 
Fahrenheit, otherwise the nitro-glycerine may separate from the 
absorbent. Cartridges are sometimes spread out on a shelf in a 
warm room and left during the night but should never be thawed 
in an oven, near a fire or placed against a stove or steam pipe. 
A few cartridges can be easily thawed out by placing them flat 
in a water-tight box and burying them in fresh manure. 

Some of the low-freezing dynamites will not freeze above 32 
degrees Fahrenheit, while the so-called Trojan powder is practically 
non-freezing. Nitro-glycerine evaporates rapidly at 158 degrees 
F. and at 104 degrees F. dynamite may lose as high as 10 per 
cent of its nitro-glycerine in a few days' time. Because of the 
tendency of nitro-glycerine to freeze in cold weather and to 
evaporate in warm weather dynamite should be kept in a warm 
place in winter and in a cool place in summer. 

Great care must be taken to prevent the dynamite from coming 
into contact with moisture, because water has a greater affinity 
for the absorbent than has nitro-glycerine, and the latter will be 
driven out; on low grades of dynamite the salts of the auxiliary- 
explosives are also expelled. 

Dynamite which contains impure nitro-glycerine deteriorates 
during warm weather, when stored in a warm place, or if kept 
for long periods. Chemical decomposition takes place, liberating 
nitrous fumes which often are the cause of violent explosions. 



308 LOGGING 

A greenish color on the cartridges is an indication of chemical 
decomposition, and handling dynamite in such condition is always 
dangerous. 

Nitro-glycerine from the cartridge may be absorbed through 
the hands, and men who handle dynamite are subject to severe 
headaches. This may be obviated partially by wearing gloves 
which should be thrown away as soon as they become saturated. 

Loading Holes. — The charge should completely fill the bore 
hole because explosives exert the greatest disruptive force when 
there are no air spaces below the tamping. 

In loading dry holes the cartridge case is cut on one side, and 
the cartridge lowered into the hole and gently pressed until it 
completely fills the bore. This is repeated until a sufficient 
amount of explosive has been placed. When the hole is wet the 
cartridge case should not be cut. 

The hole is now ready for the primer and for tamping. 

Primers and Priming. — Most forms of dynamite are exploded 
by the use of a fulminate detonator or cap, which is ignited either 
by a safety fuse or an electric fuse. The former is used for 
individual charges and the latter where many are to be fired 
simultaneously. 

Safety Fuse and Caps. — There are several grades of safety 
fuse offered on the market, some of which are waterproofed for 
submarine work. The fuse used for blasting burns at the rate 
of 2 or 3 feet per minute, and is marketed in packages containing 
two coils, each 50 feet long. 

The cap is a hollow copper cylinder J by 1| inches in size 
which is closed at one end. It is partly filled with from five 
to thirty-one grains of fulminate of mercury. The open end is 
sealed with shellac, collodion, thin copper foil, or paper. Caps 
deteriorate very rapidly when exposed to moisture. Several 
grades are made but for general use a No. 6^ is preferred. 

In making the primer for an ordinary blast a piece of safety 
fuse of the required length is cut off and one end inserted into 
the cap until it comes in contact with the filling. The fuse is 
held in place by crimping the cap |-inch from the open end. 
The fuse and cap are then ready for insertion in the primer, 
which is a cartridge of dynamite of the same size and quality 
as that used in the charge. 

* A No. 6 cap contains 15.4 grains of mercury fulminate. 



RAILROAD CONSTRUCTION 



309 



There are two methods of inserting the cap into the primer. 
A common method (Fig. 100a) is to open the paper at the end 
of a cartridge, and, with a sharpened stick about the size of a 
lead pencil, make a hole f-inch deep in the dynamite. The cap, 
with fuse attached, is then inserted in this cavity and should 
project |-inch above the dynamite, otherwise the sputtering of 
the fuse may ignite the dynamite before it does the cap. The 
cartridge paper is then tied around the fuse with a string, care 
being taken not to pull the cap out of the primer. If the car- 
tridges are used in wet places soap or tallow is smeared over 
the safety fuse at the point where it enters the cartridge to pre- 
vent the entrance of moisture into the 
blasting cap. 

Some persons prefer to use the 
method of attaching caps shown in Fig. 
1006. A hole is punched in the side of 
the cartridge with a sharp wooden stick 
and the fuse attached as shown. This 
method is satisfactory because the fuse 
comes against the side, of the bore and 
is not injured or disturbed by the Fig. 100. — Method of plac- 
tamping bar, and the cap cannot be ing Caps in the Primer, 
pulled from the primer and thus cause 
a misfire. 

Primers are placed on top of the 
charge, but in deep holes, manufac- 
turers recommend that additional 
blasting caps without fuse be placed at 
5-foot intervals throughout the charge. 

Electric Fuse. — When it is desired to fire several different 
charges at one time electric fuses are used in connection with a 
battery. They consist of two wires inserted in a cap containing 
a mixture of fulminate of mercury and potassium nitrate or 
chlorate. The open end of the cap is plugged with sulphur. 
The fuses are adjusted as shown in Fig. 100c. When an electirc 
fuse is used the primer is placed in the center of the charge. 
The practice in electric firing is to separate the two wires on the 
fuse and connect one to a wire on a charge on one side and the 
other to one on a charge on the opposite side. The entire set 
is connected up in this manner leaving one free wire extending 



and b, are for firing with 
safety fuse, c, for firing 
with an electric battery. 

d, shows the cap ready for 
the insertion of the fuse. 

e, cap with fuse inserted 
and the cap shell crimped. 



310 LOGGING 

both from the first a d the last hole. The two leading wires, 250 
feet or more in length, are then connected to the above wires and 
carried to some protected point. When all is in readiness the 
leading wires are attached to the poles of the battery and the 
charge fired by an electric firing machine. 

Tamping. — Tamping should always be done with a wooden 
bar, never with a tool having any metal parts, and the tamping 
material must be free from all forms of grit, and of such a nature 
that it will pack firmly. The most satisfactory is moist clay or 
loam. 

After the charge has been pressed tightly in the bore a paper 
wad may be placed over the primer to keep it dry and from 2 
to 3 inches of tamping material put in and firmly, but gently, 
packed. Two or 3 inches more of tamping material are again 
added and throughly tamped. After 5 or 6 inches of earth 
have been placed in the bore the tamping can be carried on 
without fear of premature explosion. The hole should be filled 
to the surface and the material tightly packed, or it will blow out 
and much of the force of the explosive will be lost. 

Low Explosives. — Low explosives belong to either the soda or 
the saltpeter class and are known as black powder. The average 
contain approximately 75 per cent of nitrate of soda, or India 
saltpeter, 10 per cent of sulphur, and 15 per cent of carbon. 
Dynamite of 75 per cent strength is usually rated as six times 
stronger than average black powder. Soda powders can be made 
cheaper than saltpeter powders but are more absorbent of moisture 
and, therefore, deteriorate quicker. 

Black powder is especially suited for loosening hardpan, shale, 
and other soft or rotten rock where a lifting action is desired. 
It is much slower than high-grade dynamite and does not shatter 
the rock as much. It is also used in redwood operations to 
blast open logs that are too large to be handled by available 
equipment. 

Black powder is fired by a safety fuse, by a safety fuse and a 
cap of low power, or by an electric fuse. In loading holes the 
powder may be placed loose or in cartridges. When the holes 
open downward the latter form is the only method possible. 

In priming holes it is customary to place the safety fuse or 
safety fuse and cap at the top of the charge while electric fuses 
are ordinarily placed in the center of the charge. 



RAILROAD COx\STRUCTION 311 

Moist clay is the most satisfactory tamping material, 2 or 3 
inches of dry earth being placed over the powder to prevent the 
upper end of the charge from becoming moist. 

When blasting with black powder the holes may be "sprung" 
with dynamite before the powder is inserted, in order that a 
larger cavity may be made for the powder. Dynamite of 40 
per cent strength is used for "springing," about ^V of ^ pound 
per cubic yard being fired in shale, and yV of a pound per cubic 
yard in sandstone. "Sprung" holes should not be charged until 
they have become cool. 

The amount of black powder required per cubic yard of material 
to be blasted is governed by the depth of hole, character of 
rock, and spacing of holes. Authorities on the use of black 
powder do not attempt to give any rules for determining the 
amount of charge. Charges of 1 pound per cubic yard have 
proved successful in side cuts and from 1^ to 3 pounds per cubic 
yard in through cuts.^ The amount to use under given condi- 
tions can be determined only after a few trial shots. 

Black powder is put up in 25- and 50-pound cans. 



STUMP BLASTING 

The removal of stumps from the right-of-way of roads, trails, 
logging grades, and from pond and building sites can often be 
accomplished to best advantage by the use of explosives. Dyna- 
mite of the 20, 40 and 60 per cent grades is preferable to black 
powder for this purpose. 

The position of the blast w^th reference to the stump should 
be governed by the size of stump, character of root system, and 
kind of soil. Charges should be placed under the main body 
of the stump, and as near as possible to its toughest part. 

In sandy soils, stumps with a shallow root system require more 
explosive than those with tap roots. They blast easier in heavy 
and moist soils than in light or dry ones. 

For blasting yellow pine stumps with long tap roots the charge 
should be placed in the tap root and at a distance under ground 
at least equal to the diameter of the stump. Forty per cent 
dynamite is usually preferred. 

Cypress stumps have many lateral roots and since they usually 

1 See "Handbook of Cost Data," by H. B. Gillette, p. 204. 



312 LOGGING 

grow on mucky soil they are difficult to blow out. A quick 
powerful explosive, such as 60 per cent dynamite, is recom- 
mended by manufacturers. The common practice with swamp 
species is to place a |-pound cartridge under each large lateral 
root, and 4 or 5 pounds under the center of the stump. The 
charge is then fired with an electric blasting machine. 

Stumps with defective centers often split apart and allow the 
force of the explosive to pass upward without blowing out the 
roots. This can be obviated by placing a chain around the top 
of the stump. 

The holes in which the explosive is placed are best bored by 
a 2-inch auger welded to a 5-foot iron rod that has a ring on the 
upper end through which a round stick can be inserted for a 
handle. 

The depth of the charge below the stump should be governed 
largely by the size of the stump. Dynamite, in exploding, 
tends to exert an equal force in all directions. When placed 
under a stump the soil below the charge offers greater resistance 
than the soil above and the force is exerted upward in the form 
of an inverted cone. Consequently the deeper the charge is 
placed the wider the cone at the surface of the earth. 

A rule^ followed with success in Minnesota was to place the 
charge at least 1-foot deep for all stumps 1 foot or less in diam- 
eter, and proportionally deeper as the diameter increased. 

Holes are charged, primed and tamped in a manner similar 
to bore holes in rock. Enough explosive should be placed under 
the stump to remove it at the first shot, because it is difficult 
to make an effective blast in loosened dirt. 

One thousand stumps, ranging from 18 to 48 inches in diam- 
eter and averaging 30 inches, which were blasted in Minnesota 
required from one-half to eight, 40 per cent dynamite cartridges, 
the average number being three per stump. 

The DuPont Powder Company recommends, in general, a 
charge of 1| pounds of 20 per cent dynamite for each foot in 
diameter of stump, up to 4 feet; above this diameter 2| pounds 
per foot in diameter. 

On dry ground one man can bore holes, load, and blow out 
an average of fifty stumps per day, if they are not widely scat- 
tered. 

1 See Minnesota Fanner's Institute Annual, No. 21, 1908. 



RAILROAD CONSTRUCTION 313 



TIMBER WORK 

The construction of trestles, culverts, cribbing, and other 
timber work is done just previous to track laying. 

Trestles are used in crossing streams where some form of bridge 
is required and to span depressions when it is necessary to elevate 
the roadbed above the ground level in order to maintain a given 
grade. They usually are cheaper than a fill when the grade line 
is 4 feet or more above the ground level, and although less per- 
manent, the life of the wooden structure is generally ample to 
meet the logger's needs. Trestle timbers also may be salvaged 
when the road is abandoned. 

They are built in two types known as pile trestles and framed 
trestles, and are made in sections, called bents, which are spaced 
12 or 14 feet apart. 

Pile Trestles. — These are used in stream beds and swampy 
spots where suitable foundations for framed trestles cannot be 
secured, and also for structures 75 feet or more in height when the 
cost of constructing framed trestles is high.^ 

Pile trestles are cheaper than framed trestles when the rail- 
road grade makes an oblique angle with the contours, because of 
the saving in excavation for mud sills which would have to be 
cribbed up on one side of the bent and sunk into the earth at the 
opposite side. 

Low pile trestle bents often have three round piles from 12 
to 15 inches in diameter, driven in a row across the roadbed. 
On a standard-gauge road one pile is placed in the center of 
the roadbed and the outer piles are placed from 24 to 28 inches 
on either side of it. On medium-height trestles for standard- 
gauge track four piles are used, the two inner ones being spaced 
3 feet apart, center to center, and the outer piles 26 inches, 
center to center, on either side of the middle ones. When the 
height exceeds 100 feet, five or six piles may be used. They are 
driven with a pile driver to bed rock, or solid bottom, and are 
sawed off at the required height above ground. A 10- by 10- 
inch, a 12- by 12-inch, or a 15- by 15-inch timber, called a "cap," 
is drift bolted on top of them with drift bolts. 

1 Pile trestles 120 feet in height and nearly 400 feet long have been erected 
in the Northwest, to span canyons, at a cost far below that for any other 
form of suitable structure. 



314 



LOGGING 




4: 





RAILROAD CONSTRUCTION 315 

The bents are connected by stringers, each 8 by 14 inches or 
9 by 16 inches in size, which are placed at right angles on top of 
the caps and support the crossties. Two stringers are used under 
each rail. They are spaced 2 inches apart with washers, and 
then bolted together. They may also be drift bolted to the caps 
to hold them in position. Sawed ties/ 6 by 8 inches by 8 feet, 
are placed 24 inches, center to center, on top of the stringers, 
and are often sunk about ^ inch into them. Every fourth or fifth 
crosstie also is drift-bolted to the stringers. Three- by 8-inch 
guard rails are then placed on top of the ends of the ties parallel 
to the stringers and spiked to every other tie to prevent the ties 
from bunching. 

When the trestle is less than 9 feet high it is seldom braced, 
but where the height exceeds this it is braced on each side with 
3- by 6-inch scantlings placed diagonally across each row of piles, 
the top end of the brace being fastened to the cap and the lower 
end to the opposite side of the bent just above the ground. The 
scantlings are spiked to the cap and to each pile. 

Where the bent exceeds 20 feet in height it is divided into two 
or more stories by horizontal braces, of 3- by 8-inch scantlings, 
and each story is braced diagonally in the manner described above. 
At each story every bent is connected by a longitudinal brace. 
Bents over 20 feet in height have five piles whose diameter 
should not be less than one-twentieth of their length. One pile 
is placed in the center of each bent and two others are placed on 
either side at a distance of approximately 24 inches, center to 
center. The two other piles are placed about 1 foot out at 
the top of the bent and are given a batter of 2 inches for each 
foot of height. 

In swampy sections the main line is sometimes built on piling. 
The advantage of this form of road is that a firm foundation is 
secured in places where dirt ballast could not be used, stumps 
need not be removed, and the cost of maintenance for the first 
few years is low. 

In cypress swamps these roads are made of piles from 12 to 
15 inches in diameter, driven down to a solid foundation, which 
may be from 60 to 80 feet. Piles 30 feet long are made from one 
cypress stick but lengths greater than this are secured by placing 

1 Hewed crossties are seldom used for trestle work because of the variation 
in thickness. 



316 LOGGING 

piles on top of one another. Cypress is used for the top log 
and tupelo for the lower ones. The bents are placed at 6-foot 
intervals and have two piles driven 56| inches apart, center to 
center. 

A pile driver crew for building a road of this character is made 
up of eight men who can cut and drive from twenty to thirty-six 
piles (from 60 to 100 feet of track) per day of ten hours. The 




Photofjraph by R. C. Hall. 

Fig. 102. — A Round- tun her irunu'd Logging Railroad Trestle. The Skid- 
way on the right is several feet below the level of the track. Alabama. 

roads are built from 2 to 6 feet above the ground level, and the 
piles are sawed off at the desired height. 

Stringers 8 by 8 inches, or 8 by 10 inches, are laid on top of the 
piles and on these 6- by 8-inch by 8-foot crossties are laid, 24 
inches center to center. 

Framed Trestles. — These are made both of round and squared 
timbers, but if the former must be brought from a considerable 
distance it is advisable to use the latter because they are easier 
to fit, and are more durable. 

The frames, or bents, have four supports, or legs, from 15 to 



RAILROAD CONSTRUCTION 



317 



18 inches in diameter or 10- by 12-inch, or 12- l)y 12-inch squared 
timbers. On a standard-gauge road two of the legs are vertical 
and 36 inches apart, while the other two legs are given a batter 
of from 2 to 3 inches for each foot of height. The legs rest on 
a timber called a sill to which they are drift bolted. Sills vary 
in length according to the height of the trestle and project about 




• The Pole Foundation for a D i 
Louisiana. 



2 feet beyond the base of the outer legs. The tops of the legs 
are covered with a cap 12 or 14 feet long on which the stringers 
rest. 

Framed bents may rest on mud sills, or on piles. When the 
former are used they are frequently 3 by 12 inches by 4 feet in 
size and are placed at right angles to the bent, and a sufficient 
number are used to provide a greater bearing surface than that 
offered by the main sill. Mud sills are suited for a bottom solid 
enough to provide a firm support but they are not adapted to 
use in swamps or stream beds. The foundations used in the 



318 LOGGING 

two latter cases have piles driven to bed rock, one being placed 
under the base of each leg, and cut off 2 or 3 feet above high- 
water mark. 

Stringers, ties and guard rails are used as on a pile trestle, 
and the bents are braced in the same manner. 

Framed trestles often are put together on the ground and raised 
to a vertical position by means of a hoisting or yarding engine 
and suitable blocks and tackle. Trestles 132 feet in height and 
600 feet long have been erected in this manner. This procedure 
reduces the amount of top work necessary and makes it possible 
to use less skilled labor than would be required if the bents were 
framed in the air. Standardized framed trestle structures have 
been designed for use on lines where f;:^quent changes in roadbed 
are necessary. The structure is built in sections or units which may 
be taken down and readily placed in a new structure without 
reframing. This practice, however, is not followed extensively 
in logging railroad construction. 

Cost of Trestles. — Framed trestles are frequently built by 
contract, the price being regulated by the amount of timber used 
and the height of the trestle. Payment for pile trestles, when 
built by contract, is made on the })asis of the number of piles 
driven and the amount of sawed timber used in the remainder 
of the structure. 

Truss Bridge. — This type of bridge is not in common use 
although some have been built where the conditions were un- 
favorable for the erection of pile or framed trestles. 

Dunnage or Dust Road. — This is a type of a cheap logging 
road employed for spurs in the cypress swamps of Louisiana 
where the bottom is too soft for dirt ballast, and the cost of 
a pile road is not warranted by the amount of timber to be re- 
moved. 

The construction of a dunnage road is preceded by clearing 
a right-of-way from 15 to 20 feet wide from which all brush is 
cut and stumps removed from the line of the roadbed. The latter 
is covered with small poles 5 or 6 inches in diameter, laid close 
together, lengthwise of the right-of-way. These give a wide 
bearing surface and serve as a bed on which the ballast is 
placed. The crossties are laid on the poles and the rails spiked 
to them. The track is then ballasted with bark, edgings, saw- 
dust and other sawmill refuse which is brought from the mill 



RAILROAD CONSTRUCTION 319 

in "dunnage" cars. The dunnage is dumped on either side 
of the rails, then thoroughly tamped under the ties and, when the 
track is leveled up, it is ready for operation. Light-weight 
locomotives, from 18 to 30 tons, are used because this type of 
roadbed will not stand heavy traffic. 

Cribwork. — A crib foundation may be used when logging 
railroads cross low places that are too soft for a fill, and where 
the lumber company is not prepared to put in piling. Logs 18 or 
24 inches in diameter and 16 or 18 feet long are placed across 
the right-of-way at intervals of 8 feet. On top of these, and 
parallel to the roadbed, round stringers from 18 to 24 inches in 

J^ltiiWlit^**f^*"' '^*^'*!3tf' ^ "' •« w««^ 



^Ibim. 

Photograph by F. W. Haasis. 

Fig. 104. — A Crib Bridge on a Logging Railroad Spur. A cheap method 
of spanning shallow depressions. Louisiana. 

diameter are placed 56| inches, center to center. These are 
notched into the cross-skids and drift bolted to them. The 
crossties are then laid on top of these stringers. The cross- 
skids are given a greater bearing surface by placing "shims" or 
poles from 4 to 6 inches in diameter and 8 or 10 feet long at 
right angles under them. 

Cribbed bents, similar to those shown in Fig. 104, are some- 
times used on spur lines to span shallow depressions because they 
can be rapidly constructed at a low labor cost. They are now 
seldom used when a structure more than a few feet in height is 
erected because of the large amount of timber required to con- 
struct them. 

Corduroy for Logging Roads. — Loggers in the South often 
corduroy unballasted spur tracks on wet ground with 16- or 20- 
foot poles from 4 to 12 inches in diameter (Fig. 105). The poles 
are placed between each tie and project out far enough on either 



320 



LOGGING 



side to rest on solid ground or on roots and provide a level support 
to the track. Even though the latter does sink temporarily 
under the weight of the train, it will go down evenly so that 
there is no danger of derailment, while shims or poles placed 




Fig. 105. — A Hpur Logging Railroad Corduroyed with Poles in order to 
provide an Adequate Bearing Surface on a Soft Bottom. Arkansas. 

under the ties parallel with the roadbed often allow the track to 
settle on one side. 

Another advantage of cross poles is that they will support the 
car wheels in case of derailment. One man can cut poles and 
lay them in place on 100 feet of track daily, provided the material 
is close at hand. 

When spurs cross swampy ground, some loggers dispense with 
ties and cover the roadbed with large poles 10 or 12 feet long to 



RAILROAD CONSTRUCTION 



321 



which the rails are spiked. A road of this character will support 
traffic on a very wet bottom better than a dirt grade. 

Brush Ballast. — Spur tracks crossing swamps and muddy 
places often are ballasted with brush, including swamped tree 
tops, piled 2 or 3 feet high on the grade. Coniferous brush is pref- 
erable to hardwood, but either may be used. The crossties are laid 




Fig. 106. — A Culvert on a Logging Railroad Spur ready for the Earth 
Cover. Note the use of non-merchantaV)le material for filling depressions 
on both sides of the culvert. Washington. 

on top of the brush and the rails spiked to them. When the track 
has been used a few times the brush ballast flattens out and cross 
poles are then placed between the ties. One man can cut and 
pile brush on from 100 to 150 feet of roadbed, per day, provided 
it can be secured along the right-of-way. 

Culverts. — These are used where the grade crosses very small 
streams, or slight depressions where it is necessary to have drainage 
from one side of the grade to the other. 

They are ordinarily made by placing logs from 18 to 30 inches 



322 LOGGING 

in diameter across the right-of-way on either side of the stream 
or depression and covering them with slabs split from 12- to 18- 
inch timbers^. Brush is often piled on top of the slabs to prevent 
the dirt from falling through, and the grade is then built over the 
culvert. 

When the span is short and the grade is high enough above the 
stream to permit it, several poles or crossties may be laid across 
the gap parallel to the roadbed, and the crossties supporting 
the rails placed on top of them. 

Box culverts made of plank are seldom used because of the 
greater cost for material. Round galvanized iron culverts are 
now used on some main lines. 

Cattle Guards. — Log roads that pass over private lands or 
cross public highways use cattle guards to prevent stock from 
passing down the right-of-way. The usual type is an open pit 
3 or 4 feet deep, 5^ feet long and 3 or 4 feet wide, which is in- 
closed with a frame of 12- by 12-inch timbers. A division fence 
extends from the guard to the highway fence. 

TRACK SUPPLIES 

Crossties. — The size of crossties used depends on the gauge 
of the road. They may be sawed or hewed. Narrow-gauge ties 
are made 6 or 7 feet long and standard-gauge ones are 8 feet. 
Squared ties are 6 by 8 inches in size and pole ties, for a narrow 
gauge, have a 3- to 5-inch face, and for a standard-gauge a 6-inch 
face. 

Ties usually are cut on the operation and are made both from 
hardwoods and softwoods. Hewed pole ties made from second- 
growth pine are seldom as satisfactory as squared ones because 
they break readily and cause frequent derailments. An expert 
tie hacker will hew thirty-five or forty standard ties per day, an 
average man twenty-five or thirty. Some operators who own 
sawmills and cut crossties for the market use the rejects on their 
logging operation. 

New tics are placed at 24-inch intervals, center to center, on 
main lines and spurs. On the latter they wear out before they 
decay because of the frequent pulling and driving of spikes. On 
tangents only every other tie may be spiked which lengthens its 

1 See Fig. 106. 



RAILROAD CONSTRUCTION 



323 



life because a tie which has been spiked four times becomes so 
weakened that it often breaks under the rail especially if the ends 
of the tie are not well ballasted. When spurs are taken up only 
two spikes in each crosstie may be pulled, one on the outer side 
of one rail and the other on the inner side of the opposite rail. 
The tie may then be forced to one side and removed. When the 
track is relaid, the spikes in the tie are pulled slightly, the rail 
slipped under the spike heads and the latter then driven tight 
against the rail flange. The average annual tie renewals on 
southern logging operations average about two hundred per year. 

Crossties of special length are required for a switch. A set 
of timbers for a single switch ranges in length from 9 to 15 feet 
and the number varies with the frog; e.g. a number 8 frog 
requires 47 and a number 10 frog 56. 
These are often sawed out in the mill. 
On rough track the long switch ties 
may be replaced by two standard-length 
ones. 

Steel Rails. — Rails are classified ac- 
cording to their weight in pounds per 
linear yard, and those of a given weight 
are now made of a uniform size. 

The chief parts of a rail are the head, 
the web, and the flange base. The head 
contains 42 per cent of the metal, the web 
21 per cent and the flange 37 per cent. 

WEIGHTS AND DIMENSIONS OF STANDARD RAILS 



^ 



:i 



Fig. 107. — A Standard 
Rail Head, a, the head. 
b, the web. c, the 





Weight per yard in pounds 


Rail part 


40 


45 


50 


55 


60 


65 


70 


75 






Dimensions in inches 


A 


11 
If 

1 

Iff 


2 

h 
3-: 

-; 
1-i 
ll^^ 


2J 


2i 

it 

Hi 


2-^ 


1/2 


1 

41 

H 

2il 

IH 


2i| 


B 




C and D 


4-s 


E 


fs 


F 


2f? 


G 


hz 











324 



LOGGING 



Rails are sold by the long ton. Although the standard rail 
length is 30 feet, shippers reserve the right to include 10 per 
cent of from 24- to 28-foot rails in a given order. 

Narrow-gauge roads use 25- or 35-pound rails; and standard- 
gauge 35- or 45-pound rails on spurs, and from 45- to 70-pound 
rails on main lines. The lighter rails are an advantage on spurs 
because they can be handled more readily. 

The long tons of rails of different weights required per mile 
of road may be found by multiplying the weight per yard by 11 
and dividing the result by 7.^ Ordinarily the weight of the rail 
in pounds per yard should equal the number of short tons carried 
on all the drivers of the heaviest locomotive that is to be used. 





Fig. 108. — Forms of Rail Fastenings, a, angle bars. 6, fish plates. 



For example, a locomotive having a weight of 80,000 pounds 
on its drivers should not be operated on less than a 40-pound 
rail. 

Lumber companies may buy or lease second-hand rails from 
trunk-line railroads. The latter practice was common in some 
sections, where trunk lines had second-hand steel, which accumu- 
lated when a change in the weight of the rails was made on their 
lines. The lease of steel at low rates served to encourage the 
development of the lumber industry along the trunk line because 
it reduced the lumberman's investment in equipment. 

Rail Fastenings. — Either angle bars or fish plates are used to 
strengthen and brace the rails at the joint. 

Angle bars, which are of several patterns, are bolted on each 
side of the joint with from two or three bolts in each rail head 
(Fig. 108a.) They are used both on main-line and spur logging 
roads. 



1 Example: 
640 pounds. 



weight of rail, 60 pounds per yard; then 



60 X 11 



= 94 tons, 



RAILROAD CONSTRUCTION 



325 



Fish plates, sometimes called "straps," are plain bars of steel 
bolted to the rail in the same manner as the angle bars, but 
usually with not more than two bolts per rail head (Fig. 1086). 
They are especially adapted to spur track use because they can 
be put on quicker than angle bars and are equally serviceable for 
light traffic. Standard requirements call for 357 joints per mile. 

Spikes. — Rails are fastened to the crossties by square spikes 
which vary in length and size with the weight of rail. Four 
spikes are driven to each tie, one on each side of^each rail. 



ESTIMATED AMOUNT OF MATERIAL REQUIRED FOR ONE 
MILE OF TRACK FOR RAILS OF A GIVEN WEIGHT 



Weight of rails 
per yard 

Number of tons 
of 2240 pounds , 

Pounds of spikes . 

Number of angle 
bars 

Number of cross- 
ties 

Pounds of bolts 
and nuts 



16 


20 


25 


30 


35 


40 


45 


55 


60 


2oA 
1689 


31i«T 

1689 


39f 
2708 


471 
2708 


55 

2708 


621 
4182 


70f 
4182 


86A 
5867 


94^ 
5867 


357 


357 


357 


357 


357 


357 


357 


357 


357 


3520 


3520 


3520 


3520 


3017 


2640 


2640 


2640 


2640 


546 


582 


582 


610 


610 


1073 


1073 


1146 


1169 



6.5 

102f 
5867 

357 

2348 

1169 



Turnouts. — The device used to connect two given sets of 
track is known as a turnout. It has three separate parts known 
as the switch, the frog and the guard rails. 

(1) The switch is the movable part of the turnout and is 
the point at which the two divergent tracks meet. There are 
two kinds in use by loggers; (a) the stub-switch in which both 
main-line rails are cut (Fig. 109), and (b) the split switch in which 
but one main-line rail is cut (Fig. 109). The latter is preferred 
because of its greater safety. 

(2) Frogs provide the means by which the flanges of the wheels 
can cross the rail of the track when the train is entering or leaving 
a switch (Fig. 109c). Frogs are built ready for use in the track 
and are made for various degrees of curvature, each size being 
designated by a number Those in most common use on stand- 
ard-gauge logging roads are No. 6 (9° 32'), No. 8 (7° 09') and 
No. 10 (5^ 43'). The numl)er of a given frog can be determined 
by dividing the length of frog by the width of the frog heel, 
the quotient being the frog number. 

(3) Both on the main line and the spurs, guard rails, from 10 



326 



LOGGING 



to 15 feet long, are placed opposite the frog and serve to hold the 
wheel flanges against the outer rail and thus make the wheel 
flanges on the opposite side of the car follow the proper rail. The 
space between the head of the guard rail and that of the main 
rail is 2 inches. 



Tly Rail GuarJ Rait 

Ry„ y. f;^. Q n n n n nm n 




Ground th; 
Switch Standi 



a STUB SWITCH 

nnnnnnnn 




b SPLIT SWITCH 




de =Toeof Frog 
ab =Frog Heel 
acb -Frog Angle = dee 
ch - Length of Frog 
The Frog Number "»!.'•= |r 

Fig. 109. — Two Forms of Turnouts used on Logging Railroads, a, the 
stub switch, h, the spUt switch, c, a standard frog. 



STEEL LAYING AND REMOVAL 



The work of laying steel and taking it up may be done either 
by hand labor, or by track-laying and lifting machines. The 
work is done both by contract and by day labor, although the 
latter is the more common. 



RAILROAD CONSTRUCTION 327 

A crew of from twenty-one to twenty-five men, provided with 
a light engine, and one or more cars carrying crossties, rails and 
other supplies will lay, by hand, from 1500 to 2000 feet of track, 
daily. The usual unit for expressing the amount of work done 
in laying or taking up track is the 30-foot rail and the average 
day's work for each man in the crew is from five to six rails either 
laid in the track or taken up or both. Some highly efficient 
crews are able to lay ten rails per man, daily. When laying or 
taking up track by hand, the rails and ties are carried on flat 
cars each holding from fifteen to twenty pairs of rails with the 
required number of ties. The cars are pushed ahead of the lo- 
comotive to the point where construction is to begin. Ties 
are then laid in position on the right-of-way, and the rails placed 
on them. The rails are connected by angle bars or fish plates 
and spiked to every third or fourth tie. This gives the rail 
sufficient bracing to hold up the train which is pushed forward 
a rail length and the operation repeated. In taking up track this 
process is reversed. The cost is about the same as for laying 
track. 

Track-lajdng crews are followed by back spikers, who complete 
the spiking of the track. On main line and curves four spikes 
are placed in each tie, two for each rail, but on spurs every other 
tie may be spiked. The track can be taken up more readily 
if it has a minimum number of spikes to pull and the life of the 
tie is also increased. A crew of seven men will back-spike 1600 
feet of track per day. 

Spurs are moved with such frequency that it is seldom feasible 
to carry a stock of bent rails for curved portions of the track. 
In nearly all cases it is practicable to bend the rails to the proper 
curve as they are spiked. On main-line work a rail-bending 
machine is sometimes used. 

Where spurs are being built constantly the steel-laying crew 
may spend alternate days in removing steel and ties from an 
abandoned road and in placing them on a new roadbed. 

On main lines the expansion of the rails during warm weather 
must be taken into account in order to prevent buckling. To 
remedy this a space of i% inch in winter and yV inch in summer 
is left between rail ends. On spurs the rails seldom fit closely 
so that this factor may be disregarded. 

Hand methods require a crew of strong men to handle the heavy 



328 LOGGING 

crossties and rails and a full crew is necessary to work to advantage. 
In order to reduce the amount of hea\y work involved in track 
laying and lifting and to make it possible to work efficiently with 
a smaller crew of average strength men, several types of track 
laying and lifting machines have been devised. These are of 
two general types: (1) those that handle the rails and ties in sec- 
tions or panels one rail length long; (2) those that handle rails 
and ties separately. 

The first method is best adapted to flat lands where there are 
few curves and turnouts on the line, for where these occur the 
track sections must be broken up before they can be relaid. 
The rails are laid with "even joints." The equipment includes 
a locomotive, several flat cars and a locomotive crane mounted 
on a flat car. The train is backed out to the end of the line 
that is to be taken up, the bolts on one end of the fish plates 
are removed, and chains are attached to each corner of a 30- 
foot section, which is then elevated several feet by means of a 
cable on the track mover. The latter is then revolved in an arc of 
180 degrees and the section deposited on the flat car directly 
behind it. The train is then run forward a rail length and the 
process repeated. When ten sections, or 300 feet of track, have 
been placed on a flat car, it is switched out by the locomotive and 
an empty substituted. After loading several flat cars, the train 
proceeds to a new line where with the 'track mover ahead the 
process is reversed and the track laid. On one operation a track 
foreman, who ran the machine, one laborer on the flat car to 
fasten and loosen chains, and three or four laborers on the ground 
to handle the sections and to bolt up and unbolt fish plates have 
laid 2000 feet of track daily, in addition to clearing the right-of-way 
and cutting wood for fuel. 

When there are many curves in the track it is cheaper to break 
up the panels and to handle the crossties and rails separately. 
Two general types of machines adapted to this work are on the 
market. One of them, the so-called Norby track-laying and lifting 
machine^ is mounted on a 42-foot flat car and has a skeleton steel 
hollow framework 12 feet high, 10| feet wide and from 34 to 
40 feet long. An over-head I-beam track is bolted to the frame- 
work over the center of the car and extends 26 feet beyond both 
ends of the framework. A four-wheeled trolley travels along 
1 See Fig. 110. 



RAILROAD CONSTRUCTION 329 

this track, being actuated by an endless cable driven by two drums 
and a 5- by 7-inch twin engine placed above the center of the steel 
framework. Steam for the engine is piped from the locomotive. 
Both the rails and the crossties are handled by this trolley. A 
track-laying outfit comprises the track-laying machine, a flat 
car for crossties and a locomotive. In taking up track, the train 
with the track machine in front is pushed within 30 feet of the 
end of the road and the rail fastenings removed. The trolley 
is then run out to the end of the boom and a loose rail lifted by 
means of rail tongs and carried back and dropped under the frame- 
work of the machine. When both rails have been placed on the 
car, the crossties are made up into bundles containing several 
pieces, a choker is placed around them and the unit raised by 




Fig. 110. — The Norby Track-Laying and Lifting Device.. 

the trolley and carried above the rails on the car to a flat car at 
the rear of the machine. A crew of twelve men, exclusive of 
the foreman and the locomotive attendants, can pick up or lay 
about 1800 feet of track daily. 

Another type of track-laying and lifting machine is mounted 
on a special car with a steel framework and has two endless parallel 
chains spaced about 4 feet apart which extend from the rear of the 
machine to the ends of a cantilever arm which projects 22 feet 
beyond the trucks on the forward part of the machine. These 
chains are driven by a small reversible duplex engine, which is 
furnished with steam by the locomotive. The chains rest on 
sills on top of the car on which the crossties are piled and are 
used to carry crossties from the car to the end of the cantilever 
arm or vice versa. The crossties are raised above the chain 
by short sections of 2- by 4-inch pieces which are placed on 
the sills parallel to the chain. The rails are carried on bunks 
on both sides of the machine. When track is being taken up, 



330 LOGGING 

the machine is run out to the end of the road, the rail fastenings 
removed, and the rails pulled, by a power driven cable, over 
rollers to the bunks on the car. The crossties are then picked 
up and placed upon the endless chain on the cantilever arm which 
carries them to the rear of the machine where they are stacked 
upon the 2- by 4-inch timbers on top of the sills. As loading 
progresses additional strips are placed along the chains until 
the front end of the machine is reached. In track laying the cross- 
ties are rolled down upon the endless chain and carried to the 
end of the cantilever arm where they are placed in position by 
the crew. The rails are rolled from the bunks upon rollers 
along the side of the car and then pushed forward where they 
are picked up by means of rail tongs and carried forward and 
dropped upon the crossties. When the rails are in position, the 
rail fastenings are adjusted, and bridles are placed on the rails at 
intervals of 7 or 8 feet to hold them upright and in position until 
the track layer and locomotive have passed. Spiking is done 
behind the locomotive since more speed can be made by this 
method. This machine can be operated with a crew of eight 
men but a crew of from fourteen to sixteen is more efficient. 

The back-spiking crew is followed by the surfacing gang which 
levels up the roadbed with ballast, digs or opens drainage ditches 
alongside of the track, adjusts the gauge, raises the outer rails on 
curves, and performs any work necessary to put the road in a 
condition for operation. On main lines a large amount of sur- 
facing may be done, but on spurs it is limited. 

Roads which have sharp curves must have the gauge widened 
to reduce the frictional resistance of the wheels against the rails. 
It is customary to widen the gauge at least -jV'iiich for each 2| 
degrees of curvature in excess of 5 degrees. For example, the 
gauge would be increased ^-inch for a 20-degree curve. The 
extra width allowed is dependent chiefly on the width of the car 
wheel treads. 

The centrifugal force of a train under speed tends to force the 
wheels against the outer rail. This tendency increases with 
speed and is greater on a sharp curve than on an easy one. It 
is overcome by elevating the outer rail and lowering the inner 
one and also by coning the tread of the wheels. The diagram 
(Fig. Ill) shows the customary elevation for standard-gauge 
track on curves up to 40 degrees and for speeds up to 30 miles 



RAILROAD CONSTRUCTION 



331 



per hour. The elevation for track of another gauge is approxi- 
mately in proportion to its relation to the standard-gauge. 

An average day's work for surfacing a new roadbed when about 
8 inches of dirt are used as ballast, is three rail lengths per man, 
while on swamp work when from 12 to 15 inches of dirt ballast 
are used, it is one rail length. 

Cost of Construction. — The cost of construction per mile on 
logging railroads varies widely even in a given region. The two 

Speed/MIles per Hour 
5 10 15 20 23 30 



\ \ V^ \ \ 



Fig. 111. 



Diagram Showing the Customary Elevation of the Outer Rail, 
in Inches, for Various Degrees of Curvature. 



factors that chiefly influence it are topography and the character 
of the bottom on which the road is to be built. 

Construction is cheapest in the flat pine forests of the extreme 
southern States, where a minimum of grading is required. On 
the other hand the rough topography of some of the Pacific 
Coast country often requires heavy grading work and high trestles 
and the roads must be built more carefully for transporting the 
large and heavy timber. Swamps such as are found in the 
cypress region also necessitate a heavy expenditure because 
the main roads have to be built on piling. 



332 LOGGING 

Loggers in all sections spend from 60 to 90 cents per thousand 
feet of timber hauled for the construction of the road, from 20 
to 30 per cent of which is expended on the main line. The cost 
of main line logging roads, exclusive of rails and other supplies, 
in the southern pine region ranges from $1000 to $2000 per 
mile, and on the Pacific Coast between $3000 and $6000. Spur 
lines in the South cost from $300 to $750 and on the Pacific 
Coast from $2000 to $3000 per mile. The cost of a main line in- 
cluding new steel rails, angle bars, spikes, crossties and supplies 
will exceed the figures given by from $3000 to $4000 per mile. 

Maintenance-of-Way. — Section crews are employed to keep 
the road ballasted up, maintain the gauge, keep the drainage 
ditches open, replace broken or decayed tie's and to make any 
repairs that may be needed. Maintenance on main lines requires 
one man per mile, and on spurs one man for 2 miles of track. 

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE TO CHAPTER XVIII 

Amburn, W. W. : Standardized Timber Bridge for Logging Railroads. 
The Timberman, Feb., 1919, p. 46. 

Byrkit, G. M.: Machine for Picking up Railroad Track. The Timber- 
man, August, 1912, p. 48. 

Byrne, Austin T.: Highway Construction. John Wiley and Sons, New 
York. 

Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army: Engineer Field Manual, Professional 
Papers, No. 29, Washington, 1917. 

Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army: MiUtary Railways, Professional Papers, 
No. 32, Washington, 1917. 

Cowling, H. G.: Standard Frame Trestles for Logging Railroad. The 
Timberman, July, 1921, pp. 34 and 36. 

Crosby, Lloyd R.: Construction of Logging Railroad Tunnels. The 
Timberman, March, 1923, pp. 34 and 35. 

Davis, Minot: Steam Shovel in Logging Railroad Construction. The 
Timberman, Nov., 1921, pp. 66 and 68. 

Engineer's Handbook. Useful Information for Practical Men. Com- 
piled for E. I. duPont de Nemours Powder Company, Wilmington, Dela- 
ware, 1908. 

Fish, J. C. L.: Earthwork Haul and Overhaul. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 
New York, 1913. 

Gillette, H. P.: Earthworth and its Cost. McGraw-Hill Book Co., 
New York, 1912. 

Gillette, H. P.: Handbook of Clearing and Grubbing. Clark Book Co., 
New York, 1917. 

Gillette, H. P.: Handbook of Cost Data. Myron C. Clark Pub. Co., 
Chicago, 1910. 



RAILROAD CONSTRUCTION 333 

Gillette, H. P.: Handbook of Rock Excavation. McGraw-Hill Book 

Co., New York, 1916. 
Johnson, J. B.: Theory and Practice of Surveying. John Wiley and Sons, 

New York. 1901. 
KiNDELAN, J.: The Trackman's Helper, Clark Book Co., New York, 1900. 
Lamb, Frank H.: Steam Shovel in Logging Road Construction. The 

Timberman, Oct., 1920, pp. 65 and 68. 
Pope, C. R.: Constructing a High Pile Bridge. The Timberman, Feb., 

1915, pp. 49 and 50. 
Powers, Fred W.: Preventing Track Creeping on Grades. The Timber- 
man, Oct., 1919, p. 45. 
SoMERViLLE, S. S.: Building Logging Railroads with a Pile-driver. The 

Timberman, August, 1910, pp. 37-38. 
Stamm, Samuel A. : A LTnique Logging Railroad Bridge. The Timberman, 

July, 1916, p. 46. 
Tracy, John Clinton: Plane Surveying. John Wiley and Sons, New York. 

1908. 
Webb, W. L. : Railroad Construction. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New 

York. 1917. 



CHAPTER XIX 

INCLINES 

Loggers in mountainous regions often find it necessary to 
raise or lower loaded log cars on grades too steep for the operation 
of locomotives unless switchbacks are installed. One western 
logger states that the ratio of track required for inclines as com- 
pared to switchbacks is 1 to 5. These conditions may be en- 
countered in bringing timber over a ridge from one valley to 
another, or from a ridge to a lower level on which the logging 
railroad is located, or vice versa. Logging inclines are often used 
to overcome difficulties of this character. 

Two different incline systems are in use, namely, the one-way in 
which loaded cars are lowered in one operation and the empty 
cars later drawn up to the top; and the counterbalance system 
in which the empty car ascends as the loaded car descends. 

The roadbed for an incline does not require as strong construc- 
tion as a railroad because there is no pounding action such as is 
produced by a locomotive. An uneven grade is not a serious 
handicap unless there are portions which are so gentle that 
cars cannot be returned to the foot of the incline by gravity, 
in which case a trip line must be provided which will pass from 
the hoisting engine through a block at the foot of the incline and 
then back to the summit. 

Inclines should be built approximately in a straight line be- 
cause greater power is required when the direction of pull is 
changed and the life of the cable is shortened when it passes 
over rollers at curves. However, small degrees of curvature are 
permissible if rollers are placed at such places to reduce cable wear. 
The maximum efficient length for an incline seldom exceeds 8000 
feet. 

When loaded cars are hauled up one slope and dropped down 
on the other side, the distance on the down-grade should not 
exceed the maximum for an upgrade haul. 

One-way Vehicles. — These may have one or two cables, the 
334 



INCLINES 



335 



former being most frequently used on short lines although it 
is sometimes used on long ones. The one-cahle system has 
a one-drmn hoisting or lowering engine placed near the head 
of the incline, by which the cars are dropped down or pulled 
up the grades. It sometimes is placed at the summit and 
is used to raise cars up to the top of the incline and then 
lower them on the opposite slope. In some cases logs are 
carried over more than one divide by using two or more rais- 
ing and lowering machines. On an Oregon operation^ where 
two ridges were crossed the logs were first drawn up a 15 per cent 
incline 1500 feet long, and then lowered down a 20 per cent grade 
for 3000 feet. At the base of the latter grade the cars were 
picked up by the cable from a machine near the second summit 




Second Operation Straw Line holds Car 
Main Line attached to Rear End of Car 

Straw Line from Gypsy Head 

First Operation Main Line hauls Car 
to Top of Incline 



Fig. 112. — An Incline System used to transport Timber across Two Ridges. 

and hauled up an 8 per cent grade for 1000 feet, and then lowered 
on an .'8 per cent grade for 1500 feet. The engine at the woods 
terminus was a 9- by 10-inch yarding engine, carrying 4500 feet of 
f-inch cable which passed through a 48-inch sheave block at 
the summit, and then was brought back to the foot of the incline 
and attached to the draw bar of the logging car. The car was 
drawn to the summit of the first incline where it was held 
by a small line from the donkey which was attached to the 
rear drawhead of the car. The main cable was then transferred 
from the front to the rear drawhead, the small cable released and the 
car lowered to the foot of the grade. Here it was picked up by the 
second engine which pulled the load to the top of the second in- 
cline and then lowered it to the roadway. The actual time re- 
quired from one end of the double incline to the other was about 
20 minutes, a round trip requiring one hour including loading 
and unloading the incline car, which was a standard set of logging 
trucks equipped with safety bunks. An independent brake 
control was pro\'ided by a tender car made from a single set of 
1 See Fig. 112; also The Timberman, May, 1915, p. 48A. 



336 LOGGING 

logging trucks upon which were mounted two hand brakes» 
The tender car was connected by chains and rods to the logging 
car. It was seldom used since the engineers were able to control the 
speed of the car from the machine. 

The loaded car weighed approximately 20 tons and carried 
from 5000 to 7000 board feet of timber. 

An improvement on the method of operating similar inclines 
suggested by a logger is to fasten the cable around the center of 
the load and when the latter has nearly reached the summit to 
increase the speed of the car so that it will cross the divide and 
drop down the other slope. The sheave block should be hung 
on a swivel about 20 feet above the center of the track. 

A two-cable system^ was developed by a western operator to 
lower timber from mountain slopes to a railroad at the base, 
about 1200 feet below. Inclines with lateral spurs were con- 
structed and the loaded cars brought to them for lowering. 
While most of the inclines were straight, on one there was 1200 
feet of track on a 12 degree curve. Power for lowering the cars 
was provided by a 11- by 13-inch hoisting engine placed at the 
top of the slope, which had a drum capacity of 12,000 feet of 
If-inch cable. The engine was mounted on a sled so that it 
could be moved readily under its own power from one set-up 
to another. 

The lowering line led from the engine, placed on the left of the 
incline, through a three-sheave block on a lowering car, and then 
back to a stump near the engine but on the opposite side of the 
track. The lowering car had a steel frame supported on two 
single trucks, on which was mounted a compound lowering 
block. 

The dead section of the lowering line rested on skids placed 
along the track and at right angles to it. The moving line rested 
on sheaves along the side of the track, spaced at 100 foot intervals. 
On the inside of the curves the cable led over rollers, while on 
the outside of curves the dead line was held in place by brackets 
which automatically released or picked up the line when the car 
had passed a given point. 

The "lowering" car pulled the empty log cars from the base of 
the incline to one of the lateral spurs, where they were left on 
a siding, and were later taken to the loading poisk by a geared 
^ See Logging in the Douglas Fir Region, by W. H. Gibbons. 



INCLINES 337 

locomotive. Loaded cars were brought out from the lateral 
spurs by a locomotive and placed on a siding near the incline. 
The lowering car was then run in on the switch and coupled 
to the loaded cars, which were then pulled out upon the incline 
and lowered. Two or three loaded or six empty cars were 
handled at one time. This system has proved satisfactory on 
inclines 4800 feet long and with maximum grades of 30 per cent, 
the machine lowering 40 cars, dail}^, under these conditions. 

Counterbalanced Inclines. — These are designed so that as 
a loaded car descends an empty one ascends. There may be 
a single track from the base to a point about midway of the 
incline where a passing switch is installed and single or double 
tracks then continued to the summit. Sometimes triple rails 
are used with a passing switch at the midway point. The 
loaded and empty cars then use the middle rail in common. 
A counterbalanced incline built in California was 8000 feet long 
and had a drop of 3100 feet, the grades running from 10 to 78 
per cent with an average of 45 per cent. The lowering engine 
was equipped with a single drum driven by 14- by 14-inch engines, 
geared to a ratio of 12 to 1, and providing a car speed of 600 
feet per minute. Two independent sets of friction brakes were 
provided. The 6 by 19 plow steel cable was 1| inches in 
diameter and was held down on depressions by sheaves supported 
on trestle work 16 feet above the ground level. Sheaves also 
were placed in the track where the cable might drag on the ground 
in order to keep it out of the dirt. 

A special design of car holding 5000 board feet was used which 
had a steel Inilk head 5 feet high at the front end to prevent the 
logs from sliding forward on the car. The time required to lower 
a car varied from 10 to 12 minutes including the time necessary 
to attach the cable at the summit and detach it at the foot of 
the incline. 

There are several devices, known as "snubbing machines," 
used for lowering logs down an inclined track. 

The chief feature of the friction-brake snubbing machine is 
a heavy frame, carrying a large drum on which is wound the 
cable that holds the loaded cars in check. The speed of the cars 
is regulated by means of heavy band brakes placed on flanges 
attached on either side of the drum. 

The haul cable is returned to the top of the incline by various 



338 



LOGGING 



devices. One type has a small drum placed on one end of the 
main drum shaft and a trip line from a yarding engine wrapped 
two or three times around it. When the main cable is to be 
wound up, the trip line is tightened by sheave pulleys, and, as it 
is wound in, the main drum is rotated. 

Another method is to use a donkey engine equipped with 
a large drum and l|-inch cable with the cars attached to the 
free end. The speed is controlled chiefly through the car brakes 
supplemented by friction brakes on the drum. Empties are 
brought to the head of the incline by winding in the main cable. 




Fig. 113. — A Hydraulic Snubbing Machine, a, side view, b, top view. 

Hydraulic machines,^ of the type shown in Fig. 113a and 6, 
have been used in the Northwest to control the speed of cars 
lowered on inclines. 

The water cylinders (K) are closed at both ends and are con- 
nected with the pipe (L) which has a plug valve (M) near the 
middle. When (ilf) is closed the water is confined and holds the 
pistons (H) rigidly in place. Opening the valve (ilf) allows 
the water to pass alternately from one end of the cylinder to the 
other, the speed being governed by the extent to which the valve 
1 See The Timberman, Portland, Oregon, October, 1909, p. 51. 



INCLINES 339 

is opened. The controlling levers are so arranged that the valves 
(M) can only be opened and closed gradually, thus avoiding 
heavy shocks on the cable. In addition to the hydraulic cylinder 
brakes the machine is equipped with emergency brake bands and 
wooden friction blocks. The cable and empty cars are returned 
to the head of the incline by an auxiliary steam-driven engine. 

A snubbing device of the above character was operated on a 
4500-foot incline on which there was a difference of 1300 feet 
elevation. The grade on a portion of the road was 50 per cent 
and averaged 30 per cent for the entire distance. 

One car holding 6000 feet log scale, a total weight of about 
20 tons, was lowered with a 1-inch plow steel cable. A greater 
number of cars could have been handled by increasing the size 
of the cable, but since the daily requirements were only 30,000 
board feet, this was unnecessary. 

In a western operation, which had a 20 per cent grade near 
the end of its logging railroad, the problem of lowering cars was 
solved in the following manner: A track was built up the slope 
from the main line to a bench on which a yarding engine was 
placed both for skidding logs and loading cars. A |-inch cable 
was laid along the track from the bottom of the incline to the top 
where it was passed through a block in the rear of the yarding 
engine and then carried down the track to the starting point. 
One end of the cable was attached to the forward end of the 
empty cars, and the other end to the drawhead on a locomotive 
standing on a parallel track beside the empty cars. The cars 
were pulled up the incline by running the locomotive on the 
main line toward the mill which hauled the empty cars from 
the parallel track to the main incline track and then to the summit. 
Signals for starting and stopping were given by blasts on 
the whistles of the locomotive and the yarding engine. The 
speed of descending cars was controlled by the locomotive as it 
slowly backed toward the base of the hill. 

Safety switches were installed both at the top and bottom of 
the incline so that the cars passing up or down could be shunted 
from the main track to a siding before they would meet other 
cars or the locomotive. 

Two loaded cars were handled at one time, the locomotive 
placing two empties at the head of the incline and then taking 
the loaded cars to the mill. This arrangement resulted in a 
minimum loss of time for the train crews. 



340 LOGGING 

Dudley. — Formerly when it was not possible to build a straight 
track, and the length of incline exceeded I-2 miles, a special form of 
traction device, called a "Dudley" or "Dudler," was used. It 
was made to operate on ascending or descending grades and 
either to drag logs over the ties or to haul them on cars. 

The Dudley was a traction device with steam or gasoline 
power mounted on trucks. It was moved along the track by 
means of a cable wound several times around a bull drum on the 
machine. The cable was stationary and the ends were attached 
to stumps or trees at the upper and lower terminals. When 
the drum was rotated the machine warped itself up or down the 
incline. Such devices are rarely used today, some form of one- 
way or counterbalanced incline being substituted for it. 

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE TO CHAPTER XIX 

Badgett, C. S.: Equipment for Incline Logging. American Lumber- 
man, Oct. 8, 1921, p. 54. 

Clark, A. W.: Overcoming Grades too Steep for Geared Locomotives. 
The Timberman, August, 1909, p. 33. 

Holmes, H. P.: Lowering Logs on Steep Grades. The Timberman, 
Sept., 1914, pp. 65 and 66. 

MacLafferty.,T. H.: Handhng Logging Trains on Excessive Grades. The 
Timberman, July, 1911, p. 44. 

McGiLLicuDDY, B. H.: Lowering Systems versus Switchbacks. The 
Timberman, Nov. 1921, pp. 48 and 49. 

Nestos, R. R.: Aerial Snubbing Device. The Timberman, August, 1912, 
p. 49. 

O'GoRMAN, J. S.: Logging Steep Ground with Inclines. The Timberman, 
Nov. 1921, pp. 46 and 47. 

Paulsen, E. M.: Inclines versus Swing Machines. The Timberman, 
March, 1922, p. 57. 

Potter, E. O.; Utilization of the Cable Locomotive. The Timberman, 
August, 1909, p. 34. 

Sessoms, H. W. : Proposed Plan for Steep Hillside Logging. The Timber- 
man, Oct. 1913, pp. 74 and 75. 

Sessoms, H. W.: Lowering Logs on Steep Grades. The Timberman, Sept., 
1914, pp. 32 and 32A. 

Sessoms, H. W.: Lowering Systems and Inclines. The Timberman, Nov., 
1922, pp. 72, 74 and 76. 

Wentworth, G. K.: Lowering Logs on a 3200-foot Incline. The Timber- 
man, August, 1909, p. 34. 

Williams, Asa S.: Logging by Steam. Forestry Quarterly, Vol. VI, pp. 
1^21. 



CHAPTER XX 
MOTIVE POWER AND ROLLING STOCK 

A. LOCOMOTIVES 

There are two types of locomotives; namely, rod and geared. 

Rod Locomotives. — These have the power transmitted from 
the cylinders to the drivers b}^ means of a connecting rod. They 
have a longer wheel-base than geared locomotives, consequently 
they cannot take as sharp curves, but are the best type for a 
smooth, well-maintained road of easy grade, and because of their 
speed are especially serviceable for main-line engines when the 
haul exceeds 7 or 8 miles. 

Those used for logging purposes range in weight from 20 to 
150 tons. Saddle-tank locomotives of from 20 to 35 tons' weight 
are sometimes used on spur tracks, and are more efficient for their 
size than types with a tender because there is less dead weight 
for the engine to carry. For main-line work locomotives of 40 
tons or more are in general use. 

A special form of rod locomotive, known as the Mallet Arti- 
culated Locomotive, is used on some main line logging roads 
that have sharp curves. It has two sets of engines mounted 
under the boilers, each connected to independent groups of 
driving wheels. The rear engine is fixed rigidly to the boiler 
like the regular pattern of rod locomotive. The forward engine 
and driving wheels are so attached to the boiler that the truck 
may have a lateral motion when taking curves. This truck is 
connected to the rear engine by means of a radial draw-bar and 
steam is transmitted to the cylinders on the front truck 
through an articulated pipe. The forward pony truck is pivoted 
and may swing from side to side, independently of the trucks 
bearing the engines. The cylinders are single or compound 
expansion, and the exhaust steam of the rear engine is used in 
the cylinders of the forward engine, thus effecting a saving in fuel. 

The advantages of this type of engine are that the wheel base 
341 



342 LOGGING 

is materiallj' shortened 1)}^ having two separate sets of drivers 
which permit the use of a heavy rod locomotive on a road having 
curves that are too sharp for the r(^gular type of rod engine of 
the same weight; and it is so constructed that live steam may 
be used in the cylinders of both engines to secure greater power 
to start loads, which increases the hauling power of the loco- 
motive in comparison with that of an ordinary rod engine of the 
same weight, since an engine can keep in motion a greater load 
that it can start. Another feature claimed for this locomotive 
is that the drivers slip less than on other types of rod engines 
because the forward cylinders depend on the rear ones for steam, 
and should the drivers connected to the latter slip, the exhaust 
would fill the feed pipe of the forward cylinders faster than it 
could be relieved and the resultant back pressure on the high- 
pressure pistons would reduce the speed and prevent further slip- 
ping. 

Locomotives of this tj^pe, ranging in weight from 81 to 121 
tons, are in use on logging roads in the Pacific Northwest. The 
minimum weight in which they are built is 50 tons. One weigh- 
ing 121 tons is in operation on the Pacific Coast on a road having 
35-degree curves and 8 per cent grades. ^ 

Geared Locomotives. — The first geared locomotive was con- 
structed about 1885 by E. E. Shay, a Michigan logger, and this 
locomotive, with modifications and improvements, is in extensive 
use to-day. Several forms of geared locomotives other than 
the Shay are now on the market. 

The objects sought in geared locomotives are to secure a 
maximum amount of tractive force with a minimum total weight, 
a short truck base that will enable the engine to take sharp curves 
with ease, and a form of truck that will adjust itself readily to 
an uneven track. These ends are accomplished by making every 
wheel under the engine and tender a driving wheel; by trans- 
mitting power to the driving wheels through a series of bevel 
gears that bear a ratio to each other of from 2 to 1 or from 2\ 
to 1; and by the use of swivel trucks on which the drivers are 
arranged in pairs and connected, one with another, by means of 
an articulated driving rod. The weight is distributed over a 
long wheel base which permits the use of a smaller rail, fewer 

1 The Timberman, August, 1910, p 63. 



MOTIVE POWER AND ROLLING STOCK 343 

ties, lighter bridges and a poorer track than for a rod locomotive 
of the same weight. 

On poor track where a speed of from 6 to 12 miles per hour, 
only, is possible, geared locomotives are preferable to rod because 
they have large fire boxes, short stroke engines, and a high piston 
speed. The slow cylinder speed of rod engines causes defective 
draft on grades. 

There are two types of geared locomotives, namely the center 
shaft and the side shaft. 

(1) Center shaft. There are several patterns on the market, 
the ones most commonly used being the Climax and the Heisler. 




Fig. 114. — A Climax Geared Locomotive. 

The Climax is mounted either on two or three four-wheel 
swivel trucks. When two trucks are used, one is placed under 
the forward and one under the rear end of the locomotive. When 
three trucks are used, two are placed under the engine proper 
and one under the tender. The boiler is the horizontal locomo- 
tive type, mounted on a steel channel frame, reinforced with 
truss rods. Two single-cylinder engines are attached to the 
frame, one on each side of the boiler, and transmit the power 
directly to a heavy crank shaft, placed under the boiler and at 
right angles to it. This shaft is held in position by a frame fixed 
to the boiler, and power from the shaft is transmitted by gearing 
to a central articulated line shaft which passes to the forward 
and rear trucks and runs on bearings on top of each truck axle. 



344 LOGGING 

Pinions fitted on this shaft mesh into gears on each axle and 
thus transmit power to the driving wheels. 

Locomotives of this class are built in weights ranging from 
18 to 75 tons. Those of from 18 to 60 tons weight have eight 
drivers and those of from 65 to 75 tons weight have twelve 
drivers. 

A Climax locomotive with an upright engine and a "T" boiler 
is built in 15- and 18-ton weights. The frame of heavy timbers 



Fig. 115. — A Heisler Geared Locomotive. 

is supported at each end by a pair of swivel trucks. Two ver- 
tical high-speed, double-acting engines are located in the cen- 
ter of the main frame and are directly connected to a shaft 
which carries two spur gears of different sizes, which mesh into 
two main gears on the center driving shaft. These provide a 
high or low speed as required. A center shaft transmits power 
to the driving wheels in the same manner as the horizontal style 
of locomotive previously described. This locomotive is used on 
stringer and light steel roads. 

The Heisler locomotive is built in weights ranging from 18 
to 75 tons. The locomotive and tender are carried on a heavy 
steel frame mounted on two pairs of swivel trucks, one set being 



MOTIVE POWER AND ROLLING STOCK 



345 



placed under the forward end of the locomotive and the other 
under the tender. 

Power is furnished by two single-cylinder engines attached to 
the frame one on each side of the boiler. Each engine is inclined 
at an angle of 45 degrees from the vertical and the reciprocating 
parts are connected directly to a central single-throw, articu- 
lated driving shaft. 

Spur wheels are fitted to the center of the forward and the 
rear axles and pinions attached to each end of the driving shaft 
mesh into them. The spur wheels and pinions are enclosed in 







A Shay Geared Locomotive. 



a tight case which is designed to prevent the entrance of grit and 
other foreign substances. 

(2) Side Shaft. — There are two makes of side shaft locomo- 
tives, namely, the Shay and the Willamette, both of which are 
similar in design. The former, built in weights ranging from 13 
to 150 tons, has been on the market for many years, while the 
latter has only recently been offered for sale. 

The frame of the Shay is made of heavy steel "I" beams 
braced with trusses, and is supported on from two to four pairs 
of four-wheeled swivel trucks. Locomotives weighing 55 tons 
and less have two trucks; those from 65 to 105 tons, inclusive, 
three trucks; and the 150-ton locomotives, four trucks. The 
third and fourth trucks on locomotives weighing from 65 to 
150 tons are used to carry the tender. 

The boiler is of the horizontal locomotive type with extra 
large fire box and steam space. The engines are of the vertical 
type and are attached to the boiler plate on the right-hand side 
just in front of the cab. Locomotives of from 13 to 20 tons 
weight are equipped with two cylinders, and those of greater 



346 LOGGING 

weight with three cylinders, placed side by side and directly 
connected 120 degrees apart to a driving rod which is supported 
on a hea\^ bearing attached to the boiler. The driving rod is 
broken both with universal joints and also with two slip joints 
to permit either an increase, or a decrease in the length when 
passing around curves. The right-hand wheels on each truck 
are fitted with gear rims into which the pinions mesh which furnish 
the driving power for the locomotive. 

HAULING ABILITY OF LOCOMOTIVES 

The hauling ability of a given locomotive depends largely on 
(1) the tractive force, (2) the resistance of the load to gravity, 
and (3) the frictional resistance. 

Tractive Force. — The tractive force of a locomotive, some- 
times improperly called the "draw-bar pull," is the power pos- 
sessed by a locomotive for pulling a train, including the weight 
of the locomotive itself and its tender. If one end of a rope is 
passed over a pulley and fastened to a weight hanging in a pit, 
and the other end is attached to a locomotive running on a straight 
level track without regard to speed, the tractive force of the loco- 
motive will be represented approximately by the amount of weight 
the locomotive can lift. Tractive force increases in direct propor- 
tion to the area of piston heads, length of stroke and steam 
pressure in the cylinders, and decreases directly as the diameter 
of the driving wheels increases. 

Tractive force is dependent on the weight of the locomotive on 
its driving wheels because it adheres to the rail only by the 
friction developed between these wheels and the rail head, and 
the resistance to slipping increases with the weight on the driving 
wheels. The weight on wheels other than drivers has no effect 
on the tractive force. If the engine is too light in proportion 
to its power it will be unable to hold itself to the rail and exert a 
strong pull, while on the other hand if the weight of the locomo- 
tive is too great in comparison to its power, it will not haul 
maximum loads because of the excess weight in itself that must 
be moved. In industrial locomotives the economical ratio 
between the weight on the drivers and the tractive force ranges 
from 4| to 1 to 5 to 1; i.e., the tractive force in pounds is from 
23 to 20 per cent of the total weight on the drivers. 

The usual formula employed for determining the tractive force 



MOTIVE POWER AND ROLLING STOCK 347 

of single-expansion rod locomotives with a piston speed not 
exceeding 200 feet per minute is as follows: 
d^XLX .85 p, 
D 
when T represents the tractive force, 

d represents the diameter of the cylinder in inches, 
L represents the length of piston stroke in inches, 
.85 p represents 85 per cent of the boiler pressure,^ 
D represents the diameter of the driving wheel in inches. 

As the speed increases the tractive force decreases because the 
mean effective pressure in the cylinders falls and friction also 
increases. 

Resistance to Gravity. — The resistance to gravity increases in 
exact proportion to the grade and is 20 pounds per ton of 2000 
pounds for each 1 per cent rise in grade; e.g., for a 0.5 per cent 
grade it is 10 pounds per ton and for a 4 per cent grade it is 80 
pounds per ton. 

Resistance due to Friction. — The resistance due to friction 
varies with the character and condition of the roadbed and the 
rolling stock. 

The resistance of the flange friction of wooden rails is about 
twice that of steel rails. Poorly laid or crooked rails and over- 
loading increase the rolling friction, which is also greater in cold 
weather than in warm and greater for emptj^ cars than for loaded 
ones. 

Logging cars of good construction, and with well-oiled bearings 
should have a frictional resistance of from 20 to 25 pounds per 
ton of weight handled. 

The frictional resistance on curves s extremely variable be- 
cause it is governed by numerous factors, among which are the 
degree of curvature, length of the wheel base of locomotives and 
cars, elevation of the outer rail, speed, condition of rolling stock 
and track, length of train, and length of the curved section. 
Frictional resistance is partially overcome by increasing the 
width of track on curves yV inch for each 2h degrees of curvature, 
and also by coning the face of the car wheels so that the greatest 
diameter is next the flange. When crowded against the rail the 

1 This has been found by practical test to be the average effective pressure 
in the cylinder. 



348 LOGGING 

outer wheels will then travel farther, per revolution of the axle, 
than those on the inner side of the curve. Friction is also de- 
veloped because the rigid attachment of the axles to the truck 
frame does not permit them to assume a radial position with 
reference to the curve. On a 6-driver rod locomotive the long 
wheel base is partially overcome by making the center drivers 
flangeless. On very sharp curves it is customary to lay extra 
rails inside of the outer rail and outside of the inner rail to pro- 
vide a support for the flangeless drivers. In determining the 
amount of frictional resistance due to curves it is the general 
rule to assume the resistance for standard gauge to be | pound 
per ton per degree. If the wheel base is the same, curve resist- 
ance in other gauges is about in proportion to the relation of 
the gauges. 

Calculation of Hauling Capacity. — The hauling capacity of a 
locomotive in tons of 2000 pounds is determined by dividing 
the tragti ye force of the locomotive by the sum of the resistances 
due to gravity^Jrolling friction, and curve resistance, and then 
deduct from this result the weighf^f the locomotive and tender. 
This gives the tonnag'6~tt[e"tocomotiv(r~can Iiaul, including the 
weight of the cars. 

The estimated hauling capacity of locomotives of given weights 
and types may be found in the catalogues of the manufacturers. 

The following figures were secured from logging operations. 
On a 24- degree curve and on a 3.5 per cent grade, two 40-ton 
Shay engines have hauled six loaded flat cars^ containing 42,000 
])oard feet, while the same locomotives have hauled eleven cars, 
77,000 board feet, around 32-degree curves and up 3 per cent grades. 
A 60-ton Shay on the same operation hauled five cars, 35,000 
board feet, over a road having 24-degree curves and 3.5 per 
cent grades, and eight or nine cars, of 7000 feet capacity each, 
over a 32-degree curve and a 3 per cent grade. An 18-ton Shay, 
operated on a road 4 miles long and having grades ranging from 
to 8 per cent, and with one 47-degree curve handled, daily, 
150,000 board feet.'^ A 50-ton saddle-tank rod locomotive oper- 
ated on a road having maximum grades of 2 per cent and curves 
of 30 degrees has handled eight loaded skeleton cars. 

^ Length 41 feet; weight of each car 27,000 pounds. 
2 The Timberman, September, 1910. 



MOTIVE POWER AND ROLLING STOCK 349 

FUEL FOR LOCOMOTIVES 

The fuel used on logging locomotives may be wood, coal, or 
crude petroleum. 

Wood is frequently used in regions where coal and fuel oil 
are expensive, however, it has several disadvantages. 

(1) There is danger from forest fires during the dry season 
because sparks are thrown for long distances. A high per cent 
of the forest fires on logging operations start along the railroad. 

(2) There is a large bulk of material to be handled. It 
requires twice the amount of wood as compared to average 
l)ituminous coal to secure equal steaming results, and the space 
occupied by the fuel on the tender is about five times as great. 
Train crews spend much time daily in taking on wood which 
involves a time loss both for the train crew and the locomotive. 

(3) When pitchy woods are used it is impossible to maintain 
an even heat, because the resinous matters are driven off first 
and the burning gas creates an intense heat for a short period, 
but before the wood has been consumed sufficiently to permit a 
new supply to be fed into the fire box, the temperature falls 
markedly. This alternate rising and falling of temperature 
causes a constant contraction and expansion of the fire box and 
tube metal and the tubes soon become leaky. 

(4) A skillful fireman is required to handle a wood fire so that 
a sufficient amount of steam may be available at all tunes, es- 
pecially on steep grades. 

Bituminous coal is preferred to wood on logging roads where 
it can be secured at a reasonable price, although it is fully as 
dangerous from the standpoint of forest fires. It is greatly 
preferred by firemen because the labor is not so exhausting and 
a more even fire can be maintained. 

Fuel oil is preferred when it can be secured at a cost not greatly 
in excess of other kinds of fuel. 

It has the following advantages over wood and coal : 

(1) The danger from forest fires is eliminated. 

(2) The cost of handling is reduced to a minimum, because 
the oil may be pumped into the storage tanks on the tender and 
a sufficient supply carried to run for at least one-half day. The 
added time saved in taking on fuel as compared to wood is an 
important item during the course of a month. It is easier to 



350 LOGGING 

transport oil in supply tanks than it is to handle an equal fuel 
value in wood or coal. 

(3) A saving in fuel and water is effected on heavy grades 
and the hauling ability is increased because the steam pressure 
can be held at a desired point by increasing the oil feed under 
the boilers. It is not possible to do this with wood or coal, since 
merely opening and closing the fire box has a marked effect on 
the efficiency of the locomotive under strained conditions. 

(4) A man can learn to fire an oil-burning locomotive in a 
few days because no especial skill is required. A saving in wages 
is therefore effected. 

The relative value of the three kinds of fuel is approximately 
as follows: 

One ton of good grade bituminous coal is equivalent to 1^ 
cords of oak wood, or from 2 to 2^ cords of softwood, and from 
130 to 190 gallons of crude petroleum.^ 

The choice between the different classes of fuel is made either 
on the basis of forest fire danger or on the relative cost. Some 
roads passing through the forested regions use oil during the fire 
season and coal during other periods. 

The amount of fuel consumed daily by a logging locomotive 
is extremely variable, depending on the mileage traveled, the 
loads hauled, the number of heavy grades traversed, and the 
efficiency of the fireman. A 45-ton Shay on a western operation 
averaged 9 barrels of fuel oil daily, while a 37-ton Shay in the 
same region burned about 5 cords of softwood. A 54-ton rod 
engine on a southern pine operation averaged 4 cords of pine knots 
per day, and a 55-ton Shay on the same operation burned from 
2 to 2^ tons of bituminous coal. 

SPARK ARRESTERS 

The laws of most forested states require the installation of 
some spark arresting device in wood- and coal-burning logging 
locomotives. Various types of spark arresters are in use, two 
of which are here described. 

1 Tests on the Boston and Maine, in 1903, showed that from 130 to 140 
gallons of crude petroleum were equal to a short ton of Pennsylvania bitu- 
minous coal. In 1910 the New York Central and Hudson River Railroad in 
the Adirondacks found that from 170 to 190 gallons of crude oil were equal 
to one ton of bituminous coal. 



MOTIVE POWER AND ROLLING STOCK 



351 



loia Spark Arrester. — This arrester^ has a l-inch mesh 
wire screen (A) which projects above a cinder pan (B) attached 
to the stack. From the cinder pan outlet pipes (C) lead to a 
receptacle below. A light metal deflector is fixed inside the 
pan to guide the cinders to the outlet pipes. The sparks arrested 
and deflected by the screen are dropped into the receiving pan. 
This arrester is used chiefly for wood-burning logging engines. 
Users claim that the engine exhaust will keep the screen clean 




Fig. 117. — The Sequoia Spark Arre-ster. 

and that it does not interfere with the draft. The device is light, 
and is easily put on and removed. 

Radley -Hunter Spark Arrester. — This is an effective locomotive 
spark arrester^ which is used by many lumber companies. The 
smoke and cinders pass up through the main smoke chamber 
(A), striking against a spiral cone (B) which gives them a whirling 
motion, and large cinders are thrown outward by centrifugal 
force against the perforated screen plate (C). This plate has 
openings large enough to permit the passage of cinders into the 
spark chamber (D). Once through this perforated screen plate 
the cinders are beyond the line of active draft, and by their weight 
fall into the receptacle (G) from which they are removed through 
the cleaning-out holes (F). The lighter cinders which are not 

1 Fig. 117. 

2 Fig. 118. 



352 



LOGGING 



thrown through the perforated screen plate are carried by the draft 
against the fine netting (E). In firing up, the natural draft through 
(A) around (B) and under (E) is unobstructed by netting. This 
has two advantages: (1) the possibility of clogging is eliminated; 
(2) there is an easy, free draft when starting the fire. This stack 
acts as a centrifugal separator which prevents the emission of the 
larger and more dangerous sparks and only allows the escape 
of small, light sparks which are dead 
by the time they leave the stack. 



Provision is made for watering 
locomotives either at the mill or at 
some convenient point along the 
railroad. Water may be supplied 
from storage tanks, by gravity pipe 
lines from streams, or taken direct 
from the streams by an injector. 
The amount of water required is a 
variable factor, depending on the 
amount of work performed by the 
Fig. I18.-The Radley-Hunter ^^ .^^ ^^^ ^^^ efficiency of the fire- 
Spark Arrester. '^ 

man. 

Trautwine says that between 6 and 7 pounds of water are 
evaporated for each pound of average-grade coal that is con- 
sumed. On a basis of 6| pounds of water (0.8 gallons) per 
pound of coal, 1600 gallons will be required for each ton of coal, 
or 800 gallons for each cord of wood consumed. Engines which 
"blow-off" at frequent intervals will require more water than 
the amount mentioned. 

B. CARS 

Logging cars are subject to severe usage and are built chiefly 
with wooden frames so that repairs can be made at the loggers' 
machine shop. 

NARROW GAUGE 

When light rails are employed, the same type of car as de- 
scribed for the stringer-road^ is often used. When a 35- or 
40-pound rail is in use a heavier car is desirable. The main 
1 See page 282. 




MOTIVE POWER AND ROLLING STOCK 353 

features are similar to the 8-wheeled stringer-road truck mentioned, 
but they are built heavier to secure a capacity of from 1500 to 
3000 board feet. 

BROAD GAUGE 

Three types of cars are in use on broad gauge roads, namely, 
flat cars, skeleton cars, and trucks. 

Flat Cars. — These are chiefly used where the logs are hauled 
for a portion of the distance over a trunk-line road. The latter 
usually furnishes the cars, keeps them in repair, and provides 
motive power when the cars are on its line. Payment for this 
service is made on the basis of the number of cars hauled, the 
number of thousand board feet of logs handled, or a flat rate 
per train-mile. 

Logging flat cars may have special rails laid on the car floor 
on which log loaders travel, and also wooden or metal bunks to 
raise the logs off the car floor. 

Logs are held on flat cars by stakes or chains. 

(1) Short Stakes. — These are made near the loading place 
by a stake cutter, and are inserted in the stake pockets on the 
car. They are usually thrown away at the unloading point. 
If bunk loads only are hauled and the logs do not occupy the 
entire floor of the car, the bunks are equipped with adjustable 
"chock blocks," or dogs, which are fitted to the bunk close to 
the log; or rough blocks or small logs may be inserted between 
the logs and the stakes to make the load solid. Where a top 
load is put on a car, the logs wedge between those on the car 
floor and make a compact load. 

(2) Patent Drop Stakes. — These project from 2 to 3 feet 
above the car floor and are equipped with safety trip devices for 
use in unloading. The logs are seldom bound with chains unless 
the load is built high. 

(3) Long Stakes. — For carrying high loads, cars are often 
equipped with stakes from 5 to 6 feet long, which are cut from 
saplings or made from sawed material. They are inserted in the 
stake pockets, and after the greater part of the load has been 
placed in position the stakes on the opposite sides of the car are 
bound together with heavy wire, cable, or with chains to prevent 
the load from spreading at the top. The remainder of the load 
is then placed on top of the binders. Sapling stakes with wire 



354 LOGGING 

binds are used where it is not feasible to return stakes and bind- 
ing material to the forest for further use. 

(4) Chains. — Logs may also be made secure with binder chains. 
After the main body of the load has been placed on the car, 
either a chain is passed around each end of the load, or one chain 
may be passed around the center. In the latter case corner bind 
chains are sometimes used if the car is not provided with stakes. 
Each set consists of two chains, one of which is fastened near the 
center, and the other to the outer end of the bunk. The first 
chain is about 2 feet long and the free end terminates in a ring, 
3 or 4 inches in diameter. The second chain is several feet long 
and its free end terminates in a grab hook. When the first tier 
of logs is loaded on the car, the corner binds are adjusted on 
the two outside logs. This is accomplished by placing the long 
chain over the log, passing the grab hook and chain through the 
ring in the short chain, drawing the long chain taut and locking 
it at the ring with the grab hook. The top load is then placed 
and if necessary a center bind placed around the entire load, and 
one or more logs placed on top of the chain to tighten it. 

Flat cars are from 24 to 41 feet long. Those 36 feet and 
over in length, will carry a double load if the logs do not exceed 
18 feet in length. The average car load, for medium-sized 
logs, is from 4000 to 6000 board feet, with a maximum of about 
10,000 feet. 

Skeleton Cars. — This type of car has two pairs of 4- 
wheeled trucks joined together by a heavy wood bolster. A 
bunk from 8| to 10 feet long is placed directly over each pair 
of trucks. Bunks are approximately 11 feet apart on a standard 
length car, but cars are also built for long logs with bunk centers 
up to 33 feet apart. 

Skeleton car bunks are equipped with a variety of stakes and 
"chocks" for preventing the bottom tier of logs from rolling off. 

One end of each bunk is often provided with bunk spikes, 
bolted to or driven into the wood while the other end is equipped 
with a chock or dog, which projects above the bunk when in use, 
but which may be dropped below the bunk level by means of a 
rod operated from the opposite side when the car is ready to 
unload. A single " top bind " chain also may be placed around 
the center of the load. 

Cars are frequently equipped with patent drop stakes, which 



MOTIVE POWER AND ROLLING STOCK 355 

project from 18 to 24 inches above the bunk and are held in 
place by means of chains or bands, which may be loosened by 
a rod manipulated on the opposite side of the car. Drop stakes 
are useful when small- and medium-sized logs are handled. 
They also obviate the use of binding chains. Some operators 
use round stakes without attachments. 

In handling small- and medium-sized logs the loads are some- 
times built up square and the logs are held by several sets of 
binding chains and often by a top bind chain. Logs are loaded 




Fig. 119. — A Skeleton Log Car. A type common in the southern yellow 
pine forests. 

in this manner by power loaders and a falsework is used on the 
side opposite the skidway, against which the loads can be built 
and held in position until binding chains can be placed. 

Skeleton cars are equipped either with hand or air brakes, 
and usually with pin couplers. They range in weight from 
6900 to 18,500 pounds each and have a rated carrying capacity 
of from 30,000 to 80,000 pounds. They will carry from 1600 to 
10,000 board feet. The heavier ' weight cars are employed ex- 
clusively for the heavy timber of the Pacific Coast. 

Skeleton cars combine lightness with a maximum carrying 
capacity, are reasonable in initial cost, and are the cheapest 
form of car to maintain. 

Trucks. — These are used on the Pacific Coast and are espe- 
cially adapted to long logs. They have two pairs of wheels on 
whi(;h a steel frame is mounted. A steel swivel bunk, 9 or 10 
feet long, is mounted on the frame above and midway between 
the pairs of wheels. The bunk is armed either with steel splices or 



356 



LOGGING 



with a long sharp strip of steel which prevents the logs from 
slipping forward or backward. 

Trucks are equipped with hand or air brakes; pin or auto- 
matic couplers; patent stakes or "chock blocks" for holding 
the bunk load in place; and chains for binding the load. They 
are built in a high and a low type, the former carrying the heav- 
iest loads. They are in common use on roads operated by 
loggers but are not operated on trunk lines, which will not haul 
them. 

Logs of approximately equal lengths are selected for a given 
load, and a truck is required under each end of them. The 




Fig. 120. — A Log Truck, Western Type. 

weight of the logs may be sufficient to hold them firmly on the 
bunk without the use of chains, however, if the train is long 
and the strain is severe, chains are used. When the cars are 
equipped with air brakes, extension air-brake hose is adjusted 
under the log or logs between the two trucks, and is held in 
place by chain or rope attachments placed around one of the 
logs. 

Trucks weigh from 10,600 to 13,500 pounds each and have a 
rated carrying capacity of from 50,000 to 75,000 pounds. 

In practice low trucks seldom carry more than 5000 board feet 
and high trucks 7500 feet. 



ROLLING STOCK AND MOTIVE POWER EQUIPMENT 

The number of logging cars required on a given operation is 
dependent on 

(1) The amount of timber handled daily. 

(2) Capacity of the individual cars. 



MOTIVE POWER AND ROLLING STOCK 357 

(3) The average number of cars hauled per train load. 

(4) Manner of loading and handling cars in the woods. When 
loading is concentrated in one or a few places, fewer cars are re- 
quired than where loading is done at various points. 

(5) Manner of handling cars at the destination. If the train 
crew unloads the cars on arrival at destination, the number of 
cars required is less than where the cars are left to be unloaded 
while the engine returns to the woods for another train load. 

(6) The distance that the cars must be hauled. On long 
hauls a maximum number of cars are on the road to or from the 
mill; while on a short haul the number is less because of the 
short time required to make a round trip. The requirements 
for a large operation having an 8- or 10-mile haul cannot be met 
unless the number of log cars available is equal to twice the 
number of loaded cars hauled daily. 

The equipment used by a large white pine logging company 
operating 14 miles of narrow-gauge main line and from 2 to 4 
miles of spurs, and delivering daily from 200,000 to 210,000 
board feet at the mill was as follows: 

154 Skeleton logging cars (24 feet long, bunks 8 feet wide, 10 feet center to 

center), 3000 board feet capacity. 
2 Cabooses (1 for the main line and 1 for the construction train). 
2 Box cars for hauling supplies to camp. 
2 Flat cars for the construction train. 
2 Water tank cars for hauling the camp water supply. 

Thirty-five cars were loaded at skidways each morning and 
each afternoon, making a total of seventy cars daily. The re- 
mainder were on the road or in the repair shop. 

Three locomotives only were used on this road, two for hauling 
and one for road construction work. One of them, a 60-ton 
rod engine, hauled only on the main line, while a 55-ton Shay 
geared locomotive hauled on the spurs and pulled a train for 
7 miles on the main line each morning and night. A 35-ton 
Shay was used exclusively for construction work and for hauling 
water for the camp. 

A logger in the Missouri shortleaf pine region, operating 35 miles 
of standard-gauge main line and from 15 to 20 miles of spurs, used 
the following equipment to handle 125,000 board feet daily (90 
cars) . 



358 LOGGING 

316 Skeleton log cars (20 feet long; bunks 10 feet wide, 12 feet center 

to center). 
2 Cabooses (1 for the main line and 1 for the loading crew). 
2 Tank cars for hauling water for the camp. 

2 Flat cars (1 for the construction crew and 1 for the main-line train). 
1 Mule car for transporting the animals used in loading. 

Seven rod locomotives of the following weights were used: 

1 24-ton 

1 36-ton 

1 38-ton 

2 44-ton 

,1 48-ton 

1 50-ton 

Five engines were in constant use in hauling on the main line 
and spurs; one locomotive was used by the loading crew and 
construction train; and one was held in reserve. 

An Alabama longleaf pine operation with 24 miles of main 
line, and from 5 to 6 miles of spurs used fifty-three 40-foot flat 
cars to haul, daily, from twenty-five to thirty cars of logs (70,000 
to 90,000 board feet). These cars had a rated (capacity of 60,000 
pounds and each carried from 2500 to 3500 board feet. 

The logs, which were hauled 6 miles over a trunk-line rail- 
road, were loaded on cars provided and kept in repair by the 
trunk-line railroad which also furnished one 65-ton rod engine 
for use on its track. 

The logging company provided one 54-ton rod, one 40-ton 
rod, and three Shay locomotives of the following weights: 28, 
32, and 55 tons. The rod engines were used on the 18 miles of 
main-line logging road, while the 32- and 55-ton Shays were used 
on the spurs, and the 28-ton Shay on the construction train. 

On a western operation where 200,000 board feet were hauled, 
daily, over a 3-mile main line with a 5 per cent maximum grade 
and many curves, a 55-ton Heisler was used on the main line and 
a 35-ton Heisler on the 3^ miles of spurs. Forty 40-foot flat 
cars were required to handle the output 

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE TO CHAPTER XX 

Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army: Mihtary Railways. Professional 

Papers No. 32, Washington, 1917. 
Earle, Robert T.: Adaptability of the Gypsy Locomotive for Logging 

Purposes. The Timberman, August, 1910, pp. 34-35. 



MOTIVE POWER AND ROLLING STOCK 359 

Evans, W. P. : The Mallet Locomotive in the Field of Logging Operations. 

The Timberman, August, 1910, pp. 61-64. 
Harp, C. A.: The Gasoline Locomotive and its AvailabiHty for Logging 

Roads. The Timberman, August, 1910, pp. 57-58. 
Ives, J. F. : Fuel Oil as a Substitute for Wood and Coal in Logging. The 

Timberman, August, 1909, p. 39. 
Ives, J. F.: Utihzation of Compressed Air on Logging Trucks. The 

Timberman, August, 1910, p. 60. 
Russell, C. W.: Utilization of Air on Logging Trucks. The Timberman, 

August, 1910, p. 58. 
Tate, M. K.: Locomotive Maintenance. American Lumberman, July 

15, 1922, p. 47. 
Turney, Harry: Adjustable Air-brake Equipment for the Control of 

Detached Trucks. The Timberman, August, 1912, p. 54. 



CHAPTER XXI 
LOADING AND UNLOADING CARS 

LOADING CARS 

ThsJJ^emshaMT^ — One of the early methods of loading cars 
was by means of the crosshaul.^ A crew of five men and a team 
were required and the daily output did not exceed 40,000 board 








Fig. 121. — Loading Log Cars with a Crosshaul. Missouri. 

feet. On large operations this method is too slow, although it 
is still used by loggers who have a small daily output. 

Power Loaders. — One of the first successful power loaders 
was put on the market in 1885 and since that time many forms 
have been brought out, which differ in the manner of locomo- 
tion, character of booms, and other details to meet special re- 
quirements. They are used for loading flat and skeleton cars. 
^ See page 138. 
360 



LOADING AND UNLOADING CARS 361 

A power loader has a steam hoisting engine and drums, an 
upright boiler, and a rigid or swinging loading boom. It is 
usually mounted on a truck which is provided with some ap- 
pliance for transporting the machine. Gasoline engines have 
been substituted for steam on some patterns but they are not in 
extensive use. 

Loaders are built with a short swinging base-control boom, a 
long swinging end-control boom, or with a rigid boom. The 
first two types are adapted for loading on poor track because 
the logs can be centered on the car and less manual labor is re- 
quired to build the load securely. They also are desirable where 
the logs are scattered. Short booms are not adapted to handling 
long lengths. Rigid booms are used to advantage on good 
track where the logs are abundant and fairly well decked. 

There are two types of loaders. 

(1) Loaders operating from log cars. The Barnhart, Model 
C American, and the Rapid loaders are examples of this type. 

(2) Loaders operating from the main railroad track. The 
Decker, McGiffert, Surry Parker, American Models D and E, 
and the Browning are the more common machines of this type. 

An advantage of the second type of loader is that it may re- 
main in one place until all logs are loaded, while loaders of the 
first type must change their base for every car unless a locomotive 
is in attendance to move the train as desired. 

(a) Bam hgjJ^ — This style of loader requires either perma- 
nent or temporary tracks on the log car over which the loader 
passes. When permanent track is used, the rails are laid only 
the length of the car bed, because otherwise they would inter- 
fere when the train rounded sharp curves. The space between 
the rails on each car is spanned with two D -shaped irons placed 
on the car rails which can be removed as soon as the loader has 
passed over the gap. Temporary tracks are made in three sections. 
The loader rests on one section, another spans the gap between 
the two cars and the third rests on the empty car at the rear 
of the machine. As the loader proceeds along the train the 
tracks are picked up by the loader and moved behind it. 

The engine, drums, booms, and all working parts are mounted 
on a steel frame, which is pivoted to a truck frame carrying 
eight pairs of trucks, with wheels 10 inches in diameter. The 
loader can revolve in a complete circle by means of a geared 



362 



LOGGING 



wheel, attached to the truck frame, into which mesh two pinions 
which are driven by a double rotating engine. One form of 
this loader uses a chain control for the rotary movement. The 
weight of the loader is borne on five cone-shaped rollers attached 
to the truck frame. 

The loader moves under its own power from one car to another. 

A feature of this loader is a slack pulling device which has 
a pair of friction sheaves mounted on the boom and driven by 
a belt. The power is controlled by a hand lever. 

Two sizes of loaders are made, the smaller. No. 10, having 
chain control, an oak boom 25 feet long, a double 6|- by 8-inch 




Fig. 122. — Till A 



hoisting engine with governor control and a 36- by 96-inch verti- 
cal boiler. 

The No. 12 loader has a steel boom 23 feet 9 inches long, gear 
and pinion rotary control, double hoisting engines with 7h- by 
8-inch cylinders, controlled by a balanced throttle, and a 50- by 
82-inch vertical boiler. The pull at the tongs on this machine 
is from 9 to 10 tons. 

The Barnhart, though a fast machine, is more expensive to 
keep in repair than some of the other types of loaders, and re- 
(luires skillful labor to secure the maximum output. It is rarely 
used on narrow-gauge roads. The maximum log that it can 
handle is one containing about 1500 board feet. 



LOADING AND UNLOADING CARS 



363 



(6) Model C American. — This type of loader is similar in 
character and operation to the Barnhart. It runs on temporary- 
tracks and uses the geared circle for rotating the machine. It 
is one of the cheapest loaders to keep in repair and will handle 
a log containing 2000 board feet. 

(c) Rapid. — The Rapid loader has a stiff wooden boom, 
an upright boiler and a double hoisting engine. These are mounted 
on a pair of steel runners on which the loader slides from car 




Fig. 123. 



The Rapid Log Loader. 



to car. Power for moving itself is furnished by a cable and drum. 
Rapid loaders are sometimes mounted on a hea\y pair of two- 
sleds for sled loading. It is adapted for light work. 

{d) Model D American. — This loader is used only where light 
equipment is employed because it is necessary for the loader to 
lift the empty car from the track in the rear to the front, or vice 
versa. Model E is similar in character but has eight wheels 
on the trucks and is adapted for poor track. Both D and E 
models can move under their own power. 

(e) Decker. — The frame of this loader has two decks. The 
upper one is supported by steel posts which rest on bolsters 
placed directly over the trucks on which the loader is mounted. 
This deck carries the boiler, engine, and other working parts of 
the machine, while the lower deck is on a level with the bolsters 



364 



LOGGING 



and carries a portable track with hinged end sections which may 
be lowered upon the rails and thus provide a continuous track 
through the loader. 

In operation a train of empties is pushed out to the loader and 
backed through it until the last car comes in proper position, 
under the boom, for loading. As other empty cars are required 
a cable connected to a drum is run through the machine and is 
attached to the draw bar of the first empty car. This car is 
then hauled through the loader, pushing the loaded car forward 




m^^^ 



tr ^^^' 



Fig. 124. — The Decker Log Loader. 



until the succeeding empty one is in position for loading. The 
work proceeds in this manner until the skidway has been emptied. 

The Decker can travel under its own power from one point to 
another, and can switch cars if necessary, although the latter is 
not economical if a locomotive is available. It is recommended 
for narrow-gauge steel and wooden railroads. 

(/) McGiffert. — This loader is similar in operation to the 
Decker. It has an elevated deck which carries the working 
parts and when the machine is loading the frame is supported on 
four corner posts or "spuds" which are curved in toward the 
base. Each post ends in a broad shoe which rests upon the 
crossties outside of the rails. The empty cars pass under the 
deck, traveling on the main track. The loader is equipped with 



LOADING AND UNLOADING CARS 



365 



a pair of trucks at both the forward and the rear ends, on which 
the loader travels. The frames to which these trucks are at- 
tached and the trucks themselves are so hung on a shaft under 
the floor of the deck that during the loading operation they may 
be brought to a horizontal position under the loader. The 
machine is then supported on the ties by the spuds. When ready 
to move, the weight of the loader is lifted from the spuds by 
bringing the truck frames to a vertical position by means of cables 




The McGiffert Log Loader. 



and other mechanism. This raises the loader from the spuds 
ready for a change of base. Power is transmitted to the axles 
of the trucks by means of sprocket chains. 

This machine has a boom which can swing through an arc of 
approximately 40 degrees and is adapted for longer logs and wider 
gauge roads than the Decker because of the greater space between 
the rail and the deck. 

{g) Surry Parker. — This loader embodies the same general 
principles as the two loaders previously described, having the 
upper deck high enough to permit loaded flat cars to be run under 
it. An early type was built without a device for transporting 
itself, being carried about on a flat car. The modern type of 
machine, however, is portable, the power being transferred from 
the engines to the axles by a chain drive. 



366 LOGGING 

Capacity. — The output per day of a given type of loader is 
dependent largely on the skill of the operator and the loading 
crew, provided logs are at hand and the supply of empty cars is 
adequate. The daily output may be as low as from 30,000 to 
40,000 board feet and again may rise to nearly 300,000 board feet. 
For short logs the swinging-boom base-control type of loader is the 
more active and under average conditions may load from 100,000 
to 130,000 board feet daily 

SPECIAL LOADING DEVICES 

A number of special devices are used for loading large logs on 
cars, especially in the Pacific Coast region. 

The "Gin-pole." — This is a modification of the crosshaul, a 
yarding engine being substituted for horses. A 1-inch loading 
cable passes through a block attached to a mast or gin-pole 
about 60 feet in height, which is set in the ground on the side of 
the track opposite the landing, and is thoroughly braced with guy 
ropes. 

The logs are loaded from a landing along the railroad to which 
they are brought by a yarding engine, road engine, or swing 
donkey. Landings are built level with the car bunks and are 
made from 40 to 300 feet long, but they usually are about 120 
feet long to accommodate two 60-foot logs. They may be made 
of a number of skids from 15 to 18 inches in diameter, placed 
about 6 feet apart at right angles to the railroad track, and 
supported on crib work; or a large log may be placed on the 
fore part of the landing parallel and next to the track and from 
this the main skids supported on a cribwork run at right angles. 
The rear of the landing may be at a lower level than the part 
nearest the track. 

Where top loads are put on cars a " lead log" is placed parallel 
to the tracks on the side opposite the landing. It projects 
slightly above the top of the car bunks and in order that the 
direction of pull may always be at right angles the loading cable 
is made to pass through the lead blocks which are attached to 
this log. Where a lead log is not used it is customary to set up- 
right posts 20 feet apart along the track opposite the landing. 
These are not as convenient as the former because their use 
makes it necessary for the engineer of the road engine to always 
leave the logs opposite them. 



LOADING AND UNLOADING CARS 367 

The loading cable passes from the drum on the road engine, 
or from a special loading engine through a block at the peak of 
the gin-pole, then through the lead blocks, then across the car 
and over and under the center or end of the log to be loaded. 
The cable is then brought forward and the grab hook on the end 
of the cable is caught in the edge of the landing, or on the car 
bunk. By winding in the cable on the drum the log is rolled 
up the landing and upon the car. 

A modification of this device has been brought out for more 
rapid work and for handling long logs. It has a loading engine 
similar in type to the yarding engines and two gin-poles and 
loading lines instead of one. The cables are attached to the 
logs by means of tongs or slings. Each line may be operated 
independently or the two may be operated in unison.^ Gin- 
pole loading is being superseded by overhead methods. 

Loading with Jacks or Peavies. — This method, which is now 
rarely used, is employed where logs are loaded by hand and only 
bunk loads are placed on the cars, peavies being used for loading 
small logs and jacks for large ones. 

Overhead systems. — Various forms of overhead loading devices 
have been developed to replace the gin-pole because they obviate 
the construction of landings which have limited storage capacity 
and from which logs nmst be loaded in the order in which they 
are yarded, thus eliminating any chance for the loadermen to 
select the logs as they are placed on the cars. The greatest 
development in overhead loading equipment has been made in 
the Northwest. Some overhead systems operate without stand- 
ing lines, while others are equipped with them. The type shown 
in Fig. 126 has two gin-poles placed from 100 to 200 feet apart, 
the head pole being from 50 to 60 feet in height. This is located 
on the side of the track opposite the spot at which the yarding 
engine delivers the logs. The other pole is from 15 to 20 feet 
in height and may be a gin-pole or a tall stump. The |-inch 
hoisting line leads from the main drum of the loading engine 
through a double block at the top of the head pole, then through 
a single block in the bight of the line. The f-inch trip line 
leads from a second drum on the loader, through a block at the 
top of the head pole, then through a block on the opposite 
pole, to the 12-foot crotch spreader. This equipment can move 
1 The Timberman, December, 1910, \). 33. 



368 



LOGGING 



logs either away from or toward the cars. The landing place 
can be made large enough to store 100,000 board feet of logs, 
so that loading can continue when the yarding equipment is 
temporarily out of commission and the yarding equipment like- 
wise may continue to bring in logs even though loading and hauling 
may not be in progress. 

An overhead loader with a standing line is shown in Fig. 127. 
Two trees or gin-poles from 200 to 800 feet apart serve as supports 
for the standing line which is located so that loading may take 
place from either side of the track. A loading line passes from 
the loading engine up to and through a block on the near spar, 




Fig. 126. 



From Bulletin 711, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. 

An Overhead Loading System used in the Pacific Coast Forests. 



thence to the trolley where it is looped down over sheaves on the 
carriage to support a block in the bight of the line and then 
to the far spar where it is fastened. The trolley is moved back 
and forth by means of trip lines, one of which leads from one 
end of the trolley to a block on the far spar, then back to and through 
a block on the near spar and down to a drum on the loader. A 
similar trip-line is attached to the other end of the trolley and 
passes to and through a block on the near spar and down to a 
drum on the loader. 

The lifting line is operated independently of the trip-line, 
hence the load can be raised or lowered as the trolley travels 
along the standing line. 



370 



LOGGING 



Guy-line System. — This is a common method of loading logs 
which have been yarded by an overhead or high-lead system.^ 
A standing line, usually a guy line for the spar tree, is stretched 
across the track and from this is suspended a block at a height 
of about 60 feet above and directly over the center of the track. 



Loading Block -^. 



...@K«. 



A 



Fig. 128. 



From Bulletin 711, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 

A Single Guy-line Loading S3'stem. Pacific Coast Forests. 



The loading line passes from a drum on the yarding engine or 
loader up to and through a block on the head spar and thence to 
and through the loading block. This method is not capable of 
handling a very large yarding output. When this is necessary 
two loading lines may be used. 

Swinging-boom loaders. — When logging with an overhead sys- 
tem in small- to medium-sized timber, loading equipment of the 
type shown in Fig. 129 may be used. An end-control swinging 
boom about 50 feet long is supported at its base on the head spar 
tree, and at its outer end by a cable which is also attached to the 
upper part of the spar. The boom may be moved in a radius 
of 90 or more degrees by means of the swinging lines, each of 
1 See Fig. 128. 



LOADING AND UNLOADING CARS 



371 



which passes from a small drum on the loading engine, up to and 
through a block on the spar, through a block on the end of 




From Bulletin 711, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. 

Fig. 129. — A Swinging-boom Loading Device .sometimes used with the Lidger- 
wood Overhead Logging System. 

the boom and thence to a stump or "dead man." By pulling 
in on one line and letting the other run out, the boom may be 
swung to one side or the other. 



372 LOGGING 

Jack Works. — Where logs are to be raised to a considerable 
height as from a river or a pond a "jack works" is employed. 
This method has been used both in the South and in the North- 
east, when medium-sized logs are handled. A jack works is 
a long narrow platform built at a sufficient height above ground 
to permit the construction of a sloping dock on the side next 
to the loading tracks, the base of which is flush with the car bunks. 
The loading tracks on which the log cars are "spotted" are placed 
parallel to the dock. The length of the platform is governed 
by the number of cars to be loaded and the switching facilities. 
If provision is made for moving cars by gravit.y and the logs are 
of fairly even length so that any of them will go on a given car, 
the platform need only be long enough to handle the longest logs. 
When logs must be assorted before loading and when many cars 
must be spotted at one time the platform should be of sufficient 
length to accommodate the maximum number. 

A shallow trough runs the entire length of the platform, in 
which an endless chain travels to which log dogs are attached at 
approximately 8-foot intervals. A similar trough and chain 
serves to bring the logs from the water to the platform along 
which they are carried until they are rolled upon the dock below. 
The chains are driven either by a steam or gasoline engine. 
The logs are loaded on cars chiefly by gravity. Skids are placed 
from the docks to the load as the latter is built up, and the top 
logs are rolled upon the load with cant hooks. 

UNLOADING LOG CARS 

The expeditious unloading of log cars is an important factor 
in train operations because it reduces the amount of rolling stock 
required. Softwood logs are generally stored in ponds, streams, 
or on storage skids, but hardwood logs and pulp stock may be 
placed in large piles on land. 

Railways. — Where water storage is used the track is built 
along the bank of the stream or pond, or else extended over the 
water on piling. In the former case it is necessary to construct 
an inclined rollway over which the logs may be rolled into the 
water. This has a framework composed of three parallel sets 
of stringers, spaced 8 feet apart, which extend along the water's 
edge from 400 to 600 feet. The outer stringer projects over 



LOADING AND UNLOADING CARS 



373 



the water's edge and is supported on piling or on timbers that 
rest on solid bottom, while the other stringers are supported 
on round or square uprights placed from 4 to 6 feet apart. Heavy 
round or square timbers, often shod with railroad iron, are placed 
on top of and at right angles to the stringers, and serve as a 
bed over which the logs are rolled. These timbers are spaced 







Fig. 130. — A RoUway at the Mill Pond. Texas. 



from 4 to 6 feet apart on the stringers and have a pitch of from 
15 to 25 degrees. The upper ends are placed level with the 
top of the car bunks. 

When the water is shallow near the rollway, the logs are 
shunted into deep water by sloping skids which extend from the 
lower stringer to the bed of the pond or stream. 

The railroad track is laid parallel with the rollway and close 
enough so that the top of the car bunks will be about 6 inches 
distant. To facilitate unloading, the outer rail is elevated from 
12 to 15 inches thus throwing the side of the car next the rollway 
at a lower level. Many of the logs will roll from the car into the 
pond when the car stakes are removed, the dogs on the car bunks 
lowered, or the binding chains are loosened. The remainder of 
the logs are rolled off the car by means of cant hooks or peavies. 



374 LOGGING 

This is one of the simplest methods and is widely used in the 
Lake States and southern yellow pine region where the timber is 
of medium size. 

On the Pacific Coast where logs arc often unloaded into tide- 
water and rafted, the track is built on piling either over the 
water or else along the bank. The structure is long enough to 
accommodate twenty cars or more. Some protection must 
be given the piling supporting the track and when the 
trestle is in deep water this is accomplished by driving a pile at 
the end of each tie. These piles are cut off about 2 feet 
below the level of the track and are beveled on top to shunt 
off the falling logs. An additional row of piles is sometimes 
driven just outside the first one and beveled off in a similar 
manner. When the trestle is located on land, a slanting roll- 
way must be built out far enough to carry the logs into deep 
water. 

The outer rail of the track is elevated from 8 to 12 inches, 
either by leaving the outer legs of the trestle longer, or by elevat- 
ing the outer ends of the crossties by means of blocking. 

When car stakes are used the practice is either to knock them 
out with a maul, or to cut them off with an ax. Logs often will 
roll off the cars unaided, but when assistance is required, jacks 
are used for log trucks and often for flats. Power unloaders 
are often used for unloading flat and skeleton cars. 

For dry land storage at mills, skidways are built on one or 
both sides of the device used for conveying logs into the mill. 
The skidways are wide enough to hold one car of logs, and long 
enough to accommodate the required number of cars. Storage 
skidways are a series of parallel skids placed at right angles to 
the railroad track, and supported on tunbers placed on the ground. 
The skids slope toward the center at an angle of from 10 to 12 
degrees to facilitate handling the logs. The outer rail of the 
track is elevated to aid in unloading. 

Power Unloaders. — There are several types of power unloaders 
which are used chiefly on the Pacific Coast where large and 
long logs are handled. However, some types are employed in the 
Lake States and in the hardwood region. 

Swinging-boom log loaders which pick logs from the car and 
deposit them on either side of the track are among the devices 
used where logs are stored in piles on dry ground. 



LOADING AND UNLOADING CARS 375 

An overhead cableway system which is supported on two spars 
from 500 to 600 feet apart and spanning the railroad track on which 
the logs are brought in, is sometimes employed where logs are 
stored in piles. 

An ingenious device called a log dump is in use at some plants. 
One built in Washington has two dumps separated by 30 feet 
of stationary track, the entire stmcture being supported on 
piling.^ The platform of each dump is 40 feet long and has 
four latch timbers {Ay, which are 11 feet long and a fifth timber 
(B), known as the trip timber, which is 36 feet long and of larger 
size. The frame is hung on a roller timber (C) 18 by 18 inches 
square and 40 feet 2 inches long which rests on heavy cast-iron 
sills. The roller timber is bound with an iron cylinder to facili- 
tate its rotation. This roller is placed off-center, the distance 
between the rail on the land side and the center of the roller 
timber being 25 inches. When the latches (D) holding the frame 
are released the weight of the load will automatically tip the 
frame toward the brow skid (E) through an arc of 15 degrees. 
The cars are run on the dump, the chains holding the logs on the 
cars removed, and the latches (D) opened. The dump then 
revolves until the car bunk rests on the brow skid (£"). Many 
logs will roll off, but some may have to be started by means of 
a cable passing through a block rigged on a gin-pole and pulled 
by a locomotive. The dump will not tip when the load is heaviest 
on the land side, in which case it is tilted by prying up on the 
end of the trip timber (B). After the logs are off the car the dump 
is brought to a horizontal position by having men walk out 
on the trip timber (B). 

The double dump will handle two cars of 40-foot logs, or one 
car of long logs by spotting one truck on each track. Three 
men can unload a car in two and one-half minutes and can un- 
load 350,000 board feet or more daily. 

One efficient unloader has a hoisting engine and two drums 
mounted on a car equipped with a rigid boom. The railroad 
track is built parallel to the rollway and the unloader runs on 
an additional track on the land side of the dump. The boom 
is so placed that it projects at right angles over the far edge 
of the railroad track. The unloader can travel back and forth 

1 The Timberman, August, 1912, p 68. 
K See Figs. 131 and 132. 



376 



LOGGING 




"0 




3 


3 



3 

3 
3 
3 
3 
3 



LJO 



LOADING AND UNLOADING CARS 377 

under its own power for a distance of from 500 to 600 feet, thus 
permitting an entire train to be unloaded without moving the 
cars. A f-inch cable passes from the drimis on the hoisting 
engine through a block on the peak of the boom, down under 
the logs and the grab hook is caught on the bunk of the car or 
on the buffer log of the rollway. When the cable is wound on 
the drum the logs are crowded off the car upon the rollway. Two 
other drums and cables are used, one for raising and lowering 
the boom and the other for moving the unloader back and forth 
on the track. When logs are dumped at one spot, a gin-pole 
and crosshaul may be used which is operated on the same prin- 
ciple as the unloader just described. 

Another form, called a gill-poke, designed to unload heavy logs 
from cars while the train is in ihotion has two steel arms 17 feet 
long made of channel and angle iron. The arms are 18 inches wide 
except at the ends, where they are made 36 inches wide to give 
a broad surface in contact with the logs. A heavy casting carry- 
ing a sharp edge is attached to the outer end of each arm. The 
two arms are bolted opposite each other on a 24-inch journal, and 
are braced with a turnbuckle. The arms and journal are set on 
a shaft 11 feet long, and 10 inches in diameter, cut down to 8 
inches where the journal is fastened to admit the attachment 
of a collar with ball bearings. The shaft is set on a concrete 
base, high enough to allow the arms to clear the car bunks, and 
far enough distant so that when the arm extends across the 
track at right angles, it reaches 1 foot beyond the outer rail. 
To unload a train load of logs, the loaded cars are pushed up to 
the rear of the unloader, a loader arm is swung up against the 
log, and the train put in motion. The sharp edge of the arm 
grips the log and as the train advances the arm is turned on its 
axis and the log or logs are gradually shoved off the car. The 
momentum acquired in performing the work causes the arms 
to revolve rapidly on the axis as soon as the logs are dumped, 
and the opposite arm comes in contact with the logs on the 
succeeding car. It is seldom necessary to stop the train during 
the unloading process. The average time consumed in unload- 
ing 75,000 board feet of logs from 15 cars is eight minutes. 

A more simple form of gill-poke has a heavy timber placed par- 
allel to the land side of the railroad track and elevated about 5 
feet above the track level. At suitable intervals this timber 



378 



LOGGING 




LOADING AND UNLOADING CARS 379 

has notches cut in its side facing the track. The gill-poke arm 
is about 4 inches square and from 6 to 8 feet long and has a blunt 
collar on one end and a steel prong on the other. The outer 
rail of the track is elevated and as the cars are slowly pushed by 
the dumping point, the collar on the arm is inserted in one of 
the notches in the timber pointing towards the direction of 
approach, and the sharp end placed against the outside log on 
the car. As the train proceeds the arm tends to assume a position at 
right angles to the track and forces the logs from the car. Thirty- 
two cars carrying L50,000 board feet of logs have been unloaded 
by this method in twenty minutes. 

A device used by a redwood operator in California for un- 
loading logs from cars has a 20- by 28-inch timber, placed across 
the track at an angle of 45 degrees, and securely fixed at each 
end on solid supports. The base of the beam is about 8 inches 
above the car bunk. The loaded train, one log on each car, is 
brought in from the woods and pushed along the track toward 
the unloader. The logs striking the slanting timber are pushed 
off the car as the train advances. When half of the train has 
been unloaded the locomotive is uncoupled from the rear of the 
train, and attached to the forward cars, and unloading is continued 
until completed. Thirty thousand board feet of logs can be 
unloaded by this device in three minutes. 

The overhead monorail system has recently been adapted to 
unloading, assorting and storing hardwood logs. The capacity 
of this machine when unloading and assorting, only, is about 
65,000 board feet per day. When logs are unloaded, assorted 
and the log requirements of the mill delivered at the foot of the 
jack ladder, the daily capacity is about 40,000 board feet.^ 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE TO CHAPTER XXI 

Anontmous: Swinging "Gill-poke" Unloader. The Timberman, October, 

1909, p. 23. 
EvENSON, O. J.: An Improved Log-loading System. The Timberman, 

August, 1912, p. 52. 
Gibbons, W. H.: Logging in the Douglas Fir Region. U. S. Dept. of 

Agriculture, Bui. 711, Washington, 1918, pp. 229 to 238. 

1 See American Lumberman, Nov. 12, 1921, p. 44. 



380 LOGGING 

O'GoRMAN, J. S.: Unloading Log Cars with a Stationary Rig. The Tim- 

berman, August, 1909, p. 48. 
O'Hearne, James: Tilting Log Dumps. The Timberman, August, 1912. 

pp. 68-69. 
Van Orsdel, John T.: Cableway Loading System. The Timberman, 

July, 1911, p. 46. 



PART IV 
WATER TRANSPORT 



CHAPTER XXII 
FLOATING AND RAFTING 

Nearly every large stream in the forest regions of the United 
States has at some time in its history served as a highway down 
which logs and lumber have been floated to sawmills and market. 
It is still the more common method of transporting logs in the 
eastern part of the United States, although the use of logging 
railroads is increasing and, in many regions, they have superseded 
water transportation, because of the depletion of the timber 
supply near driveable streams, the extensive logging of non- 
buoyant species, and the increased value of stumpage. 

In the more recently developed timber sections of the Inland 
Empire and the Pacific Coast water transport early gained a 
foothold but is now of secondary importance, except where logs 
are brought to the shores of Puget Sound, and the Pacific Ocean 
or to the Columbia River, and then rafted and towed to the mill. 
In the Northwest only large streams are practicable for driving 
because of the diameter of the logs and the long lengths in 
which it is desirable to bring them from the forest. 

Logs may either be floated singly or rafted. The former 
method is practiced always on rough water and small streams, 
and whenever lawful on large ones; however, rafting is com- 
pulsory on navigable streams. 

Water transport is a cheap method of moving logs for long 
distances when a low expenditure is necessary for stream improve- 
ments and driving, and also for transporting logs out of a well- 
watered region where otherwise a large mileage of expensive 
logging railroad would have to be constructed to tap a trunk line. 

Water transport has the following disadvantages: 

(1) It is limited chiefly to logs which will float. Softwoods 
and hardwoods are often associated together in the forest and 
present market conditions make it profitable to remove some 
or all of the latter, which is often impossible with water trans- 
port. 



384 LOGGING 

(2) It is dependent on an abundant rainfall to flood the 
streams. During seasons of drought it may be impossible or 
very expensive to move logs by water. This results in a short 
log supply and the closing down or short-time operation of saw- 
mill plants. Sawmills in the northern regions that are dependent 
on water transportation for a log supply can only run for six or 
seven months, unless special provisions are made for keeping the 
log pond open during freezing weather. During the remainder 
of the year the plant is idle and during this period the owner 
does not realize on his investment. 

(3) There is a heavy loss in driving logs for long distances. 
Logs of all species that have much sapwood suffer a heavy loss in 
merchantable volume between the bank and the mill, if they do 
not reach their destination during the season in which they were 
logged, because the sapwood is attacked by insects and fungi. 
Basswood logs which have floated for a short period in water 
containing vegetable matter acquire a peculiar and unpleasant 
odor that renders the lumber from them unfit for sugar barrel 
cooperage and packages for other commodities that are easily 
tainted. 

A very appreciable loss in driving timber is due to sunken and 
stranded logs. The extent of this loss is depedent on the species 
driven, and the character of the stream. 

The heartwood of stranded logs, especially of hardwoods, 
suffers from checks and splits when exposed to the weather. 

Where timber is brought down rough streams, over water- 
falls, and past obstructions it is often badly battered and broken, 
gravel and sand become imbedded in a large per cent of the 
logs and occasionally iron and spikes are present, especially 
where iron dogs are used in rafting. Much of this foreign matter 
is not readily detected, and mills suffer a monetary loss due to 
damaged saws and time lost by the sawmill crew. 

Strict laws are now in force in most states providing adequate 
penalties for the theft of logs so that this evil has been largely 
remedied. 

The actual loss in log scale from all causes on the Mississippi 
river drives average about 10 per cent; on the Cumberland and 
Tennessee rivers in Kentucky, 10 per cent; in Montana, 10 per 
cent; spruce, from 5 to 10 per cent and birch, from 25 to 75 per 
cent on short drives in the Northeast; hardwoods in Pennsyl- 



FLOATING AND RAFTING 385 

vania, from 25 to 40 per cent; and yellow pine, from 20 to 33 
per cent. The loss in the Lake States may be as high as 30 per 
cent.^ On short drives of coniferous timber the loss is small and 
may be from zero to 3 per cent. This loss is due chiefly to sunken 
and stranded logs and not to the deterioration of sap-wood.- 

Floods and storms have caused heavy losses to lumbermen who 
operate on the large streams.^ Booms break and loose logs are 
carried past the mills and deposited on the banks at points below, 
or carried out to sea. Where logs are deposited on lands adjacent 
to the streams heavy expense is incurred, not only in getting the 
logs back in the stream but in the payment of damages to owners 
on whose property the logs are deposited. It seldom is profit- 
able to return logs upstream to the mill and they are often sold 
at a sacrifice to mills below. 

Some States have passed laws regulating the fee that parties 
may charge for catching stray logs that are afloat, and the con- 
ditions under which log catchers may operate.^ 

^ In the case of James L. Gates vs. Elliott C. Young, lumber inspector of 
District No. 2, Wisconsin, tried in the courts of LaCrosse, Wisconsin, 1901, an 
attempt was made by plaintiff to compel defendant to reimburse him for dif- 
ference in scale between the "bank" and the boom. During the trial, prom- 
inent lumbermen from the Black River district testified that "there might 
and would occur a difference between the woods and mouth scale of from 10 
to 30 per cent." 

2 A study of log loss in driving in Eastern Canada showed that out of a 
total of 101,000 logs, 2.21 per cent sank. Eastern spruce represented 5.1 
per cent of the sunken logs, and balsam fir, 94.4 per cent. One hundred and 
eighty-one balsam logs and forty-one spruce logs, 9.92 of th? total contained 
rot. 

^ Notable instances are the floods on the Susquehanna River in Pennsylvania, 
which caused great loss to operators at Williamsport. In 1860, .50,000,000 
feet of logs were carried away, followed in 1861 with a loss nearly as great. 
In 1889, 300,000,000 feet were carried down the river but a considerable 
quantity of logs were salvaged. Another flood occurred in 1894, when 
150,000,000 feet were strewn along the river from Williamsport to Chesapeake 
Bay. Although many logs from these floods were recovered the lo.ss to the 
owners was nevertheless very great. 

Floods on the Penobscot River in Maine in December, 1901, carried to sea 
about 7,000,000 feet of logs, valued at .$100,000. 

* The legal fee in Pennsylvania is 50 cents for each thousand feet log scale, 
held and delivered to the owner. 

The legal fee on the Guyandotte River in West Virginia and Kentucky is 25 
cents per log. 

A stringent State law in Washington forbids anyone catching runaway logs 



386 LOGGING 

Runaway logs on the Ohio River have been carried to the Gulf 
of Mexico. On many other streams draining into the Atlantic 
and Pacific Oceans logs have been carried to sea and lost. Tim- 
ber caught on the high seas is the property of the finder. Rafts 
on the Great Lakes were sometimes broken up during storms and 
the logs scattered over the beach for many miles. The collection 
of logs under these conditions was expensive and in some cases the 
cost was prohibitive. 

(4) Stream improvements are of little or no value after the 
abandonment of logging operations. The improvements made 
on streams to render them driveable are often costly and of such 
a nature that they cannot be used for other purposes after logging 
is completed. Exceptions to this may be noted in the case of 
the boom sticks used for storage purposes at large sorting centers, 
which are manufactured into lumber at the conclusion of opera- 
tions; and of dams on large streams which may be retained for 
the control of the water supply. 

(5) The heavy and long time investment required for mill 
stocking. With long drives that are now made one or more 
seasons may elapse before the logs reach the mill. On the Ohio 
and Mississippi Rivers it is not uncommon for logs to reach their 
destination the second summer after cutting and in some cases 
delivery has been delayed from three to five years.^ This long 
time investment in stumpage and logging expense is not only 
a serious drain on the finances of a lumber company but the 
value of the logs that have been cut for such long periods is 
greatly depreciated. 

(6) The legal complications with riparian owners. The rights 
of loggers on "floatable" and "navigable" streams are defined 
by State laws which vary in different states. The driver of 
logs is liable for damages to property of riparian owners caused 
by the creation of artificial freshets that overflow the lands, 

without permission. This law was found necessary to stop the practice of 
setting logs adrift from booms at night and then claiming a fee for returning 
chem. Loggers pay 5 cents per tie and 50 cents per log for all runaways that 
are caught and returned to them. 

1 In 1907 a drive of yellow poplar logs came down the Ohio River from the 
headwaters of one of the tributaries, where it had been held up for five years 
because of an insufficient water supply. The loss in merchantable contents 
of many logs was 75 per cent. 



FLOATING AND RAFTING 387 

damage the banks, or deposit logs or debris on the property.^ 
Navigable streams must be kept open and the rights of all other 
lawful users of the stream respected. 

REQUIREMENTS FOR A DRIVEABLE STREAM 

(1) The size of the stream. The stream channel should be 
wide enough and deep enough to float the largest and longest 
logs without the formation of jams. High banks are desirable 
since they confine the water and prevent it from losing its force. 
When not so confined suflScient water may not be available to 
float logs for more than a short distance, in which case numerous 
splash dams have to be built. 

The most economical use can be made of a small stream when 
it is only a little wider than the longest logs and of a sufficient 
depth to float them clear of all obstructions. If there are such 
the channel must be capable of improvement at a moderate 
cost. On large streams logs may be guided around obstructions 
by the use of booms and other improvements, but in narrow chan- 
nels this usually is impossible and the stream bed must be im- 
proved either by the removal of obstructions, changing the course 
of the stream or putting in sluices for transporting logs around 
places where floating by ordinary means is not possible. 

(2) The channel must be reasonably straight so that logs will 
not become jammed at the bends of the stream. This is most 
important on small streams because of the narrow channel. 
Oxbows or curves in small streams may be eliminated by making 
a cut-off or channel connecting the two nearest points, but this 
is too costly when bends are numerous. 

(3) There must be a sufficiently large drainage basin above 
the part of ths stream which is used to ensure an adequate supply 
of flood water. Coupled with this there must be storage reservoirs 
for holding water in reserve for flooding the stream. In the 
North the snow on the watershed may melt and a large part of 
it run down the streams before the drive begins. Storage basins 
are necessary to conserve this water. 

Lakes form an admirable reservoir and when available are 
used for this purpose. Surplus water is caught and held in 
them by placing dams across their mouths and when several 

' See Howe vs. Ashland Lumber Co. Decision of the Supreme Judicial 
Court of Maine, 8.5 Atlantic Reporter, 160. 



388 LOGGING 

lakes are tributary to one stream driving may proceed long 
after the spring freshets are over. 

Sites for dams should have a narrow channel, high Imnks, and 
a solid bottom for their foundation. In order to store the greatest 
amount of water they should be built at the foot of a lake, at 
the end of a long stretch of dead water, or at a point where 
the maximum amount of water can be stored with a minimum 
of dam height. 

Storage reservoirs should be large enough to permit log driv- 
ing for a minimum of five or six hours daily and the drainage 
area should furnish enough water to again fill the storage basin 
before the driving period on the following day. 

The required watershed area and the capacity of the storage 
basins for a given stream are dependent on 

(a) The amount of moisture precipitation on the watershed 
especially during the fall and winter months and also the rapidity 
with which it is made available in the spring. Drives are gen- 
erally dependent on flood waters and a rapid run-ofT is desirable 
because the storage basins will then be refilled in the minunum 
time after each splash. 

A logger usually relies on his judgment as to whether a watershed 
is capable of supplying sufficient flood water for driving purposes. 
He bases his conclusions on flood wood and earth deposits which 
are visible along the stream banks, on a familiarity with similar 
streams, and on a general knowledge of rainfall and floods in the 
vicinity; however, the amount of water available for driving in a 
given watershed is difficult to determine accurately because 
specific records from which to draw conclusions are seldom 
available. 

Evaporation may play an important part in influencing the 
water supply during the summer season by taking moisture 
both from the soil and from the surface of the storage reservoirs. 
The water supply for early spring driving is not greatly affected 
by evaporation, but shallow reservoirs that store water for sum- 
mer driving have a high rate of evaporation and it is sometimes 
impossible to collect a head of water. 

(6) The quantity of water required in a given time to carry 
logs down stream between storage reservoirs. On small streams 
where large quantities of water are not available or where the 
banks are low and the water leaves the main channel it may 



FLOATING AND RAFTING 389 

not be possible to drive logs more than a few miles at most before 
the force of the water is spent. In such cases frequent storage 
basins are required. 

(c) The length of tune for which flood water must be available. 
If artificial freshets are required onl}^ for a short time in the 
spring when the streams are fed from snow water a smaller stor- 
age area may be used than when water must be available for 
several months. 

DAMS 

Dams for logging purposes are usuallj^ built of round timber 
secured close to the dam site. 

It is necessary to construct a dam on solid bottom or bed 
rock because if this is not done water will work underneath the 
sills and ultimately cause the structure to go out. 

There are three types of timber dams used for logging pur- 
poses: (1) the crib or pier dam, (2) the rafter or self-loading 
dam, (3) the pile dam. 

Concrete dams of large size are occasionally used by lumber 
companies, but they are built by engineers, and loggers are 
seldom concerned in their construction. 

Timber dams on small streams usually have a sluiceway 
through which logs are run and waste water passed, while on 
large streams several waste gates are required to take care of 
surplus water. "Roll dams' which have no gates or sluice- 
ways are also built to raise the stream level. The water and 
logs pass over the crest of the dam. 

The choice of the type of dam to be used depends upon : 

(1) The character of the bottoms. When the subsoil is un- 
stable, the dam should be of a type which rests upon solid founda- 
tion; otherwise the structure will be undermined and carried 
away. 

(2) The head of water desired. The water pressure against 
the dam increases with the height of the head of water carried, 
therefore, the construction must be stronger as the height increases. 

Dams are subject chiefly to three forces which cause them to 
become dislodged and carried away, namely crushing, sliding 
and overthrow. These are due to the pressure of the water on 
the upstream face of the structure. The crushing stress is over- 
come by making the timbers of ample size to resist this pressure, 



390 LOGGING 

sliding is prevented by anchoring the structure to bed rock or 
by placing the mud sills deep enough in the earth to hold them, 
and overthrow is overcome by increasing the weight of the 
structure by filling it with rock. 

Crib Dams. — The crib dam is a common form and is so- 
called because the buttresses and wings are built of cribs usually 
filled with stone to hold them down. It is the preferred type 
where a large head of water is to be carried and when bed rock 
or a solid foundation can be reached at a depth of a few feet. 
Crib dams are made from round timbers hewed on two sides, or 
from squared timbers. The foundation of a crib dam must be 
sohd, and whenever possible built on bedrock, but if this cannot 
be done the foundation may rest on piles driven into hard clay 
or to bedrock. If this is impossible, a row of 3-inch plank or 
small hewed poles sharpened on one end, is driven across 
the stream channel just above the upstream mud-sill. These 
planks and timbers are called toe-spiling. 

If there is much water in the stream bed it is diverted to one 
side by temporary dams made of sand bags or by the construc- 
tion of sluices made from logs or lumber. 

In constructing a dam whose sills are to rest on bedrock, the 
first work done after the water is diverted is to excavate trenches 
from 4 to 5 feet wide in which the logs forming the cribwork are 
to rest. The foundation may be made slightly convex on the up- 
stream side in order that the force of the water will tend to tighten 
the joints of the dam. Parallel lines of logs called "mud-sills" 
are placed across the stream from bank to bank, each row being 
spaced 6 or 8 feet from the adjoining one. The width of the 
base should be approximately the same as the height of the dam. 
The mud-sills should be made from large timbers, preferably from 
16 to 20 inches in diameter. They should lie flat on the bottom 
and if possible be fastened to bedrock with f-inch drift bolts. A 
row of cross-skids from 12 to 16 inches in diameter is then laid 
from 6 to 8 feet apart across the mud-sills in a direction parallel 
with the stream bed thus forming cribs from 6 by 6 to 8 by 8 feet 
in size. They extend from the front to the rear row of mud-sills 
into which they are notched so as to rest firmly. Peeled logs 
are placed on top of the cross-skids to which they are drift bolted. 
These lie parallel to the mud-sills. Timbers on the upstream side 
of the dam are hewed on three faces and fitted to each other so that 



FLOATINO AND RAFTING 391 

a tight face is made or else planks must be spiked to the timbers 
in order to make the dam tight. 

A cribwork is built up until it reaches the level of the stream 
bed, when it is necessary to provide a ''sluiceway" through 
which logs may pass and also gates through which surplus water 
may be wasted. Sluiceways are generally from 9 to 15 feet 
wide and are placed in the center of the natural stream bed. 
A sufficient number of waste gates is placed on either side to 
care for the surplus flood water. The sides of the sluiceway 
and of the waste ways, both of which carry headworks for gates, 
are made stronger and of larger logs than the rest of the structure 
and are often reinforced with piers. In building waste gates 
and sluices the transverse sills are cut off where the opening 
begins and the cross-skids which form the side walls of the sluice 
have smooth hewed faces that fit closely together. The cribwork 
of the dam is then continued to the desired height. When 
finished, the upstream face of the dam is calked with tow or 
boarded up with 3-inch plank to make it tight. The cribs are 
roughly floored with puncheons and filled with rock to weight 
them down. The cover of boards on the face is sometimes 
replaced with a bed of gravel although both boards and gravel 
are frequently used. 

Piers are often constructed on each side of the sluiceway above 
the dam to confine the water, strengthen the dam, and prevent 
the structure from being undermined. 

An apron also extends out from the sluice on the lower side 
of the dam to carry the water and logs away and to protect the 
base of the structure. 

Where the stream bed is unstable a row of piles is sometimes 
driven across the dam site near the center of the sluiceway. 
These are cut off at the stream bed level and prevent the bottom 
from washing out. 

Rafter or Self-loading Dam. — This type is cheaper to build 
than a crib dam and is used where a large head of water is not 
required. 

Rafter dam foundations are constructed in the same manner 
as crib dams with pockets 6 by 6, or 8 by 8 feet in size. The mud- 
sills are drift bolted to bedrock when possible. As the framework 
is built up, the face of the dam is drawn in from the level of the 
stream bed so that the upstream face has an angle of 3 horizontal 



392 



LOGGING 



to 1 vertical. The dam should be at least 8 feet wide on top. 
Two thicknesses of 3-inch plank or hewed poles are spiked on the 
sloping face, the joints being alternated and the whole covered 
with a bed of gravel. The rear mud-sill is protected by toe- 



r 


1 • ' '"*^^<i 




_,_;.- ;r.--^.;^j.. — — — -v^ ; - 






,-, '>' 




-•:«! 

■ 1 





Photograph by II. R. McMillan. 

Fig. 133. — The Sluiceway and Apron of a Rafter Dam on the Priest River. 
Idaho. 



spiling driven down to hard clay or bedrock, and the cribs are 
weighted down with stone. 

The frame for a rafter dam is frequently supported on round 
or squared timbers instead of cribwork. 

Pile Dam. — The buttresses and wings of this type of dam are 
formed by a double row of piles driven to bedrock, the space 



FLOATING AND RAFTING 



393 



between them being filled with gravel and stone. The up- 
stream face is banked up with brush and gravel to stop leakage. 
This type is not in frequent use, although it was at one time 
common in the Lake States. 



SLUICE GATES 

Lift Gate. — This is the most common type. It is rectangular 
in shape, with two outside frame pieces 5 by 7 inches in 




Fig. 134. — The Upstream 



Form of Lift-Gate. 



cross-section which are made from hardwood. Intermediate 
"starts" as these pieces are called may be used on wide gates. 
Mortises 2 by 5 inches in size are cut into the edges of the starts 
at 14-inch intervals and 2- by 5-inch hardwood slats which are 
long enough to give the required gate width are fitted into the 
mortises on opposite starts. The starts and slats form the skeleton 
frame work of the gate, and also serve as points under which the 
raising lever may be placed. Two-inch hardwood planks are 
then spiked crosswise from start to start, the ends of the planks 
being flush with the edges of the starts. Gates are made 2 inches 
narrower than the width of the sluice so that they may be moved 
easily up and down the slides. The slides are placed directly 
above one of the cross timbers in the sluice, so that there will be 



394 



LOGGING 



a solid base under the gate which will prevent it from rebounding 
when it is dropped into position. The slides are made of 5- by 
7-inch hardwood strips, 6 feet longer than the crib height. One 
slide is placed on each side of the sluice way in a notch 16 inches 
long and 5 inches deep which is cut into the side logs of the sluice. 
Each slide timber is solidly spiked to the sluice way on the down- 
stream side and provides a backing against which the gate works. 
The groove in the sluice timbers is widened to 22 inches at the 
top and a slide similar to those placed in the downstream side is 
spiked in place in order to keep the gate in position. 

Bear-trap Gate. — This type of gate has been used frequently 
in Pennsylvania. It has two rectangular leaves each of which 




Fig. 135. — The Bear-trap Sluice Gate. 

has a length equal to the width of the sluice. They are fastened 
to the bottom of the sluice by hinges on which they turn. The 
upstream leaf overlaps the downstream one when the leaves 
are down and the gate open. 

The gate is raised by the pressure of water from the upper 
pool, which is conveyed in a channel, controlled by a sluice 
gate, to a chamber (A), Fig. 135, constructed under the gate. 
A second channel, also provided with a gate or stop cock, con- 
nects this chamber with the lower pool. When the connection 
with the upper pool is opened, while that with the lower pool 
is closed, water from the upper pool fills the chamber under 
the gate. This causes the downstream leaf to rise, first by 
flotation and then by the impulse from the flow of the water. 
The upper leaf is raised by the lower leaf which slides under it, 
the friction being reduced by rollers. The height to which the 
gate rises is limited either by stay chains, or by a wood cleat 
nailed on the under side of the upper leaf. In lowering the gates 
the operation is reversed, the connection with the upper pool 



FLOATING AND RAFTING 395 

being closed while that with the lower pool is opened. The 
gate may be made to assume any intermediate position by reg- 
ulating the extent to which the two valves controlling the 
inlet and outlet of the chamber under the gate are opened. 

The objections to this form of gate are: (1) the overlap of the 
upper leaf over the lower one necessitates lifting a considerable 
amount of water when the gate is raised; (2) the head of water 
obtainable is only about one-third of the total width of the 
leaves: (3) the friction between the two leaves, even when re- 
duced by rollers makes it difficult to operate the gate smoothly; 
(4) the gate must be made in one section and if the gate is wide 
one side is apt to go up faster than the other causing twisting 
strains; (5) any driftwood or stones which may lodge between 
the leaves make the lowering of the gate impossible until the 
obstruction is removed. However, water can be let out of the 
reservoir very rapidly and the gate can be raised and lowered by 
one man as no special effort is required, both of which are ad- 
vantages. 

Logging dams with "bear-trap" gates 80 feet wide have been 
built and operated in Wisconsin 

Half-moon Gates. — A dam constructed to store water for log 
sluices often has a gate called the "half-moon." It is not used 
for wide sluiceways nor for large heads of water. The gate, which 
is slightly curved, fits tightly into the sluiceway with the convex 
face upstream. It is supported by four arms from 16 to 24 feet 
long, which are attached to a beam hung on bearings placed on 
either side of the top of the sluiceway. A platform erected over 
the gate supports a drum actuated by a hand wheel with gearing, 
or by a hand lever. Chains are attached to either side of the 
gate head and are passed up over the drum. The gate, which 
swings through an arc of a circle with a radius equal to the length 
of the supporting braces, is raised by winding in the chain. 

Needle or Bracket Gate. — Splash dams, especially in the Appa- 
lachian mountain and Pennsylvania regions, are often provided 
with needle gates which are made of hewed or sawed 3- by 5-inch, 
or 3- by 6-inch scantlings placed vertically across the opening, 
thus forming a solid front. The needles are supported at the 
lower ends by a cross-beam or groove cut in the base sill. The 
tops rest against a cross-beam to which the needles are attached 
by short chains. The needles are raised either by a windlass, 



396 



LOGGING 




FLOATING AND RAFTING 



397 



a crowbar or a lever. They are especially serviceable for dams 
at storage reservoirs through which logs are not sluiced, but 
where it is necessary to suddenly release large quantities of water 
in order to carry logs over very rough stretches. The needles 
may be liberated by breaking the bottom beam by a charge of 
dynamite. 

Barn-door Gate. — This has one or two heavy gates or doors 
hung vertically on bearings attached to the sides of the sluice. 



>^\,^2!»f^ 




Fig. 137. 



An Upstream View of a Rafter Dam having a Needle Gate. 
Appalachian Mountains. 



Double gates are held in place, when closed, by an upright beam 
in the center of the sluiceway, and single gates by a sunilar 
beam placed on one side of the sluiceway. A horizontal pole 
is sometimes used instead of an upright one to hold the gate 
shut. These gates have been used in Pennsylvania and in some 
parts of the Appalachian mountains, but they are not popular 
because the force of the water throws them open so violently that 
they are often damaged. A light drop gate often is built to shut 
off the flow of water while the large gates are being closed. 



398 LOGGING 



LOG CARRIERS 



Loggers operating near the headwaters of streams occasion- 
ally find it desirable to transfer logs from one water course to 
another in order to bring them down the stream on which the 
manufacturing plant is located. 

A log carrier similar to the log haul-up in a sawmill is used 
to elevate the logs to the maximum height desired, and a log 
sluice with a V-box 4 or 5 feet high and 7 or 8 feet across the 
top then carries the logs to the stream on the other watershed. 
Water for the sluiceway is furnished by a series of pumps of 
large capacity. 

An interesting example of a device of this sort was a log carrier 
and sluice constructed in the Nipissing District, Ontario, Canada, 
to divert logs from the headwaters of the Muskoka River to 
those of the Trent River. The logs were first transported up a 
log carrier 300 feet long to a reservoir 80 feet long, 7 feet wide 
and 8 feet deep, located 40 feet above the initial level. A 450- 
horse-power engine furnished power for the jack works at the 
reservoir, and also for a set of centrifugal pumps with a capacity 
of 20,000 gallons per minute which provided water for the reser- 
voir, and for a log sluice which was 3000 feet long and had a 4.5 
per cent grade. The logs as they reached the foot of the sluice 
were transported by a log carrier up a 100-foot rise to a lake |- 
mile distant, where they were placed in a boom and towed to 
the head of the river down which they were driven. The second 
carrier comprised eight sections, each with a massive jack works 
driven by rope transmission from a 400-horse-power horizontal 
water wheel located near the center of the haul-up. Water for 
power purposes was brought in a flume from the terminus of the 
carrier. The conveyor chains were made with 1-inch round 
links and had log seats at intervals of 8 feet. The capacity of 
the carrier was 10,000 logs in twenty-two hours. 

IMPROVEMENT OF THE STREAM BED AND BANKS 

Before a stream can be driven it must be cleared of fallen 
timber, snags and boulders. The fallen timber often is cut into 
short lengths with an ax and allowed to drift downstream, or 
is hauled out on the banks. Snags, rocks and similar obstruc- 
tions are removed with dynamite. This work is done in the 
summer and early fall when the water is low. 



FLOATING AND RAFTING 



399 



Pter Dams and Abutments 

Pier dams are cribwork structures used to narrow the channel 
of a stream, guide logs past rocks and other obstructions, and 
in some cases to block an old 
channel and divert the water into 
another course. 

They resemble the piers of crib 
dams having cribs from 6 to 8 
feet square, and mud-sills fastened 
to bedrock or firmly anchored in 
the stream bed. The cribs are 
loaded with rock to give them 
stability. 

Abutments are used to pro- 
tect the banks of streams during 
flood time, and prevent them 

from being worn away. The usual form is a cribwork of 
timl^er built into the bank. The space between the shore and 
the timbers is filled with rock to prevent the bank earth from 
washing out. Where streams pass through wide bottoms and 
the banks are too low to confine the flood water, an artificial 




Fig. 138. — An Abutment for the 
Protection of Stream Banks. 




'^m-. 



Fig. 139. 



An Artificial Channel used to confine Flood Water in a 
Narrow Bed. 



channel is sometimes created by constructing false banks of 
lumber. Cribwork supports a strong frame of timbers on which 
heavy planking is nailed. 

Booms. — Backwaters, pockets, low banks, obstructions and 
shallow places where logs are apt to be lost or stranded occur 
on most streams. Booms, made of long sticks of timber 
fastened together end to end and moored to objects on shore or 
to piling or cribs in the stream, are used to confine the logs to the 
channel. Booms are also used to aid drivers in sluicing logs 
through dams, for confining logs at assorting gaps and storage 



400 



LOGGING 



points, and for towing. They are built in many forms and are 
called sheer booms when used to confine logs for storage purposes 
in given channels and towing booms when used to impound logs 
for towing purposes. They are again designated as limber and 
stiff booms according to their manner of construction. Both 
sheer booms and towing booms are often of the same pattern and 
are known as the "plug" boom, "sheep-shank" boom, "chain" 
boom, "bracket" boom, "fin" boom, and "barge" boom. The 
first three are single-log limber booms, the names referring to 
the manner of attachment one to the other; the bracket boom is 




DOG AND CHAIN 




CLEVIS AND RLNG 



Fig. 140. — The Methods of fastening Boom Sticks with Chains. 



a stiff boom several logs wide; and the fin and barge booms are 
either stiff or limber. 

Plug booms, also known as "plug and knock down" booms, 
have logs fastened end to end with short pieces of rope or withes 
the ends of which are passed through holes bored in the ends of 
the boom and securely fastened by plugs. 

Booms of this character are serviceable as a makeshift when 
stronger fastenings are not available. 

Sheep-shank booms are temporar}^ booms fastened together by 
rope, a half hitch being made around the ends of the logs. The}^ 
are used for repairing breaks in other booms where rope is the 
only ef}uipment available. 

Chain booms are the common form of limber boom in use to- 
day. Short rhains are used to connect the logs, and are fastened 
in several different ways: (1) by a chain and dogs; (2) by a ring 
and toggle : (3) by a clevis, making an endless chain. The latter 



FLOATING AND RAFTING 



401 



form is used very commonly for towing purposes and for storage 
areas because the booms can be readily uncoupled. 

The bracket boom is a stiff boom made three or four logs wide. 
The logs are fastened together l^y short boards nailed cross- 
wise on the boom, or by short poles fastened to the logs by means 
of wooden plugs, chains or withes. They also are bound together 
with chains which encircle the boom. They are stronger than 
single booms and are used on the upstream side of splash dams 




Fig. 141. — A Fin Boom. a. A movable fin boom both open and closed. 
b. The arrangement of l)oom and fins for a permanent fin boom. 



for converging logs toward the sluiceway, and are also used 
around storage areas and assorting gaps as runways for men. 

The fin boom is often employed to change the course of logs 
from one side of a stream to the other, or to guide them past obstruc- 
tions. It is especially serviceable on a navigable stream where 
permanent booms cannot be maintained, and in places where 
it is not feasible to moor the outer end of the boom to a crib 
or pile. The shore end must always be upstream. The fin 
])oom may be either limber or stiff, preferably the latter, and 
may be permanent or temporary. It has a main boom to which 
the ends of pole or plank fins are attached by chains at regular 
intervals. When the boom must be opened and closed at fre- 
quent intervals the outer ends of the fins, which act as rudders, 



402 



LOGGING 



are connected by a rope or cable which passes around a drum 
or power-winch located on shore, while on stationary booms 
the fins are weighted at the ends to give them rigidity, and are 
fixed in a permanent position by means of a brace extending 
from the fin to the main boom. 

The boom may be thrown across a stream at any angle less 
than 90 degrees by winding in or letting out the cable, thus in- 
creasing or decreasing the angle between the boom and rudders. 
The boom may be brought to shore by letting out cable. 




.-#••.. 



'SL'M. " *• 



.^ggo- 




Piers placed 



River to hold Storage Booms. Minnesota. 



A barge boom is a limber boom, three or four logs wide, the 
upper end of which is fastened to a barge anchored in midstream 
and the downstream end to a tree or stump on shore. A boom 
of this character is serviceable in a navigable stream where per- 
manent booms cannot be used, and where the stream bed can- 
not be obstructed with piling or cribs. It is often used in con- 
nection with a fin boom when it is desired to shunt logs to one 
side of a wide stream. 



STORAGE AND SORTING FACILITIES 

On all large streams on which logs are transported, the timber 
of various companies becomes intermingled and it is neces- 
sary to sort out the property of each owner at destination. For 
this purpose assorting works are maintained at points where 



FLOATING AXD RAFTING 



403 



logs are to be manufactured, and extensive log storage facilities 
also are often provided. Both the assorting and storage works 
are generally owned by corporations. 

The storage booms form large pockets extending sometimes 
for miles along one or both sides of the stream, into which logs 
are shunted until the assorters are ready for them, and also 
to hold assorted logs until wanted for manufacture. The outer 
boundaries of these pockets are formed by single booms made 




Photograph by R. B. Miller. 

Fig. 143. — Log Storing and Assorting Works on the St. John's River. New- 
Brunswick. 



from logs 2 or 3 feet in diameter fastened together with 1- or Ij- 
inch chains. The boom sticks are held in place in midstream 
by piers or nests of piling placed 75 or 100 feet apart. 

Piers are built of round logs from 16 to 24 inches in diameter 
and of various sizes depending on the character of stream in 
which they are placed, and the amount of strain they must with- 
stand. 

In cold regions, they are built when the stream has an ice cover- 
ing strong enough to bear up heavy loads. An opening is cut 
through the ice slightly larger than the base of the crib, and in 
this opening the crib is built. The foundation timbers are placed 
in position and a floor of poles or planks placed over them. As 
the crib framework is built up, the structure is loaded with 
stones, thus sinking it as the work proceeds. Cribs are some- 



404 LOGGING 

times built on tiie ice and when nearing completion, a hole is 
cut large enough to permit the framework to be sunk. This 
method is not always as satisfactory as the first one described 
because ice may remain under the bottom of the crib and later 
cause it to settle unevenly. When the bottom is uneven, the 
crib must have some open pockets on the outer edge so that when 
it touches bottom enough rock ballast may be dropped down on 
the low side to make a level base. This may be done by setting 
spars at the corners of the crib and raising the low corners to a 
level by means of blocks and tackle. When cribs must be built 
in open water, they are constructed on inclined ways at some 
convenient point along the shore, and when they have reached 
a height sufficient to form a substantial raft, they are launched 
and then built up to a height slightly greater than the depth of 
water in which they are to be placed. They are then floated to the 
permanent site, loaded with stone and sunk to the stream bed. 

When the crib is to rest on a soft mud bottom, the load 
must be distributed over an area greater than the crib base. 
Stones are thrown on the bottom and when a sufficient quantity 
are in place the bed is roughly leveled and the crib sunk in position 
on top of it. 

The logs from which the crib framework is made should be 
notched where they cross each other and firmly drift bolted to- 
gether. The outward thrust of the rock ballast may be over- 
come by nailing round poles in the angle where poles cross or 
by quartering logs and nailing these pieces in the angle. 

In some cases the cribs are built rectangular in form above 
the water, but usually the upstream face is drawn in at an angle 
of from 30 to 40 degrees and planked over. The sloping face 
prevents ice and driftwood from forming a jam behind the crib 
and causing it to be carried away. A common method of attaching 
the boom sticks to the cribs is to drive a pile in the center of the 
crib. After a large iron ring has been loosely fitted over this 
pile the boom is fastened by a chain to the ring, and as the water 
rises and falls the ring slips up and down with the chain. When 
piling is used instead of cribs a nest of three or four piles are 
driven together and bound with chains or cable. 

Storage booms are usually taken in and the chains repaired 
after the drive is over. They are replaced early in the spring as 
soon as the ice leaves the stream. 



FLOATING AND RAFTING 



405 



The capacity of storage booms varies with the size and length 
of timber handled. The following table^ shows the area in 
acres required to store spruce logs of several sizes and lengths, 
and also the number of boom logs required to impound given 



.9 a 



CANA'DIAN SIDE Or SORlINq GAP 
ci - ^ * 2- 




o O ^ o v 

AMERICAN SIDE OF*' SORTING gXp 

"^ ^ -* ■» -a * 

Fig. 144. — A Sorting Gap on the St. John's River near Fredericton. New 

Brunswick. 

quantities of timber when the logs are forced into a compact 
body by the current of the stream, all sticks floating on the 
surface. 

The average storage capacity of medium-sized white pine 
and yellow pine logs is approximately 250,000 board feet per acre. 



Average 
length 


.Average 
diameter 


Average scale 
per piece - 


Area for 

storage of 

1,000,000 feet 


Feet 


Inches 


Board feet 


Acres 


15.3 


5.9 


21.4 


13.41 


20.5 


6.7 


31.8 


11.94 


24.6 


10.4 


90.7 


8.15 


30.0 


15.6 


249.48 


5.34 



2 Blodgett rule. 

Assorting Equipment. — The main feature is the assorting gap 
where logs are separated and deflected into the storage pockets 
down stream. The usual type of assorting gap has two opposite 
rafts or bracket booms placed from 30 to 50 feet apart and con- 
nected by an elevated runway on which the assort ers stand 

* See Boom Areas, by A. M. Carter, Forestry Quarterly, Vol. X, No. 1, 
p. 15. 



406 



LOGGING 



and separate the logs by marks as they pass under them. The 
gaps are built in many forms depending upon the amount of work 
to be done and the physical conditions which are encountered. 
Fig. 144 shows an assorting gap on the St. John's River near 
Fredericton, New Brunswick. This has two block piers 50 feet 
apart and behind them are rafts built of five logs each, so arranged 
that five gaps, each 22 feet wide, are formed on each side. The 
space between opposite rafts is spanned by 4-foot plank bridges 
on which the assorters stand. The division boom shown extends 




Fig. 145. — A Patent Assorting Works used in the Appalachian Region. 



downstream for 2000 feet to sheer booms which deflect the logs 
to the American and Canadian sides. Seventy-five men are 
employed at this gap and during the season 150,000,000 board 
feet of logs are handled. 

An assorting device used in the Appalachian region is shown in 
Fig. 145a. This has a sheer boom (A) moored to a tree on the bank 
and braced by a secondary boom at (B). The ])oom (A) is held 
in place in the stream by cables attached as shown in Fig. 1456. 
The lower end of the boom is broken at (C) and may be opened 
to allow logs and driftwood to pass downstream. An assorting 
platform (/)), with braces (E) and (F), is provided on which 
the workers stand and shunt the logs to be stored into the pocket 
(G). The remainder pass downstream to other storage pockets 



FLOATING AND RAFTING 407 

or to points below. The boom (//) is elevated by means of a 
built-up raft (Fig. 145c) to allow logs to pass underneath into 
the storage pocket. 

Rafting Works. — These may be located below assorting gaps, 
at the head of still water on non-navigable streams, or at the 
terminus of a logging railroad, or other form of transport along 
the shore of a lake or at tidewater. The form of the rafting 
works is governed by the character of the stream or body of 
water and by the form of raft constructed. On rivers where 
rafts are limited in width because of the size of the channel, 
they are made long and narrow and the rafting works, if logs of 
numerous owners are handled, may have many pockets whose 
boundaries are marked by bracket booms with plank runways 
which are held in position by piling. 

On the Great Lakes where logs are towed loose in booms, 
storage areas off-shore are provided in which logs are held until 
a sufficient number have accumulated. These areas are bounded 
by heavy sheer booms held in place by piling. The rafts are 
made up by surrounding a group of logs with heavy towing 
booms and towing them out of the storage areas. 

Along some of the tidewaters of the Altantic seaboard logs 
are made into bundles and towed to the mills. The rafting 
works here have an unloading wharf which projects into the 
stream, and special devices for holding chains and cables while 
the logs are being bundled.^ 

On the tidewater of Puget Sound, where large numbers of logs 
are rafted to the mills, a rafting works has an unloading dock 
several hundred feet long. This projects into the storage area 
which is enclosed by sheer booms held in place by piles driven 
about 70 feet apart. A rafting pocket 75 feet wide and 800 feet 
long is enclosed in booms and in this the rafts are built in sections. 

Ocean-going rafts are built on or near tidewater in the North- 
west. The usual storage area is provided and in addition, cradles 
or similar structures in which the rafts are built.^ 

THE DRIVE 

The season in which logs are transported by water varies in 
different regions. In the Northeast and the Lake States loggers 
depend primarily on the spring flood waters which are caused by 

1 See page 425. 

2 See page 427. 



408 LOGGING 

the melting snow and hence the drive must begin as soon as 
the ice goes out of the streams, since the water supply gradually 
decreases as the season advances, and on the smaller streams 
may be insufficient by early summer. 

In the Appalachian mountains and in the South where the 
snowfall is limited or absent, reliance is placed on freshets or 
heavy rainfalls for water to float the logs and the drive is conducted 
whenever water is available. On large bodies of water like the 
Great Lakes, Puget Sound and the Pacific Ocean the governing 
factor is the storm period, consequently the summer months are 
preferred. 

Conduct of Drives. — The business conduct of drives on streams 
may be under the control of one man, a group of individuals, or 
a corporation, depending upon the ownership of the timber. 
Rafting is carried on both by individuals and corporations. 

Drives upon large rivers often originate on numerous small 
streams, from each one of which come the logs of an individual 
or a company. Under these circumstances the small stream 
improvements are made and the drive upon it is conducted by 
one firm. On reaching the larger stream the logs of all parties 
become intermingled and the drive is then conducted as a "union" 
or corporation drive. 

On union drives the expense of improvements and labor hire 
is apportioned among the companies and individuals according 
to the amount of timber each has in the stream. The direct con- 
trol of the drive is vested usually in the interested members, in 
rotation, and each one has an employee at the assorting gap when 
the logs are assorted. 

A more common method is the control of the main drive by 
boom companies chartered by the State in which the business 
in conducted. The stream, if long, may be divided into several 
sections, each in charge of a separate corporation. The member- 
ship of such corporations is usually confined to loggers who use 
the river for log transportation ; however, it often does not include 
some of the smaller operators. Many of the boom companies 
operating in the Lake States, especially on the Mississippi River 
and its tributaries, have a limited capital stock divided among 
a few shareholders. 

Another form of membership is represented by companies, 
such as the St. John's River Log Driving Company, operating 



FLOATING AND RAFTING 409 

in the vicinity of Fredericton, Xew Brunswick.^ Each logger 
having 100,000 board feet or more passing through the limits of the 
company is eligible to membership, on filing with the Secretary 
a statement of all logs placed in the stream and their point of 
origin, a list of all log marks used, and certain other required facts. 
On filing this report the applicant becomes a member and is 
entitled to one vote for each 100,000 feet of logs he has in the 
drive. Thus every logger of any consequence has a voice in the 
administration of the drive. 

All states having large streams which are used for the transport 
of logs have laws relating to the rights and privileges of loggers 
and setting forth the duties and liabihties of incorporated boom 
companies. The charters of boom companies usually regulate 
the prices to be charged for handling and rafting logs. The 
State laws of Minnesota provide for inspection and scale of logs 
in the booms by a surveyor-general and his deputies, for which 
the boom company is charged a fee for all logs scaled. The 
surveyor-general is empowered to seize and sell logs in case of 
non-payment of the fee. 

On some tributaries of the Ohio River, especially on the Big 
Sandy down which great quantities of logs have been floated, 
the practice is for the individuals to drive their logs loose from 
the headwaters of the small streams to private rafting works 
located on the lower course of the Big Sandy where the logs are 
made into rafts by contract, floated to the mouth of the river 
and there taken in charge by the owner and towed down the 
Ohio River to the mills. 

On the Pacific Coast the logs are brought to tidewater by 
logging railroads and made into rafts, usually at private rafting 
works. 

A. LOG MARKS AND BRANDS 

Some method of identifying the logs of different owners when 
they are assorted at destination is imperative and lumbermen 
have adopted the system of branding their logs at the skidways 
in the forest or at the landing on the stream. The brands are 
numerals or characters, mounted on the head of a sledge ham- 
mer and stamped at several places on both ends of the logs so 

1 St. John's River Log Driving Operations by G. Scott Grimmer, Canada 
Lumberman and Woodworker, Vol. XXXII, No. 11, June, 1912, p. 28. 



410 LOGGING 

that no matter what portion of the log is above water the brand 
can be readily seen. 

To further aid in log identification the use of a bark mark, 
which is a design cut on the log near one end, is obligatory 
in some states. This may be made either by the sa\vyers when 
they cut the trees or at the landing. A bark mark is often used 
in connection with a "catch mark" painted on the ends of the 
log. In such cases a brand is not used. The number of brands 
and marks used on a given stream is sometimes great, each logger 
often having several to distinguish logs coming from given streams 

LV0W/VVfK M<MXA/eO 

1 2 3 '4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 

OX ll/X O+l-t^/r^ATh F? 

13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 

V>i:4^j-€UwQiivv ^a 

27 28 29 30 3L 32 33 34 35 36 37 33 39 40 

Fig. 146. — Some Mississippi River Log Marks. 1-10, monograms; 11, 
blaze notch; 12, notch girdle; 13, scalp; 14, cross; 15, notch; 16, dagger; 
17, cross girdle; 18, diamond; 19, twenty; 20, thirty; 21, umbrella; 22, 
saw horse; 23, fork; 24, straight S; 25, flag; 26, pine tree; 27, inverted 
A with scalps; 28, fifty; 29, pot hook; 30, fish hook; 31, bar C; 32, box 
with ears; 33, wild goose; 34, sheep head; 35, crow foot; 36, double dagger; 
37, fifteen; 38, triangle; 39, star girdle; 40, turtle. 

or sections of land. Some loggers use a new set each season in 
order to keep the logs of different years separate. On the upper 
Mississippi river more than 2000 log marks have been registered 
with the Surveyor-general, and over 1600 have been in use during 
a single season. 

The marks and brands represent a great variety of figures 
comprising single letters, monograms of two or three letters, and 
many figures which are often given characteristic names by river 
drivers. 

Log brands have always been extensivel}^ used in the Adiron- 
dack region, while in Maine bark marks are common. Both 
forms are used on the Mississippi river and its tributaries, and 



FLOATING AND RAFTING 411 

also in many parts of the Appalachian region. Brands are in 
extensive use on the Pacific Coast where logs are transported 
by water, but are seldom used in the interior. 

When registered^ with some designated state or county official 
(the Surveyor-general in Minnesota, in most other states the 
County Clerk of the county in which the head office is located) 
brands constitute trademarks of the individuals or firms regis- 
tering them, and their rights to the timber so marked are fully 
protected by law. 

The obliteration or removal of brands or bark marks ("de- 
horning") is regarded as a felony in most states. The highest 
courts of some states^ have held where logs are presumptively 
marked according to law and are floated down a stream and the 
owners annually endeavored to recover those that sank and 
became imbedded in the stream, that such logs cannot be re- 
garded as lost or abandoned property whether the marks are dis- 
tinguishable or not. 

Loggers, therefore, do not lose their property rights in lost 
logs if originally they were properly marked by the owner, and 
he used due diligence each year to recover them. On the other 
hand, according to the Supreme Court of Minnesota,^ logs in 
water are abandoned when not in the possession of or under the 
control of any person, and which have no distinctive mark or 
marks on them that have been recorded with the proper officials. 
Such logs are the property of the person who collects them and 
causes them to be marked. These logs are known as "prize" 
logs and on union drives they are divided in rotation, as they pass 
the assorting gap, among the loggers having timber in the stream. 
When the drive is conducted by a boom company all prize logs 

^ "Failure of owner to comply with Compiled Laws, section 5083, providing 
for the recording of log marks, was only effective to deprive the owner of the 
statutory presumption of ownership of logs unmarked with the recorded mark, 
and did not deprive him of his property in logs, the title to which he might 
establish by other means, including an unrecorded mark used by him." 
Whitman vs. Muskegon Log Lifting and Operating Co. Supreme Court 
of Michigan, 116 Northwestern 614. 

2 See Whitman vs. Mu.skegon Log Lifting and Operating Co. Supreme 
Court of Michigan, 116 Northwestern 614. 

3 See Astell vs. McCuish, Supreme Court of Minnesota, 124 Northwestern 
Reporter, 458. 



412 LOGGING 

caught in the booms are held as the property of the company and 
are sold at auction to the highest bidder. 



B. SPECIES THAT FLOAT 

The majority of the coniferous species indigenous to the United 
States will float, although there is a hea^y loss in driving woods 
such as southern yellow pine, green hemlock, and the butts 
of larch and redwood. The buoyancy of hemlock is increased by 
peeling the timber and allowing it to season for a short period 
before placing it in the water. 

Hardwood logs, such as basswood, poplar, and cucumber, float 
well and can be driven, although basswood is apt to become 
discolored, which greatly depreciates its value. Oak, beech, 
maple, birch, and other heay>' hardwoods can only be floated 
with difficulty unless they are especially prepared or are rafted 
with lighter species. Some loggers cut and peel oak in July, 
August, September, and October, place it on skids near the bank, 
and allow it to dry out from sixty to ninety days. It then 
becomes light enough to float for short periods. 

Another method^ is to peel and season the logs, then paint 
the ends mth two or three coats of paint and raft with lighter 
species. Holes also may be bored into logs and plugged up 
so as to form air spaces and thus increase the buoyancy of the 
timber. 

White birch for spool stock is sometimes driven for short 
distances in Maine, although the green timber will only float for 
a short time. One method is to fell the trees during the summer 
months and leave the tops on them until a large amount of 
moisture has been removed. Again, the trees may be felled, 
the tops cut off, and the timber left in the forest to season for 
from eight to twelve months This method is less satisfactory 
than the former because the sapwood of the logs stains badly 
during summer months, if left for long periods. 

The following lists show the relative floating ability of several 
species. 

1 There is a serious objection to this method of handhng hardwoods because 
their value is reduced by checks and incipient rot. Hardwood cut during 
the spring or summer must be converted into lumber in a few weeks if the best 
results are secured. 



FLOATING AND RAFTING 



413 



Floating ability- 


Average floating 


Floating ability 


above the average 


ability 


below the average 


Spruce 


Yellow pine 


Oak 


White pine 


Sweet gum 


Hickory 


Hemlock (dry) 


Sycamore 


Birch 


Basswood 


Douglas fir 


Beech 


Poplar 


Chestnut 


Elm 


White cedar 




Ash 


Redwood (except butts) 




Cherry 


Balsam 




Redwood (butts) 


Larch (except butts) 




Larch (butts) 


Cypress 






Cucumber 







Labor employed on log drives is chiefly recruited from the 
logging camps which have ceased operations by the time the 
streams are in condition to float timber. Although the work is 
hard, the hours are long and the men are often exposed to many 
hardships in the pursuit of their work, there is a certain glamour 
and fascination about it which attracts forest workers and in 
normal times loggers seldom have difficulty in securing a sufficient 
number of men. 

The laborers in the Northeastern part of the United States are 
chiefly French Canadians who make admiral)le river drivers. 

Log driving on small streams is done chiefly from the banks, 
except where log jams occur, while on large streams the work 
must often be done from boats called bateaux^ or from the logs 
themselves. The river drivers are often subject to personal 
danger in freeing lodged logs and in breaking up jams which 
form at narrow points in the stream, or in places where the 
channel is obstructed by rocks. A "key log" around which a 
jam is formed must be freed before the mass can be started, 
and this may be done either with tools or by a charge of dyna- 
mite. Only the most skillful men are allowed to perform this 
work, because great presence of mind is required on the part of 
the driver when the logs start to move. Log drivers, espe- 
cially on rough water, are among the highest paid men in the 

1 These are strongly built boats with a sharp prow and are fitted with two 
pairs of oars and guided by a single oar used a.s a rudder. They have a capacity 
of from six to ten men. 



414 



LOGGING 



woods. On small streams log drivers arc housed in log camps 
or in tents, while on river drives the men frequently live in a 
house boat or a tent called a "wanigan," which is mounted on 
a scow or raft and floated down the stream as the work proceeds. 
Tents on shore are also frequently used where facilities can be 
provided for moving them in wagons or in boats. 



CONDUCT OF THE DRIVE 



The Drive on Small Streams. — Drives usually start on the 
upper courses of small streams where the logs have been "banked" 




Fig. 147. — A Log Driving (ivw at llie Landing on a Small Stream waiting 
for a Head of Water. New Hampshire. 

in the stream bed, or else scattered over the surface of some lake 
or pond near its mouth. The "banking ground" is often above a 
splash dam which furnishes sufficient water to carry the logs 
down to the rear of another dam or to the main stream on which 
they are floated to the mill. 

As soon as the ice has gone out sufficiently to clear the stream,^ 

1 Sometimes the ice does not break up as early on lakes and large streams, 
when there is only a slight current, as it does on swift water, and in such cases 
a channel may be made through the ice in order to start the drive at the 
earliest possible date. 



FLOATING AXD RAFTING 415 

booms are placed in essential spots along the channel. A head 
of water is accumulated on the banking ground and a crew is 
set to work to "break down" the "landing" or "bank;"^ 
that is, to set the logs afloat in the current so they can pro- 
ceed downstream. The sluice gates of the dams are opened 
a short time before the logs are started through and are not 
closed until several minutes after the logs have ceased coming, 
otherwise jams will form at points along the channel. The 
work starts on the pile farthest downstream and in the center 
of the channel, the logs from the top of the pile being thrown 
into the water by means of peavies and timber grapples. This 
continues until the drivers have cleaned a channel wide enough 
to enable them to roll the remaining logs from the pile into the 
stream. After having cleaned up one section they proceed to 
loosen the next section above, and are sometimes obliged to ex- 
plode a small charge of dynamite to free logs which are frozen 
together. When logs are piled on one side of the stream, only, 
the drivers roll the logs into the stream, beginning at the water's 
edge. The loose logs float down to the splash dam where they 
are converged toward the sluiceway by bracket booms. Drivers 
stationed on the latter keep the logs parallel to the current and 
prevent them from jamming when they pass through the sluice. 
Workmen armed with peavies and pike poles- are stationed at 
strategic points along the stream to prevent logs from ])ecoming 
stranded on sand bars, and from forming jams on rocks and in 
narrow places in the channel. 

Jams and stranded logs often can be moved by the use of a 
dog-warp which has two strong hooks attached near the center 
of a rope stretched across the stream. A crew of three or four 
men is stationed on either bank and by catching one or the 
other of the hooks into logs the men are able to pull them in 
either direction. The use of dynamite is resorted to when other 
means fail. 

1 In the Appalachian region, logs frequently are not banked but are scattered 
in the beds of the streams where they await a freshet to carry them dowTi the 
stream. In such cases a crew to break landing is not required. Dependence 
is placed on the current to start the logs. 

2 This is an ash or hickory pole, from 12 to 20 feet long, with a screw pike 
and hook on one end. It is ver\'^ serviceable in controlling logs in water. 
The screw pike when forced into a log has a tenacious grip which enables 
the workman to exert a strong pull without losing his hold on the log. 



416 



LOGGING 



The drive on small streams continues until all of the logs have 
left the banking ground. A crew then starts to "pick rear," 
that is, to collect all the stranded logs along the stream and in 
the sloughs and put them into the water so that they will go out 
with the drive. This w^ork is generally done by men who use 
timber grapples and peavies for carrying and dragging the logs. 




Photograph by D. N. Rogers. 

Fig. 148. — A Headworks used to Tow log Rafts across Small Lakes. The 
winch is operated by hand labor. Maine. 

Horses are employed when available and the conditions are suitable 
for their use. 

When the course of the drive is across a lake it is necessary 
to confine the logs in booms and tow them to the outlet. 

A limber boom called a "trap" or "catch" boom is placed at 
the head of the lake around the mouth of the stream and the 
logs are confined in it until a sufficient number are secured, 
when the shore ends of the boom are closed and the raft towed 
across the lake. The mouth of the stream is either closed tem- 
porarily or a second boom placed in position at once. Where 
the distance is short and the amount of timber to be moved is 
limited, it is "kedged" or "warped" by "headworks" of the 
type shown in Fig. 148. This has a capstan, holding from 300 
to 400 feet of rope, which is mounted on a raft, and the latter 
attached to the forward part of the boom. A heavy anchor 
fastened to the free end of the rope is carried forward in a boat 
and dropped in the path of the raft. The capstan is then re- 



FLOATING AND RAFTING 417 

volved either by man or horse power. When the raft reaches 
the anchor, the latter is lifted and again carried forward. A 
headworks of this character cannot be used to advantage against 
a head wind. 

Large numbers of logs usually are handled by a "steam or 
gasoline warping tug" or "alligator," which is a flat-bottomed, 
steel-shod scow on which is mounted a pair of 20 or 30 horse- 
power engines and a large capstan or windlass. The boats are 
propelled either by screws or side wheels and are sometimes con- 
structed so that they may be drawn overland on skids under their 
own power. Both indirect and direct towing methods are used. In 
indirect towing a cable is fastened to some convenient tree on shore 
or an anchor is thrown out several hundred feet in advance of the 
raft and the tug then run back and attached to the raft which 
is advanced by winding up the cable on the capstan. This method 
requires about one-third less fuel than the direct method and 
can be used when head winds are blowing. As a rule, towing must 
cease when there are strong adverse winds. Night work often 
is done because the water usually is more quiet then. 

Transport on small streams, as a rule, is more expensive per 
thousand board feet per mile than on large ones, because of the 
limited amount of timber handled, the rough character of the 
channel, and the greater number of improvements per mile which 
are required. 

Individual drives on small streams are in charge of a foreman 
who often is the woods superintendent, or the boss of the log- 
ging camp at which the timber was cut. One or more sub- 
foremen aid him in the conduct of the work. 

The Drive on Large Streams.^ — The driving problems on por- 
tions of the route are often similar to those on small streams, 
but in general the difficulties incident to the transport of logs 
are not so great The channel is wider, with longer stretches of 
smooth water, and the greater volume of timber annually passing 
downstream makes it practicable to install more improvements 
than is profitable on small streams. Fewer men are required in 
proportion to the amount of timber handled and the distance 
covered, and under normal circumstances the expense per thou- 
sand board feet for labor is less. A large part of the driving 
work on the average stream is the prevention of jams at curves, 
^ See page 402. 



418 LOGGING 

on sand bars, at rocky narrows and similar places, and "picking 
rear" after the main drive has passed. On many large streams 
the banks for a portion of the distance may be low, so that logs 
can float out of the channel into sloughs or over land inun- 
dated during flood tune, and the drivers must keep their booms 
in good condition to prevent this and to keep the logs 
moving. 

Crews are divided into squads, under sub-foremen, and are 
stationed at danger points along the stream. These crews must 
do much of their work from bateaux or by standing on logs, 
because of the width of the banks. In place of "alligators" and 
"headworks" powerful side wheel, end wheel or screw tugs are 
employed for the transport of large quantities of logs across 
lakes, or down streams where it is necessary to confine the logs 
in booms. 

When the head of the drive reaches the first assorting gap, a 
crew of men begins assorting and this continues during the 
summer and fall until the logs are all assorted, the water fails, 
or ice closes the river. If no ill luck has attended the drive the 
last logs are usually down by October first. 

The drive on the upper Connecticut river originating on the 
Wild Ammonoosuc in New Hampshire and extending to Bellows 
Falls (17 miles on the Ammonoosuc and 93 miles on the Connect- 
icut river) begins about the first of April and lasts from twenty- 
three days to six months. The average tune is about six weeks. 
One hundred men are required on the Ammonoosuc and about 
sixty on the Connecticut river. 

On the Penobscot river in Maine, the average length of drive 
is approxunately 150 miles and the longest drive which originates 
on either the North or South branch of the West Branch is 
about 240 miles. The average quantity of material annually 
driven down the West Branch is 130,000,000 board feet, about 
three-fourths of which goes to Millinocket, and the remainder to 
Bangor and vicinity. The drive begins about April 20th and 
the last logs reach the booms above Bangor about October 
first. Approximately 2500 men are employed for the first six 
weeks and after the logs reach the main stream the force is cut 
to about 200 men, exclusive of those occupied at the assorting 
gaps. 



FLOATING AND RAFTING 



419 



RAFTING OX STREAMS 

Rafting is a common method of handling logs on large streams 
and lakes and is practiced in all parts of the United States. The 
motive power is usually end-wheeled or side-wheeled steamers on 
small bodies of water, and screw-propelled tugs on large bodies of 
water. Rafts are now seldom drifted with the current. The 
advantages of rafting are : 

(1) It prevents loose logs from scattering and becoming 







Fig. 149. — A Mississippi River Log Raft, Showing the Method of Control 
by End-wheeled Steamers. 



entangled in bushes along the banks, and from ])eing stranded on 
flats submerged at high water. 

(2) It enables the water transport of non-buoyant species 
which can be held up by fastening them to logs which float. 

(3) Extensive booms are not required at destination to catch 
the logs as they come down. 

(4) It insures prompt delivery on lakes and other waters 
where there is no current to carry the logs along. 

(5) The Federal Rivers and Harbors Act of March 3, 1899, 
declares "that it shall be unlawful to float loose timber or logs 
in streams actually navigated by steamboats in such manner as 
to obstruct, impede, or endanger navigation." 



420 * LOGGING 

There are a variety of forms in which rafts are built, depending 
upon the character of the water on which they are to be towed, 
the kind of thnber rafted and on the Federal regulations^ gov- 
erning rafting. 

Bag or Sack Booms. — These are used on the Great Lakes and 
on large rivers" They have a single or double row of boom 
sticks surrounding the impounded logs. For lake work short 
boom sticks of large size are preferable because loose logs are 
less apt to slip under them than they are under the long ones. 




Fig. 150. — Method of fastening Rafting Poles to Logs by means 
of Iron 



On the Great Lakes double booms with connecting chains made 
of Ij-inch iron are considered superior to single booms, especially 
for rough water. A type of boom which is serviceable for im- 
pounding logs for towing in bad weather is made from white 
pine logs 24 inches or more in diameter and from 16 to 24 feet 
in length. The boom sticks are bored 18 inches from the ends 
for 1|- or Ij- inch chains and are blocked across the top 
and bottom, in front of the chain holes, with hardwood strips 
to prevent the chains from cutting into the boom sticks. The 
chains should not be longer than is necessary to permit the ends 
of the boom sticks being coupled 24 inches apart. Two sets 
of boom sticks are placed around each raft so that it will not go 
to pieces if one set of chains is broken. During the period when 
the exportation of logs was permitted by the Provincial Govern- 
ments of Canada, large quantities of white pine were rafted to this 
country and manufactured at points along the Great Lakes. The 
season for towing was from June 1 to October 15. The rafts 
contained from 2,000,000 to 6,000,000 board feet each, and were 
handled by powerful tugs. The transport of logs from Canada 

^ The Federal government specifies the form, size and character of rafts that 
may traverse certain navigable waters and harbors. 




FLOATING AND RAFTING 421 

to the United States practically ceased in 1898 when an em- 
bargo was placed on the export of logs from Crown lands. 

Rafts Fastened with Poles. — The common form of raft on the 
Ohio River and on some southern streams is one in which the 
logs are made up into raft sections. The logs in each section 
are attached to each other by poles placed across the logs and 
fastened to them by means of rafting dogs. The sections are 
fastened together by cables. 

On the Ohio River poplar and other logs are rafted in lengths 
of from 20 to 60 feet. The longer logs are preferred because 
of the greater ease in rafting and also because the laws of ad- 
joining states allow a fee of 25 
cents per stick without regard to 
length, to all parties who catch and 
hold logs for rafting. On the 
upper reaches of the Big Sandy 
River floating logs are caught and 

about sixty sticks are made into a , , 

e, u' u • J- • Ui J. J. 1 Fig. 151. — Method of Attach- 

raft which is from eight to twelve . ^ ,,■ ti i ^ t u 
1 -J AC OCA X ,nn r . ing Rafting Poles to Logs, by 

logs Wide and from 250 to 400 feet means of Wooden Pins, 
long. The logs are bound together 

with small poles 20 feet long which are placed at intervals of 
from 10 to 12 feet. Rafts are equipped with long sweeps at 
each end to assist in guiding them, and each one is floated 
down to the mouth of the stream in charge of two men. The 
owner makes from twelve to sixteen rafts, containing from 
700 to 900 sticks, into a fleet and takes it down-stream to the 
mills under the control of a tug. An occasional fleet contain- 
ing 2000 logs is handled which is regarded as the maximum 
size practicable. 

A modification of this form of raft is occasionally used for 
handling yellow pine in the South. The rafts are made up in sec- 
tions one log long held together by poles which are attached to 
the logs by wooden plugs driven into holes bored through the 
poles and into the timbers. Several sections are then made 
into a raft and floated downstream to the mill under the guid- 
ance of raftmen who steer with long sweeps or oars. 

On some of the streams in the Northeast assorted logs are made 
into rafts and towed to the mills. The St. John's River Log 
Driving Company of Fredericton, New Brunswick, makes up its 



422 



LOGGING 



rafts in the following way. The logs after being assorted are 
run into pockets according to ownership. About thirty logs 
are fastened together at one end with a "rattling line" which is 
a cable on which are strung the necessary number of ring dogs. 
This "joint," as it is called, is then floated out of the pocket and 
down the "rattling run" to the "bottom makers" who place 
two boom poles across the raft, and bore holes through the boom 




Photograph hij li. B. Milhr. 

Fig. 152. — Loading the Bottom of a Raft with Logs by means of a Parbuckle. 
A bracket boom is shown on the left. New Brunswick. 



poles and logs which are then fastened together with hardwood 
pins. The rattling lines are then removed and the bottom passes 
down to a loading machine where a top load of logs is placed upon 
it. The joints are then scaled and floated downstream where 
from five to seven of them are fastened together by short pieces 
of poles, called brackets, and hardwood pins and then towed to 
the mill by tugs. 

For many years rafts on the Mississippi and some other rivers 
in the Lake States were made into "brails" or sections. The 
logs were fastened together with poles in a manner similar to the 
Ohio River method, except that rope and rafting pins were used 
instead of chain dogs. Two-inch holes were bored in the log on 
either side of the pole and the ends of a short section of rope 
placed in these holes and firmly held by hardwood rafting pins 



FLOATING AND RAFTING 



423 



driven in behind them. This was an expensive method because 
of the large amount of rope required, and it has now been super- 
seded by an improved method pat- 
ented by an employee of one of the 
boom companies. 

The brails as now made have a 
set of boom sticks forming a rec- 
tangular pocket which is filled with 
loose logs. The boom sticks are Fig 
held together by a 3-link chain 10 
inches long (Fig. 154) through the 
outer links of which the pin (Fig. 
1546) is passed and then driven into 
2-inch holes bored in each boom 
made of oak and turned to a 




153. — Method of fasten- 
ing Rafting Poles to Logs by 
means of Wooden Rafting 
Pins. A method formerly 
used on the Mississippi River. 

stick. These pins are 
minimum diameter of 2 inches 




Fig. 154. — Details of a Mississippi River Log Raft. a. The method of 
fastening the boom sticks together, and bracing them with cables, b. A 
rafting pin such as in inserted in the outer links of the chain d. c. The 
free end of the cable which is used to strengthen the raft. d. 3-Iink chain 
through the outer links of which the rafting pins are driven. 



and a length of 11 inches. The top end has a swell 2\ inches 
in diameter, with a slightly smaller swell in .the center. The 
head is large enough to prevent the chain link from slipping 
over it and the swell in the center binds on the wood and holds 
the plug fast. A cable is passed through the center links around 



424 



LOGGING 



the entire brail and further strengthens it. The brail is braced 
crosswise with cables as shown in Fig. 154a. Several links of 
chain are fastened to the outside boom sticks by means of a rafting 
pin. On the opposite side one end of a special cable, Fig. 154c, 
is fastened to the boom stick by a pin and the other end carried 
over to the chain, which is passed through a flattened link and 
caught. This gives rigidity to the raft. 

The chains and cables can be used repeatedly and hence are 
cheaper than rope, which can be used but once. Rafts of this 




«'^i *v. ', 



■"^"^f^^ 




Fig. 155. — A Cypress Raft in a Louisiana Bayou. The floating vegetation 
on the extreme right is the water-hyacinth. 

character are made in sections, some of them 300 by 750 feet 
in size, and containing from 850,000 to 4,000,000 board feet of 
timber. They are controlled by two end-wheeled boats, one 
at the rear which serves to regulate the speed, and one at the 
front end which is floated side on and which guides the raft 
by pulling it backward or forward across the stream. 

Cypress Rafts. — Cypress logs, which are skidded with pull- 
boats, are rafted down the canals and bayous. A common 
form of raft has cigar-shaped sections from 150 to 200 feet long, 
each containing from twenty to thirty logs which are floated 
loose within the boom sticks. Sinkers are placed between 
floating logs and fastened to them by poles and chain dogs. 
Old skidding cable is often used to bind the boom sticks to- 
gether. A 2-inch hole is bored in the log, and the end of the 



FLOATING AND RAFTING 425 

cable inserted and made fast by a wooden plug driven in be- 
hind it. The sections are fastened together by rope, and made 
into a long raft which is towed to the mill by small tugs. Navi- 
gation is seriously hampered and sometimes stopped by the 



Fig. 156. — Raft Bundles at the Mill Pond. North Carolina. 

congestion of the watercourses by the water hyacinth and mills 
have been forced to shut down on account of the lack of logs, 
due to the closing of the waterways by this plant. 

Raft Bundles. — In the Coastal Plain region logs are sometimes 
made into bundles each containing two car loads of logs, from 20 



426 LOGGING 

to 30 pieces, which are bound together firmly with chains. The 
maximum tow for the larger tugs used on this work is from thirty 
to forty bundles. From 30 to 40 per cent of the tunber cannot 
be floated and the object of this method of transportation is to 
make the buoyant carry the non-buoyant logs. Bundles frequently 
have to be made over because of an excess of heavy logs which 
causes them to sink. The bundles are constructed at a log dump 
built over some tidal stream. A cradle of two heavy cables is 
used to bundle the logs. One end of the cable is fastened to the 
railroad trestle, and then passed down under the water and up to 
a winch located in the second story of the log dump. The cables 
thus make a large loop into which the logs are unloaded. Two 
binding chains are sunk into the water alongside each cable, one 
end being temporarily attached to the unloading dock and the 
other end to a small rope which is placed outside of the cradle. 
When the logs have been placed in the latter, the bundle is made 
compact by tightening up the cradle cables, and the binding 
chains are then brought around the bundle, tied and made fast 
by heavy iron dogs. 

Pacific Coast Rafting. — Logs in the Pacific Coast region are 
often rafted down the large streams, or towed along Puget Sound 
to the mills. Two forms of rafts are employed for this work. 
When logs are to be floated downstream without the aid of a 
tug, they are made up into "round" booms which are a group 
of loose logs surrounded by several boom sticks. The raft may 
be allowed to drift with the current or controlled by tugs, and may 
or may not be in charge of a raftsman, depending on the character 
of the stream, and the tides. 

Logs that are to be towed to destination are rafted at a "harbor 
boom," which has a large storage pocket and a rafting pocket. 
The logs are brought to the harbor boom by rail and dumped 
into the storage pockets which are areas inclosed by boom sticks 
held in place by piling. The rafting pockets are narrow lanes 
about 75 feet wide and from 800 to 1000 feet long inclosed by 
boom sticks, held in place by piling placed at approxunately 
70-foot intervals. The logs may or may not be assorted for quality 
and species. Rafting on tide water can be carried on only dur- 
ing a favorable tide. 

The rafters first string boom sticks across the far end and on 
both sides of thr ]wcket. Logs of approximately equal lengths 



FLOATING .VXD RAFTING 427 

are then poled down the run and stowed parallel to each other 
in the first section of boom sticks. Each row is known as a 
"tier," and two tiers usually constitute a section about 75 feet 
square. As soon as two tiers have been stowed, boom sticks 
called "swifters" are placed across the end of the section at right 
angles to the tiers, and attached to those on the outer side»of 
the raft unit. New sections are then made up in the same manner, 
from twelve to fourteen constituting the usual tow. Two rafters 
can make up about six sections or from 260,000 to 300,000 board 
feet during a tide. 

When the rafting is done in rivers where there is a strong 
current a slightly different procedure is followed. The rafters 
start at the near end of the rafting pocket and hang out three or 
four sections of boom sticks. The logs are then run into the rafting 
pocket and guided with a pike pole to their place in the "tier." 
Difficulty is sometimes experienced in turning logs end on in a 
swift current, if they get crosswise of the rafting pocket. In case 
piling is not used to confine the rafts, each section is kept from 
spreading until completed by the use of a rope or cable also 
called a "swifter" which is fastened to the outside boom sticks. 
When the sections are completed the "swifters" are removed. 



The first attempt at rafting logs for transport on the high seas 
was made about 1884 when a large raft was constructed in 
Nova Scotia, launched from shore and started toward New York 
in charge of a tug. This raft was lost because the tug left it 
to go into port for coal and on return to the high seas was unable 
to again locate it. After a long period it washed ashore on the 
Norwegian Coast. The same builder later went to Coos Bay, 
Oregon, where he built two rafts for transport to San Francisco, 
one of which reached its destination safely. In the construction 
of the latter rafts the use of cradles or floating frames was first 
adopted. 

In 1894, raft building began on the Columbia river, where it 
has reached its highest development. Several rafts now leave 
annually for San Diego, California, with no losses during recent 
years. The rafts known as the Benson type, arc^ })uilt cigar- 
shaped and from 700 to 1000 feet long, with a depth at the center 



428 LOGGING 

of from 30 to 35 feet and a breadth of from 50 to 60 feet. The 
taper extends 100 feet from each end. 

Ocean-going rafts are built in a cradle or frame which is moored 
to piling in deep water. One side of the cradle is detachable 
and when the raft is completed it is launched by dropping this 
side and allowing the raft to slide side wise into the water. A 
700-foot cradle requires 200,000 board feet of timber in its construc- 
tion and with minor repairs it can be used for an indefinite period 
provided the water is sufficiently fresh to prevent toredo attacks. 
A derrick hoisting engine, mounted on a scow, is necessary for 
stowing logs in the cradle. A crew of five or six raftsmen is 
required. 

The logs are floated out to the cradle and, beginning at either 
end of the latter, the longest and most pliable sticks are used 
for the outer layers. These sticks should be at least 60 feet 
long and are placed with their butts toward the center of the 
raft. This gives a taper to the body of the raft and as the logs 
gradually work outward the binding chains are drawn tighter. 
The interior may be filled with any length logs, provided the 
joints are broken. 

After the raft has been built up to a height of 20 feet, a 21- 
inch tow chain is laid from stem to stern with 50 feet projecting 
on either end to which the towing cable is attached. "Herring 
bone" chains, made from If-inch iron, are then attached to 
the main tow chain on the tapering ends of the raft, then run 
diagonally across the raft toward either end, and fastened to the 
binder chains. This prevents the latter from slipping on the 
conical portion of the raft, distributes the pull of the tow chain 
over a large portion of the stern, and also gives a limited amount 
of slack in the center which is essential to permit the raft to bend 
slightly with the action of the waves. 

When the raft is completed, binder chains made from If-inch 
iron are placed entirely around it at 12-foot intervals and are 
tightened V)y the hoisting engine. A 700-foot raft containing 
from 4,000,000 to 5,000,000 board feet requires about 115 tons of 
chain, 1 A 30-foot raft draws from 20 to 22 feet of water. 

^ A brief description of a similar ocean-going raft constructed at Bonne 
Bay, Newfoundland, in 1917 may be found in American Lumberman, January 
25, 1919, p. 35. This raft was built on a plank foundation on a sloping beach 
and at high tide was i)iished out into deeper water as the work progressed. 



FLOATINC AND RAFTING 429 

The safe towing periods arc from June 15 to September 15 
and, under favorable conditions, the trip can be made in from 
eighteen to twenty days. 

A different type of ocean-going raft was developed some years 
ago in British Columbia which does not require the use of a cradle 
such as is used in building the Benson rafts. ^ They are preferred 
for use where rafts are built in salt water because marine borers 





Fig. 157. — General Form of the Davis Patent Log Raft. 

attack cradle timbers and necessitate frequent and costly repairs. 

A bottom tier of logs is first formed by enclosing an area 70 
feet wide and 150 feet long with boom sticks which are bound 
together with cables. A swifter is also placed crosswise of the 
side boom sticks at each end in order to keep the raft rectangular 
in shape. A bottom tier of logs is then placed in position between 
the swifters and bound together with 1^-inch cables or with 
chains. 

Several tiers of logs are then placed on the floor and a chain 
passed around them and fastened to the outside boom sticks. A 
top load is then placed on the raft and bound together with cables 
1 See Fig. 157 



430 LOGGING 

or chains. Cables are then passed over the top of the raft and 
the cable ends made fast to the side boom sticks. Logs from 32 
to 70 feet are most suitable for this form of raft. Joints should 
be broken in stowing the logs in order to make the raft rigid. A 
raft 70 by 150 feet in size will carry about 750,000 board feet 
of timber, 

LOG BARGES 

Barges are used for the transportation of hardwood logs on 
some portions of the lower Mississippi river, the logs being 
brought to the banks of the stream and loaded by power derricks, 
mounted on barges or by derricks on the barge itself. One of the 
better types of barge suitable for log transportation is about 
100 feet long with an open hatch on each end about 36 feet 
in length. Two steam derricks are mounted on the center 
of the barge, a boom projecting over each hold. Such a barge, 
carrying from 90,000 to 100,000 board feet of logs can be loaded 
in from twenty-four to thirty working hours by a crew of five 
men, two working in the hold, one operating a derrick, and two 
on shore. Barge transportation is desirable on streams where 
suitable rafting facilities are not available, when logs are to be 
moved upstream, and with species that are too heavy to float. Al- 
though introduced in the Lake States, this method never gained 
favor in the transport of logs from Canada to the United States, be- 
cause of the limited capacity of the boats, and the ease and safety 
with which logs could be rafted. 

SUNKEN LOGS 

Many streams, on which driving has been carried on for years, 
have accumulated large numbers of small, heavy butted and 
sappy logs in their channels. In the Lake States streams which 
contain large quantities of sunken timber, the "deadheads" 
average about twenty pieces per thousand board feet. 

Many efforts have been made to salvage sunken timber, es- 
pecially in this region, and although log-raising companies have 
been formed and have operated to a limited extent, the industry 
has never assumed large proportions. The obstacles in the 
way of successful operation have been numerous. According 
to a decision^ of the Supreme Court of Michigan the title to 
1 See page 411. 



FLOATING AND RAFTING 431 

sunken logs remains with the original owners. Where several 
hundred marks and brands have been used on a stream, it is 
ahnost hopeless for a company to attempt to secure title to all 
the logs raised because many of the owners of given brands 
and marks are deceased or have left the region. In addition 
the log raiser must reckon with riparian owners which is a further 
drawback to the work.^ 

There have been numerous methods used in raising logs, 
some of which have been patented. On shallow streams and 
on lakes the practice once existed of raising the logs by various 
means, towing them to the bank where they were stored until 
they dried out, and then rolling them in the water to float to 
the mill. This method was not entirely successful because many 
logs again sank, even though they had been stored on the bank 
for a period of two years. 

When the distance from the point of operation is short, floats 
made of logs are built and a windlass mounted on them. The 
float is poled over the sunken logs and the latter raised by means 
of tongs which are attached to a manila rope wound on the wind- 
lass. The raised logs are dogged to the float and poled or towed 
to the mill or some convenient storage point. 

A hoisting engine with suitable booms and grapples, mounted 
on a flat boat, has also been used. The logs were either rafted 
and kept afloat by steel tubular buoys 32 feet long by 18 inches 
in diameter which were scattered throughout the raft, or else 
loaded on scows and towed to the mill or to some convenient 
storage point. Occasionally deadheads are attached to rafts of 

1 A law became effective in Wisconsin on June 1, 1921, which provides 
that deadheads, and sunken, or stranded logs outside of the limits of existing 
booms, which have remained for more than six years in navigaVjle waters 
where more than one corporation or individual has floated logs, and in which 
no booming company has actually operated, are declared "abandoned" 
and may be salvaged by anyone. Those who salvage logs must pubhsh 
notice of their intention previous to beginning work. On or before the seventh 
day of each month during the progress of salvaging, records of the number of 
logs salvaged, and marks on the logs must be filed with the lumber inspector. 
Those claiming ownership in the salvaged logs, after proper identification, 
and within thirty days, may recover logs, by paying a reasonable compensation 
to the salvager. All logs on which no claims are filed become the property 
of the operator. This law does not apply to certain streams forming the 
boundary line between Michigan and Wisconsin, nor to certain other streams 
or portions of streams specified in the law. 



432 LOGGING 

floating timber and thus buoyed up until they reach the 
mill. 

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE TO CHAPTER XXH 

A Digest of the Laws Relating to Logging which have been Enacted in the 
Different States. Polk's Lumber Directory, 1904-05. R. L. Polk and 
Co., Chicago, pp. 96-150E. 

Anonymous: Davis Ocean-going Log Raft. West Coast Lumberman, 
Dec. 15, 1917, pp. 28 and 29. 

Barrows, H. K. and Babb, C. C: Log Driving and Lumbering Water 
Resources of the Penobscot River, Maine. Water Supply Paper 279, U. 
S. Geological Survey, Washington, 1912, pp. 211-220. 

Bridges, J. B.: Definition of the Law Governing the Use of Driving 
Streams. The Timberman, August, 1910, pp. 64F and 64G. 

Bridges, J. B.: Laws Governing the Use of Streams for Logging Pur- 
poses (Pacific Coast). The Timberman, August, 1909, pp. 49-51. 

Fastabend, John A.: Ocean Log Rafting. The Timberman, August, 
1909, pp. 38-39. 



CHAPTER XXIII 
FLUMES AND LOG SLUICES 

Log and lumber flumes, and log sluices are built to transport 
lumber, crossties, shingle bolts, acid wood, cordwood, pulp- 
wood, mine timbers and saw logs from the forest to mills, rail- 
roads or driveable streams, and to carry products from the 
mill to market, or to rail transport. They are used to some 
extent in nearly every forest region, but are especially serviceable 
where stream transportation is not available and when the 
topography is so rough that railroad construction is costly. 

They have several advantages over logging railroads in a 
rough region: (1) they can be carried over inequalities in the 
ground, or across gulches on fairly light trestles; (2) they can 
be operated on steeper grades; (3) they occupy less space than 
a railroad and hence require smaller cuts and tunnels and can 
often be located in narrow canyons where there is not sufficient 
space for a railroad. 

The disadvantages are: (1) the transport of crooked and 
long logs is difficult and costly; (2) the light construction ren- 
ders them more subject than railroads to damage by windstorms, 
fires, floods, falling timber and other natural agencies, although 
they can be repaired more cheaply; (3) they usually off"er no 
means of transporting supplies from the railroad to the saw mill 
or forest; however, in some instances the edges of the flume box 
are used as a track over which railroad speeders are run, thus 
affording comnumication between the two ends of the flume; 
(4) the transport of lumber roughens the surface of planed ma- 
terial and also batters the ends of the boards which have to be 
trimmed after leaving the water so that planing mill work must 
be done at some point below the lower terminal of the flume. 

TYPE OF BOX 

There are two types of flume and sluice boxes. One is V- 
shaped and may have a " backbone "^ which makes a box 6 or 
1 A triangular strip fastened in the vertex of the flume box. 
433 



434 LOGGING 

8 inches wide at the base, with outwardly sloping sides. The 
other is known as the box flume. 

The choice of type and size of box depends on the character 
and size of material to be transported, the amount of water 
available, and the ultunate use of the water itself. In some 
instances when water from flumes is used for irrigation pur- 
poses, the box is of larger size than is required for the sole pur- 
pose of transporting forest products. 

Lumber and log flumes rest on skids on the ground or are 
elevated on trestles. They sometimes pass through tunnels or 
cuts although these are avoided whenever possible because of 
the increased cost of construction. 

V-box. — This type of box is commonly used for lumber, 
crossties, small dimension stock, small round mine timbers, 
pulpwood,^ and, when built of large size, for saw logs.- With 
a backbone it requires less water than any other type. 

A box with a vertex angle of 90 degrees is the best because 
it has a slightly less length of side than greater or lesser angles, 
it allows the movement of logs with greater crook, it gives more 
clearance to the log than a box with a greater angle, and is more 
economical to construct because the joints at the apex can be 
fitted more easily. 

An objection sometimes raised to the use of a V-box for the 
transport of shingle bolts and other short material is that when 
the individual pieces are uneven in size and weight they do not 
all travel at the same speed, therefore, they are apt to double on 
low grades and on curves. 

^ A pulpwood flume operated in the Adirondack Mountains of Northern New 
York was 36 inches across the top and 36 inches deep. It was supported on a 
trestle which in places was 100 feet high. The flume was 2| miles long, had a 
capacity of sixty cords of 18-inch pulpwood per hour, and the bolts traversed 
the distance in 7^ minutes, dropping into a stream down which they were 
dri\en to a pulp mill. 

2 A 5-mile log flume was constructed in Idaho with an average grade of 11 
per cent, a maximum grade of 15 per cent, and a maximum curvature of 20 
degrees. The box was supported on trestles 16 feet apart with 4- by 8-inch 
sills, posts, and caps and 2- by 6-inch braces; 5- by 10-inch stringers with 
2- by 6-inch lateral braces and round pole supports in the center of each bent; 
4- by 6-inch bracket sills spaced from 2 to 4 feet apart depending on the 
weight carried and the strength required at loading points, and 3- by 6-inch 
braces. The box was made from 2-inch rough lumber with the cracks bat- 
tened with l\- by 1-inch strips. See The Timberman, August, 1912, pp. 
42-44. 



FLUMES AiND LOG SLUICES 



435 




436 LOGGING 

The box of a V-flume for lumber and crossties has sides ranging 
from 15 to 18 inches high and is from 30 to 36 inches wide at 
the top (Fig. 158 A and B), while those for floating large logs 
may have a top width of 60 or more inches. The backbone when 
added is made from a 6- by 6-inch or 8- by 8-inch timber sawed 
diagonally. The side boards of the box are 1 inch in thickness 
for sides up to 30 inches in height, 1| inches if from 30 to 36 
inches high, and 2 inches if from 36 to 48 inches high. The 
cracks are battened with 1- by 4-inch or 1- by 6-inch strips. 
The boards range in width from 8 to 14 inches, but are usually 
from 12 to 14 inches. The lengths are commonly 16 and 24 feet. 

Box Flumes. — These are used for lumber and dimension 
stock (Fig. 158C), shingle bolts, pulpwood, and logs.^ They are 
more expensive to construct than a V-flume because the greater 
weight of water carried necessitates a heavier trestle and the box 
is more difficult to fashion. Where the water supply is abundant, 
boxes of this character are sometimes used for lumber transport. 
A box flume^ in California transports 300,000 board feet daily. 
From five to six boards are clamped together into a unit which 
is floated singly on the steeper grades toward the head of the 
flume.^ On the low grades near the lower terminus from twenty- 
five to thirty units are "dogged" together with manila rope 
and floated to destination. 

For shingle bolts, acid wood, and cord wood a box with a 
10-inch bottom, 20-inch sides, and 24 inches across the top is 
sometimes used. In Northern New York a flume of this size 
handled 60 cords of spruce pulpwood per hour. As a rule, how- 
ever, they are larger with a base of approximately 20 inches, 
sides from 16 to 20 inches high, and a width across the top of 

1 See note, page 450. 

2 This flume was started in 1891 by the Fresno Flume and Irrigation Com- 
pany for irrigation purposes, connecting the sawmill at Shaver with the 
planing mill and shipping depot at Clovis. Near the head, the flume box 
is rectangular and has sides 12 inches high and a width of 48 inches. On 
the steep mountain pitches the sides are 32 inches high, and on the lower end 
48 inches high. The maximum grades are 4^ per cent and the minimum 
grade on the flats 0.5 per cent. 

^ The clamp, which is patented, is a bar of 5-inch half-round iron, with a 
1-inch flat face having recurved points at each end. The boards are made 
into piles with the ends flush with each other, a clamp is slipped over the end, 
and a wedge driven between two boards near the center of the unit. This 
drives the points into the outer boards and binds the whole load together. 



FLUMES AXD LOG SLUICES 



437 



from 30 to 32 inches. The boxes are supported on trestle work 
similar to that used for the V-fluine, although the construction is 
stronger. 

The boxes of log sluices (Fig. 1,58E) are of larger size than those 
for lumber flumes and carry more water. They are used chiefly 
to supplement stream driving by transporting logs through rocky 




Fig. 1.59. — A V-flume for traii.spcjrtiug Mining StulLs. Montana. 

gorges where an excessive amount of water would otherwise be 
required or where boulders prevent the improvement of the 
stream for loose driving, and for transporting logs over stretches 
of streams whose banks are so low that the flood waters scatter 
the logs over the lowlands. They are also used in connection 
with log haul-ups to tranport logs from one watershed to another, 
and, in some cases, to transport logs directly from the forest 
to the mill. They have been used frequently in the Lake States 
and occasionally in the Northeast. 



438 LOGGING 

On account of the large amount of water they must carry to 
float logs and because of the wear-and-tear they receive, the 
boxes are made of strong material supported on cribwork which 
is kept as near the ground as is feasible. 

Sluice boxes are sometimes made with two thicknesses of 2-inch 
plank, the inner set being surfaced and tongued and grooved to 
insure a tight joint, while the outer planks break joints with 
the inner and make a tight box. A sluice of this character built 
in the Lake States for white pine was 36 inches wide at the base, 
108 inches wide across the top, and 60 inches high. The water 
in the sluice was controlled by half-moon gates (Fig. 136), located 
at the mouth of storage reservoirs. 

TRESTLES 

Trestles may be built of round timber or of 2- by 6-inch or 
4- by 8-inch sawed material. Flumes used for transporting sawed 
products usually have a trestle made from square-edged material, 
because it can be secured at the mill and transported to the place 
of construction in the completed portion of the flume. Where 
logs, pulpwood, acid wood, and other rough material are trans- 
ported from the forest to the manufacturing plant, round timber 
from 8 to 12 inches in diameter is often used for trestle construc- 
tion for it usually can be secured in the vicinity, although some 
prefer to erect a portable sawmill at the head of the flume and 
manufacture lumber for its construction. 

Caps for round timber trestles are made either from small 
timbers hewed on opposite faces to the desired thickness or from 
sawed material. Stringers are usually made from sawed timber. 
The braces for round timber trestles are made from small poles. 

Caps for square-edged timber trestles are made from 2- by 6-, 
4- by 4-, or 4- by 6-inch material, and stringers from 4- by 4-, 4- 
by 6-, or 6- by 6-inch timbers, the choice depending on the size 
of the box, the distance between trestle bents, and the amount of 
water carried. 

Braces for the box are placed along the stringers at 2-, 4-, or 
8-foot intervals, depending on the length of the span, the form of 
the box,^ and the strength required at special points, such as 

1 A V-box with a backbone for fluming lumber requires bracing only at 
8-foot intervals, while a box flume should have braces every 4 feet on a 24- 
foot span. Loading points on log flumes are often braced at 2-foot intervals. 



FLUMES AND LOG SLUICES 



439 




440 



LOGGING 



loading stations. They may be made from 2- by 4-inch joists or 
from soHd 4-inch blocks (Fig. 158A and B). 

A practical type of trestle^ for a lumber flmne under 75 feet 




Fig. 161. — A Five-leg Trestle for Heights Greater than 75 feet. 

in height has two legs made from 2- by 6-inch joists, doubled 
and braced (Fig. 160). For heights greater than 75 feet a 
trestle with five legs is used (Fig. 161). 

1 Designed by F. M. Kettenring, C. E., Vancouver, Washington. 



FLUMES AXD LOG SLUICES 441 

Two 4- by 6-inch stringers rest on the caps which are spiked 
to the trestle. Sohd braces which support the sides of the V-box 
are placed on the stringers at 8-foot intervals. The details of 
the brace and other features of the box are shown in Fig. 158A. 

TERMINALS 

Flume terminals are of several different types. The choice 
is dependent largely on the kind of material handled and its 




Fig. 162. — 'I'lic T,riMm;,l ,,1 ;, I,.- Mum-, n^ ,r ihc Dcerlodge National 
Forest. This type i.s known ;i.s the "elejihant." Montana. 

disposal at destination. Logs, pulpwood, and rough stock are 
often dumped into streams thus obviating the necessity for any 
special form of terminal. 

On the Allen flume^ in the Deerlodge National Forest in 
Montana round mining timbers are transported to a storage 
depot where they are loaded on cars and hauled to destination. 
The flume is about 20 feet high at the dump and the logs are run 
out upon rollers on a platform. These carry the logs to the point 
where they are rolled upon cars. The water from the flume 

' See note, page 452. 



442 LOGGING 

falls upon a watervvheel which drives the rollers when the latter 
are thrown into gear. 

Another type of terminal, known as the "elephant," is shown 
in Fig. 162. The flume forks several times near the terminal 
and forms branches. Logs are diverted into a given branch by 
closing the branches not in use, and the logs are run out to the 
end of the terminal and fall in a rough-and-tumble heap below. 

The type of terminal shown in A, Fig. 163, is often used when 
lumber is dumped on platforms or loading stations. Lumber 
shoots out from the end of the flume and piles up on the platform 
at the base of the terminal. When one side becomes filled the 
shunt board is turned and the lumber diverted to the opposite 
side. 

A form of terminal similar to B, Fig. 163, may be used for 
crossties and heavy timber. The timbers are removed by hand 
from the rollers and piled on the unloading platform or on trucks. 



The practice followed in flume location will depend upon the 
data available to the engineer previous to starting the work. 
If a topographic map of the region is available, possible routes 
usually can be determined from it. When such a map is not in 
the possession of the locator a reconnaissance survey is necessary 
in order that a sketch map may be prepared showing the im- 
portant topographic features, especially with reference to differen- 
tial elevations, and to acquire a knowledge of any special field 
problems which may influence location. 

A preliminary survey is made to enable the engineer to make a 
choice of one of the several possible routes. This work may be 
done satisfactorily with a transit using the needle for direction 
and taking stadia readings for distance and elevation. A topog- 
rapher should accompany the party and make a sketch map of 
the territory for 100 feet or more on each side of the proposed 
line. The records made by the engineer should include, in 
addition to the instrumental data, complete notes on stream cross- 
ings, flume feeders, private holdings crossed and any other data 
that may have a bewaring on the final construction of the flume. 
A map of the route, and a profile of the survey is prepared, follow- 
ing the completion of the preliminary survey. 

The final survey must be made with accuracy, stakes being 



FLUMES AXD LOG SLUICES 



443 




i= s ' ' -S 



•— A~ 


H 


,t ,*=j: 








. 11* t 


II 


Vk^k,, 


^.J<lk 


Ix 


°o \F 



sim 











444 



LOGGING 



set as for a railroad survey and a line of levels established. The 
grade line having been determined from a profile map, it is 
established in the field.^ Center stakes for the bents are es- 
tablished at determined intervals, and following this the grade 
stakes are set for the batter-post mud-sills. The data for the 
base of each trestle bent are calculated for the use of the con- 



ook 

3" Clearance 


::;^ 




Inches of Ci 
2 "Clearance 




: y ^^--^ : .:-^r~.---L; 


1^ : VX^:^-^ 


^"•^^1 ' ' ; 1 ■ ■ 1 -Vtt^t:: 




10 


wffMiriifHJim 

20 30 4( 

Flume Curvat 


50 60 70 80 
ure-Degrees 



Fig. 164. — Graph Showing the Permissible Fhime Curvature in Degrees 
for Logs of Given Lengths and Crook. 

structors, and show the length of the two lower sash braces, the 
distance along the batter posts, and the length each batter post 
must extend below the first sash brace in order that the trestle 
may stand plumb on the mud-sill. The determination of the 
length of each sash brace is important because it governs the 
batter of the posts and if it is not properly calculated the spacing 
between the posts under the cap will vary. 

Careful consideration must be given to curves and the maxi- 
mum degree of curvature required for the longest material that is 
to be handled must be determined. 

The relation of log lengths, both straight and crooked, and the 
permissible degrees of curvature are shown in Fig. 164.2 

1 The grade line of a flume is the cut-off height of the trestle bents, which 
is the base of the caps. 

2 From The Design of Log Flumes, by J. P. Martin, Engineering News, 
Nov. 14, 1912. 



FLUMES AXD LOG SLUICES 445 

Curves at the base of steep grades should be avoided, because 
jams will form which will not only damage the flume but will 
also cause the lumber to leave it. The most desirable grades 
for a straight flume are 3 per cent or more. Grades up to 75 
per cent may be used on short stretches, provided all sharp changes 
in elevation have properly proportioned vertical curves. 

CONSTRUCTIOX 

The general methods of constructing a V-flume may be illus- 
trated by one built in Washington for the daily transport of 40,000 
board feet of lumber and crossties which ranged in length from 8 
to 32 feet. 

The flume had a maximum height of 128 feet, maximum 
curves of 8 degrees, and a 3 per cent grade on the upper part 
and 0.66 per cent on the lower end. Lumber floated at an average 
rate of 3 miles per hour. 

Bents were placed 15.75 feet apart for heights of 65 feet and 
under, and 23.5 feet apart for heights in excess of this. The 
batter posts on all trestles under 75 feet were spaced 4 feet apart 
at the cap, and for heights greater than this 5 feet. The batter 
in all cases was 1 in 4. In the bent construction only three 
sizes of lumber were used, namely, 1- by 6-inch, 2- by 6-inch, 
and 2- by 4-inch, the latter being used for the fore-and-aft brac- 
ing. As a rule only 16- and 24-foot lengths were used, because 
tliis simplified the work, reduced the tune lost in handling, and 
very little lumber was wasted. A ''select common" grade of 
lumber was used. The first 24-foot section of each bent was 
framed on the ground, the foot of each batter post being laid 
on or near the mud-sill on which it was to rest. Bracing was 
made from 1- by 6-inch and 2- by 6-inch material. When ready, 
the bent was hoisted in place, and set on the mud-sills by the aid 
of a block and tackle attached near the top of the nearest bent. 
When in position it was plumbed up and spiked to the mud-sill. 
A scantling 2 by 6 inches by 16 feet was then placed against the 
outside of each post and securely nailed to it with 20-penny 
spikes. Fore-and-aft braces (Fig. 160) were then nailed on until 
the top of the 16-foot post was reached when another 2- by 6- 
inch by 24-foot scantling was set on top of the first post with a 
lap of 16 feet on the inner one. More fore-and-aft braces were 
then placed. The addition of 2- by 6-inch by 24-foot scantlings 



446 LOGGING 

continued, with proper bracing, until the cut-off height was reached. 
On the 15.75-foot span a block and tackle was used on each batter 
post for elevating the material when the height became too great 
for handing it up. On the 23.5-foot span, lines also were hung 
on the rear bent to aid in raising the 24-foot fore-and-aft braces. 

The cut-off point of the bent was established only when sev- 
eral hundred feet of trestle had been built. A wye level was 
then placed on a staging built on top of a bent and the line of 
levels established by it. The 2- by 6-inch caps were elevated 
and placed in position as soon as the posts were cut off. Cross- 
bracing was put on after several hundred feet of trestle was 
erected (Fig. 160). Bents exposed to the wind were also strength- 
ened by wire guys. 

The construction crew was made up of from six to eight men, 
four of whom worked aloft continuously. On low work one man 
handled and sent up all lumber and another was engaged in 
framing the lower sections. 

The lumber was hauled as near as possible to the point where 
it was to be used, and was assorted and piled where it could be 
reached with the least delay. One man built the boxes in 16- 
or 24-foot sections at the upper end of the flume, placed the 
brackets inside each section, and placed it and the 4- by 6-inch 
stringers and the foot planks in the flume ready to float to the 
front. A man walked the flume and kept the material 
moving. 

Two top men at the front placed the stringers and foot planks 
in position, trimmed the boxes, set them in place, adjusted the 
brackets and nailed them to the boxes. A crew of four men 
placed from twenty to twenty-five 16-foot sections in ten hours. 
This did not include an 8-inch top board on the box which was 
not added until the remainder of the flume box was complete. 

The amount of labor required to erect a flume trestle increases 
rapidly with its height and the wages paid to top workers on high 
trestles also increase with the height above ground. Those 
working at elevations of 75 feet or more may receive from 40 to 
60 per cent more than ground workers. 

The number of days' labor, the pounds of nails and the thou- 
sands of })oard feet of lumber required to Imild trestles of specified 
heights and of the types shown in Figs. 160 and 161 are given in 
the Table VIII. The construction of the box and foot-boards re- 



FLUMES AND LOG SLUICES 



447 



quired 68,485 board feet of liiniber and approximately 2800 pounds 
of nails, per mile. 

Table VIII 

AMOUNTS OF LUMBER, NAILS AND DAYS' LABOR REQUIRED 

TO CONSTRUCT LUMBER FLUME TRESTLES OF 

VARIOUS HEIGHTSi 





Height in feet 




10 


15 


20 


25 


.30 


35 


40 


45 


Lumber, board feet. . 

Nails, pounds 

Labor days 


50 
1.0 
0.10 


60 
1.75 
0.10 


75 
2.0 
0.10 


125 

3.75 

0.20 


200 
5.0 
0.40 


350 

7.0 
0.50 


500 
9.5 
0.60 


600 
10.5 
0.70 






Height in feet 




SO 


55 


60 


65 


70 


75 


80 


Lumber, board feet... 

Nails, pounds 

Labor, days . 


750 
12.0 
1.00 


1000 
17.0 
1.30 


1300 
20.5 
1.60 


1500 
25.0 
1.90 


1750 
31.0 
2.30 


2000 
35.0 
2.70 


2150 
40.5 
3 10 








Height in feet 




85 


90 


95 


100 


105 


110 


115 


Lumber, board feet... 
Nails, pounds 


2350 
47.0 
3.90 


2550 
51.0 

4.8 


2750 

57.0 

5.5 


3000 
61.5 
6 25 


3250 
76.0 
7 on 


3450 
90.0 
7 7n 


3S50 
112 


Labor, days 


Q (V\ 





















' See Figs. 160 and 161. 

The size and estimated quantity of lumber and the number of 
pounds of nails required to build a "V" flume of the type shown 
in Fig. 158D are given in Table IX. The trestle timbers are 
for an average height of 7 feet. 



OPERATIOX 



The amount of water required for a flume depends on the size 
of the box, the grade and the amount of leakage. On steep 
grades a flume requires less water than on low grades because 



448 



LOGGING 







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ir mile 
lieces 

0,560 

5,280 
0,560 




5,840 
7,920 

0,160 
2,500 
2,660 








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FLUMES AND LOG SLUICES 



449 



the flume box becomes a wet slide and the logs run freely with 
very little water. The age of the flume and the care with which 
it is maintained largely determine the amount of leakage: Forest 
Service officials found that on the Allen flume in Montana which 




Photofjraph 

Fig. 165. — A Log Flume entering a Tunnel by means of which it crosses 
the Continental Divide. The flume runner is holding back some of the 
mining timbers so that they will not jam in the tunnel. The grade here 
does not exceed 0.5 per cent. Montana. 



carries from 5 to 12 second feet of water the leakage averaged 
0.3 second feet per mile. They estimate that the average leak- 
age in a flume in good condition carrying from 5 to 10 second 
feet of water will approximate 0.45 second feet per mile. 

Water for flume operation is admitted from ponds or branch 
flumes at the head and also at numerous points along the route 



450 LOGGING 

by feeders, or troughs which are run from the main stream or 
some of its branches. If the water supply is hmited, every effort 
is made to keep the flume box tight to prevent waste. This is 
not so essential, however, when water can be turned in at fre- 
quent intervals. 

The products are placed in the flume boxes by various means. 
Sawed lumber and crossties are usually shunted into the flume 
from an incline at the tail of the mill. Pulpwood and acid wood 
are frequently rolled or thrown into the box from skidways or 
floated in from ponds; while logs may be rolled in from skidways, 
floated in from artificial storage ponds, or elevated by log loaders. 
The use of ponds is the simplest and cheapest method, while 
the use of a log loader is the more expensive. 

Flumes are operated by crews that feed the flume; by runners 
who are stationed at points along the route where jams are apt 
to occur; and by laborers who handle the product at the ter- 
minal. The runners usually carry a pick-a-roon to handle the 
floating material. The size of crew required depends entirely 
on the character of the flume, those with many curves and low 
grades requiring the most runners. 

On the Allen flume in Montana, which is about 16 miles long, 
thirty flume tenders were required for handling about 3500 mining 
stulls and logs daily. Four men fed the flume and twenty-sLx 
men patroled it, the greater number being required where the 
flume crossed the Continental Divide on a very low grade. 

On the American Gulch flume in the same section five men 
were required on a flume about one mile long the daily run on 
which averaged from 800 to 1100 mining stulls. Two men fed 
the flume and three men acted as patrols. 

A box log-flume in Oregon, 3| miles long, has handled an aver- 
age of 150,000 board feet daily, ten men being required to oper- 
ate it.^ 

NOTES TO CHAPTER XXIII 

Page 436. A l:)ox flume 3| miles long for the transportation of logs has been 
used in Oregon. The problem confronting the operator was to transport timber 
out of a rolling plateau region down to a mill several miles distant. Owing to 
the rough character of the country the cost of railroad construction was prohibi- 
tive. The engineering problems encountered were not easy to solve because the 
water supply during the lowest stages did not exceed 100 miners' inches and ex- 

1 See note on page 450. 



FLUMES AND LOG SLUICES 451 

traordinary efforts had to be made to conserve it. Some canyons from which 
timber was to be transported had no available water in them and it was 
necessary to build the flume from one watershed to another to get the timber out. 

The preliminary work consisted of a surve}^ of the whole route and a very 
careful determination of the levels. The construction work was begun at the 
mill and curried forward each year as required to secure the requisite amount 
of timber. The first section of the flume was built nearly on a dead level, 
but as the work progressed a grade of 1 inch in 100 feet was given. 

The natural gradient greatly exceeded that given to the flume and it was 
necessary to build the latter in three units, each ending in a V-shaped chute 
which led from the flume to a pond at a lower elevation. These ponds were 
about 75 by 100 feet in size and were located at points where the natural con- 
ditions favored their construction. They not only served as storage reser- 
voirs for water and points for the change in grade of the flume but also as 
places for logs to enter the flume. 

The grade line was kept as near the ground as possible in order to avoid 
expensive trestle work and cuts. However, some cuts could not be avoided 
and trestles had to be built when the flume crossed canyons or other depres- 
sions. 

The flume box was constructed of 2- by 12-inch planks and was 6 feet wide 
and 4 feet deep, except on sharp curves where it was wider. The normal 
depth of the water was 3§ feet. Trestles were built of sawed timbers and braces 
of the same sized timbers were placed along the box at 3-foot intervals. A 
running board extended along one side of the box for the use of flume tenders. 
Lumber for building the flume was cut in a portable mill which was kept as 
near the actual construction point as was practicable. This reduced the charge 
for transport of flume material. Each flume unit was provided with three 
lift gates suspended from the center of a beam which was supported by two 
upright posts placed on either side of the flume. One gate was used for the 
control of the water and the other two for emergency purposes. Should an 
accident happen to the gate in use, or a log become jammed in it, one or both of 
the others could be closed and a waste of water prevented. The gates 
were opened bj^ lifting them with a lever until they cleared a 2-uich cleat 
nailed across the bottom of the flume when the force of the water raised 
them to a horizontal position. They were then supported by 2- by 4-inch 
joists, which were placed across the flume. 

In the spring of the year an abundance of water was available and a slight 
current was created in the flume by keeping open a smaU extra gate. During 
this season the logs were floated loose and only an occasional man was needed 
to keep them moving and to prevent jams. In the summer and fall the water 
was at a low stage and the logs were dogged together in strings of from 50 to 
75 (10,000 to 15,000 board feet) and were towed along the flume by a man who 
traveled the running board. The opening of the large gates also created an 
artificial current which assisted in keeping the logs moving. The tow was 
kept as near the gate as possible and when the latter was opened the logs were 
rushed through to get the maximum benefit from the accumulated head. 

The flume was built at a cost of $3,000 per mile and it was estimated that 
with minor repairs, it would last for fifteen years. 



452 LOGGING 

A SO-inch log, or two 30-inch logs, side by side, could be floated in the flume, 
except at the gates. The logs ran three to the thousand board feet, and the 
average daily capacity of the flume was 150,000 board feet. Twenty-four 
million board feet have been handled in seven and one-half months. 

Page 441. The Allen flume had a 34-inch V-shaped box, the angle at the 
vertex being 63 degrees. The box was made of six boards 16 feet long, five 
of which were 2h by 11 inches, and the sixth 2| by 12 inches. The cracks 
were battened by 1- by 4-inch strips. A 6- by 6- by 6-inch backbone was 
fitted into the vertex. The box was supported on trestle work, composed 
of 4- by 4-inch uprights, braced diagonally with two 2- by 4-inch timbers, 
on top of which was a 4- by 4-incli cap. The trestles ranged in height from 
2 feet to 72 feet, the longest one being 775 feet. The flume box was braced 
by 2- by 4-inch timbers placed against the sides of the box and supported 
by other timbers of the same size. These timbers rested on the caps. 

Water was supplied both from a reservoir at the head, and by numerous 
flume feeders placed along the route which was about 15 miles in length. 

The grade varied from 0.5 per cent to 12.5 per cent. 

There were twenty rock cuts from 8 to 20 feet in depth and one tunnel 
685 feet long. 

The flume had a capacity of 3500 logs daily, an average of 116,000 board 
feet. 

The fluming season was about five and one-half months. 

Page 450. The American Gulch flume, approximately 1 mile in length, in 
the Deerlodge National Forest in Montana, had a 30-inch V-box which was 
chiefly supported on stringers laid on the ground. Very few trestles were 
constructed. The flume could handle mining stulls 15 inches in diameter 
and from 14 to 16 feet long. Thirty-three thousand board feet of lumber 
and 2755 pounds of nails were used in the construction of the box. Seven 
men built a mile of flume in twenty days. 

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE TO CHAPTER XXIII 

Martin, J. P.: The Design of Log Flumes. Engineering News, Nov. 14, 

1912, pp. 908-913. 
Robertson, J. E. : The Log Flume as a Means of Transporting Logs. 

The Timberman, August, 1909, pp. 45-46. 
Starbird, W. D.: Flumes. The Timberman, August, 1912, pp. 42-44. 
Steel, Francis R.: Lumber Flumes. Bulletm of the Harvard Forest 

Club, Vol. I, 1911. 



APPENDIX 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 
AERIAL TRAMS 

Anonymous: A Newly Patented Aerial Logging Railway. Western Lum- 
berman, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, December, 1912, pp. 40-41. 
Anonymous: Heavy Duty Cable Tramway. The Timberman, Sept., 1914, 

pp. 31 and 32 B. 
FoRSTER, G. R.: Das forstliche Transportwesen, Wien, 1888, pp. 242-250. 
FujiOKA, M.: Notes on Aerial Wire Tramway. Tokyo, Japan, 1915. 
Gayer, Karl: Forest Utilization. (Schlich's Manual of Forestry, 2nd. 

edit., pp. 346-352; translated from the German by W. R. Fisher.) 

Bradbury, Agnew and Company Ltd., London, 1908. 
Jones, T. P.: Experience with a Cable Tramroad. The Timberman, Oct., 

1913, pp. 29 to 32. 
Nestos, R. R.: Aerial Snubbing Device. The Timberman, Portland, 

Oregon, April, 1912, p. 49. 
Newby, F. E.: Handling Logs on Steep Ground with a Gravity Cable 

System. The Timberman, August, 1910, pp. 31-32. 
Riley, F. C: The Opsal Aerial System. The Timberman, Sept., 1914, 

pp. 33 and 34. 
Rogers, C. G.: Note on the Setikhola Wire Ropeway. Indian Forester, 

Feb. 1902, Vol. XXVIII, No. 2, pp. 69-73. 
Steinbeis, Ferdinand: Die Holzbringung im bayerischen Hochgebirge 

unter den heutigen wirtschaftlichen Verhaltnissen, Munchen, 1897, 

pp. 31-39. 
Wettich, Hans: Moderne Transportanlagen im Dienste der Holzgewinnung 

und Holzindustrie. Centralblatt fiir das gesamte Forstwesen, Oct., 1912, 

pp. 451 to 460. 

ANIMALS 

Allen, E. W.: The Feeding of Farm Animals. Farmers' Bui. No. 22, 

U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, 1901. 
Dalrymple, Dr. W. H.: Economic Feeding of Work Animals used in 

Logging Operations. Lumber Trade Journal, Nov. 1, 1914. 
Dalrymple, Dr. W. H.: Feeding Work Horses and Mules. Lumber 

Trade Journal, July 1, 1914. 
Engineer Field M.\nual, Parts I-VII. Professional Papers No. 29, 

Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army. Fifth (revised) edition, Washington, 

1917, pp. 453-500. 
Langworthy, C. F.: Principles of Horse Feeding. Farmers' Bui., No. 

170, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, 1903. 
455 



456 APPENDIX 



GENERAL 



Braniff, Edward A.: Scientific Management and the Lumber Business. 
Forestry Quarterly, Vol. X, No. 1, pp. 9-14. 

Bryant, R. C: Lumber: Its Manufacture and Distribution. John Wiley 
& Sons, Inc., New York, 1922. 

Bureau of the Census, Dept. of Commerce : Lumber, Lath, and Shingles 
Fourteenth Census of the United States, Forest Products, 1919. Wash- 
ington, 1922. 

Cary, Austin: Influence of Lumbering upon Forestry. Proceedings of 
the Society of American Foresters, Vol. Ill, No. 1, Washington, D. C. 
1908, pp. 66-81. 

Gary, Austin: A Manual for Northern Woodsmen. Published by Har- 
vard University, Cambridge, Mass., 1918. 

Defebaugh, J. E.: History of the Lumber Industry of America. The 
American Lumberman, Chicago, Illinois, Vol. II, 1907. 

Forest Service, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture: Timber Depletion, Lum- 
ber Prices, Lumber Exports and Concentration of Timber Ownership. 
Report on Senate Resolution 311. Washington, 1920. 

Gayer, Karl: Forest Utilization (Vol. V of Schhch's Manual of Forestry; 
trans, from the German by W. R. Fisher, second edition). London, 
Bradbury, Agnew & Co. Ltd , 1908. 

Hall, William L., and Maxwell, Hu: Uses of Commercial Woods of the 
United States: I. Cedars, Cypresses and Sequoias, Bui. 95; II. Pines, 
Bui. 99, U. S. Forest Service, Washington, D. C, 1911. 

Hedgecock, George Grant: Studies upon some Chromogenic Fungi 
which Discolor Woods. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, Seven- 
teenth Annual Report 1906, pp. 59-114. 

Hopkins, A. D.: Pinhole Injury to Girdled Cypress in the South Atlantic 
and Gulf States. Cir. 82, U. S. Bur. of Entomology. Washington, 1907. 

Hopkins, A D.: Waste and Reduction of Timber Supplies Caused by 
Insects, and Methods of Prevention and Control. Report National 
Conservation Committee, Senate Doc. 676, Vol. II, 1909, pp. 469-497. 

Kinney. J. P. : Essentials of American Timber Law. John Wiley and Sons, 
Inc., New York, 1917. 

Lumber, Lath and Shingles, 1910, U. S. Bureau of the Census, Wash- 
ington, 1912. 

Morrell, F. W.: Factors Influencing Logging and Lumbering Costs in 
Colorado National Forests. Forest Club Annual, University of Ne- 
braska, Lincoln, 1911, Vol. Ill, p. 7. 

Schenck, C. a.: Logging, Lumbering or Forest LTtilization. Darmstadt, 
Germany, 1912. 

Sessoms, H. W.: Systematic Logging Camp Records. The Timberman, 
Portland, Oregon, July, 1911, pp. 33-36. 

The American Lumber Industry. Official Report Tenth Annual Meet- 
ing National Lumlier Manufacturers' Association, Chicago, 1912. 

The Lumber Industry. Part I, Standing Timber, Report of the Bureau 
of Corporations, Department of Commerce and Labor, Washington, 1913. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 457 

Van Orsdel, John P.: Proper Type of Transportation in Logging. The 

Timberman, March 1923, pp. 42 and 43. 
Von Schrenck, Hermann: The ''Bluing" and "Red Rot" of the Western 

Yellow Pine, with Special Reference to the Black Hills Forest Reserve. 

Bui. No. 36, U. S. Bur. of Plant Industry, Washington, 1903. 

LABOR 

Industrial Accident Commission, California: Logging and Sawmill 
Safety Orders, effective March 15, 1917. The Timberman, February, 
1917, pp. 48 T to 48 X. 

Industrial Insurance Department, State of Washington: First 
Annual Report for the twelve months ending September 30, 1912. 
Olympia. 

Pratt, C. S.: Washington Workmen's Compensation Act is Successful in 
its Operation. The Timberman, August, 1912, pp. 74-77. 

Sparks, J. W. and Forest, E. H. T.: The Lumbermen's Safety First-First 
Aid Manual. Pub. for Industrial Dept., International Y. M. C. A., Asso- 
ciation Press, New York. 

State Safety Board of Washington: Safety Standards for Logging. 
The Timberman, April, 1920, pp. 45-48. 

U. S. Dept. of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: Industrial Survey in 
Selected Industries in the United States, 1919, Bui. No. 265. Washing- 
ton, May, 1920, pp. 348-356. 

U. S. Dept. of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: Wages and Hours 
of Labor in the Lumber, Millwork and Furniture Industries, 1915. 
Bui. No. 225. Washington, 1918. 

U. S. Dept. of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: Workmen's Com- 
pensation Laws of the United States and Foreign Countries, Bui. No. 
126, Washington, December, 1913. 

U. S. Dept. of Labor, Bureau of L.-^.bor Statistics: Workmen's Com- 
pensation Legislation of the United States and Canada, Bui. No. 272, 
Washington, 1921. 

U. S. Dept. of Labor: Description of Occupations, Logging Camps and 
Sawmills. Washington, 1918. 



LOGGING CAMPS 

Bein, F. L. : Refrigerating System for the Cook House. The Timberman, 
April, 1920 and Oct., 1920. 

Commission of Immigration and Housing of California: Advisory 
Pamphlet on Camp Sanitation and Housing. San Francisco, 1914. 

Gibbons, W. H.: Logging in the Douglas Fir Region. U. S. Dept. of Agri- 
culture, Bui. No. 711. Washington, 1918, pp. 11 and 12. 

Lipscomb, Dr. W. N.: Logging Camp Sanitation. The Timberman, Nov., 
1917, pp. 64G to 641. 

RuEGNiTZ, W. C. : Eliminating Waste in the Boarding House. The Timber- 
man, Sept. and Nov., 1917. 



458 APPENDIX 

RuEGNiTZ, W. C: standard System of Management of Mess Houses. 
Nov., 1921, pp. 34 to 38. 

Spruce Production Division, Bureau of Aircraft Production: Con- 
struction of Camp Kitchens and Mes.s Halls. The Timberman, Sept., 
1918, p. 33. 

Tharaldsen, Thorfinn: Investigation of Feeding Operations. The Tim- 
berman, Oct., 1918, pp. 65 to 67. 

Wastell, a. B. : A Logging Camp on Wheels. The Timberman, August, 
1910, pp. 50-51. 

LOGGING METHODS IN SPECIFIC REGIONS 
Appalachians. 

Ashe, W. W. : Cost of Cutting Large and Small Timber. Southern Lum- 
berman, December 16, 1916, p. 91. 

Boisen, a. T., and Newlin, J. A.: The Commercial Hickories. Bui. 80, 
U. S. Forest Service, Washington, 1910, pp. 10-13. 

Chittenden, Alfred K.: The Red Gum. Bui. No. 58, U. S. Bur. of For- 
estry, Washington, 1905, pp. 17-22. 

Foley, John: Conservative Lumbering at Sewanee, Tennessee. Bui. No. 
39, U. S. Bur. of Forestry, Washington, 1903. 

Zon, Raphael: Management of Second-Growth in the Southern Ap- 
palachians. Cir. 118, U. S. For. Ser., Washmgton, 1907, pp. 8-15. 

Coastal Plain. 

Shields, R. W.: Logging in the Dismal Swamp. The Penn. State Farmer, 
Forestry Annual, Vol. IV, No. 1, May, 1911, p. 22-24. 

Lake States. 

Pamel, a. G. : Logging in Wisconsin. Forest Club Annual, 1909, Univer- 
sity of Nebraska, Lincoln, pp. 66-70. 

Northeast. 

Anonymous: Camp Operations in Northern Ontario. Canada Lumber- 
man and Woodworker, September, 1911, pp. 66-70. 

Anonymous: Lumbering in New Hampshire. Biennial Report of the 
Forestry Commission, State of New Hampshire, for the years 1903-1904, 
Concord, 1904, pp. 98-102. 

Brown, Simmons: Mechanical Log Haulers and their Development. Re- 
port of Third Annual Conference of the Woods Dept., Berlin Mills Co. 
et al, Berlin, New Hampshire, Nov., 1915. 

Gary, Austin: Practical Forestry on a Spruce Tract in Maine. Cir. 131, 
U. S. For. Ser., Washington, 1907, p. 8. 

Chittenden, Alfred K.: Forest Conditions of Northern New Hampshire. 
Bui. No. 55, U. S. Bur. of For., Washington, 1905, pp. 76-79. 

Dana, S. T.: Paper Birch in the Northeast. Cir. 163, U. S. For. Ser., 
Washington, 1909, pp. 23-27. 

Fox, William F. : A History of the Lumber Industry of the State of New 
York. Bui. 34, U. S. Bureau of Forestry, Washington, 1902, p. 59. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 459 

Fkothingham, Earl H.: Second-growth Hardwoods in Connecticut. 

Bui. 96, U. S. For. Ser., Washington, 1912, pp. 20-23. 
Hawley, R. C, and Hawes, A. F.: Forestry m New England. John 

Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1912. pp. 235-243. 
HosMER, Ralph S., and Bruce, Eugene S.: A Forest Working Plan for 

Township 40. Bui. No. 30, U. S. Div. of For., Washington, 1901, pp. 

42-63. 
Inistes, J. S.: Tractor Haulage. Canada Lumberman and Woodworker, 

July 15, 1922. 
SissoN, Stanley H.: Use of Tractors in Winter Log-hauling. Empire 

State Forest Products Association, Bui. No. 12. Albany, New York, 

Dec, 1921. 
Weigle, W. G., and Frothingham, E. H.: The Aspens; Their Growth and 

Management. Bui. 93, U. S. For. Ser., Washmgton, 1911, p. 10. 
Williams, Asa S. : The Mechanical Traction of Sleds. Forestry Quarterly, 

Vol. VI, pp. 354-362. 

Southern Yellow Pine. 

Chapman, C. S. : A Working Plan for Forest Lands in Berkeley County, 
South CaroUna. Bui. No. 56, U. S. Bur. of For., Washington, 1905, 
pp. 29-30. 

Chapman, H. H.: An Experiment in Logging Longleaf Pine. Forestry 
Quarterly, Vol. VII, pp. 385-395. 

Foster, J. H.: Forest Conditions in Louisiana. Bui. 114, U. S. For. Ser., 
Washington, 1912, pp. 28-31. 

Reed, Franklin W.: A Working Plan for Forest Lands in Central Ala- 
bama. Bui. No. 68, U. S. For. Ser., Washington, 1905, pp. 30-33. 

Southwest. 

Woolsey, Jr.,. T. S.: Western Yellow Pine in Arizona and New Mexico. 
Bui. 101, U. S. For. Ser., Washington, 1911, p. 43. 

West. 

Allen, E. T.: The Western Hemlock. Bui. No. 33, U. S. Bur. of For., 
1902, pp. 28-30. 

Berry, Swift: Notes on the Management of Redwood Lands. Proceed- 
ings of the Society of American Foresters, Vol. VI, No. 1, Washington, 
1911, pp. 104-107. 

Brigham, E. J.: Tractor Logging. The Timberman, Oct., 1920, pp. 86-87. 

Bruce, Donald: The Relative Cost of Making Logs from Small and Large 
Timber. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Experiment Station, Uni- 
versity of California, Bui. 339, Berkeley, Cal., 1922. 

Cooper, Albert W.: Sugar Pine and Western Yellow Pine in California. 
Bui. No. 69, U. S. For. Ser., Washington, 1906, pp. 30-34. 

Drissen, J. P.: Time Study of Motor Truck Logging of Yellow Pine. 
The Timberman, August, 1921, p. 97. 

EcKBO, Nels B.: Logging in the Redwoods. Forestry Quarterly, Vol. 
VII, No. 2, pp. 139-142. 



460 APPENDIX 

GiRARD, James W.: Inland Empire Sawing and Skidding Studies. The 
Timberman, Sept., 1920, pp. 36 to 38. 

GiRARD, James W.: Tractor and Horse Skidding in the Inland Empire. 
The Timberman, Nov., 1922. 

Grainger, M. A.: Woodsmen of the West. E. Arnold, London, 1908. 

Greenamyre, H. H.: Lumbering in Colorado. Forest Club Annual, 
1909, University of Nebra.ska, Lincoln, pp. 43-G(). 

Hallett, W. E. S.: Lumbering Cottonwood in Nebraska. Forest Club 
.\nnual, 1909, Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, pp. 35-38. 

Hoffman, Bruce: The Sitka Spruce of Alaska. Proceedings of the So- 
ciety of American Foresters, Vol. VII, No. 2, pp. 232-235. 

Klobucher, Frank J. : Tractor Skidding in the Inland Empire. The Tim- 
berman, July, 1922. 

Knapp, F M.: Motor Truck Logging Methods. Univ. of Washington, 
Engineering Experiment Station, Bull. No. 12, Seattle, 1921. 

Margolin, Louis: The Hand Loggers of British Columbia. Forestry 
Quarterly, Vol. IX, No 4, pp. 562-567. 

Mason, Fred R.: Study of Daily Production of Big Wlieels. The Timber- 
man, April, 1921, p. 39. 

Meiklejohn, E. H.: Truck Logging. The Timberman, Oct., 1920, pp. 
85-86. 

Murray, L. T.: Railroad Construction vs. Donke}' Hauls. The Timber- 
man, Nov., 1921, pp. 60-61. 

Peed, W. W.: Methods Employed and the Costs Incident to Logging 
Redwood. The Timberman, August, 1909, pp. 28-29. 

PoLLEYS, E. G.: a Northern Idaho Lumbering Operation. The Forest 
Club Annual, 1910, Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, pp. 104-111. 

Ross, Kenneth: Logging by Rail in Montana. The Timberman, August, 
1912, p. 47. 

Spenser, F. F.: Modern Sugar and Yellow Pine Operations in California. 
The Timberman, August, 1912, pp. 70-73. 

Van Orsdel, John P.: Plans for Motor Truck Logging. The Timber- 
man, July, 1921, p. 97. 

West Virginia. 

Farquhar, Henry H. : Cost of Mountain Logging in West Virgmia. For- 
estry Quarterly, Vol. VII, pp. 255-269. 
RoTHKUGEL, Max: Management of Spruce and Hemlock Lands in West 
Virginia. Forestry Quarterly, Vol. VI, pp. 40-46. 

LOGGING RAILROADS 
Construction and maintenance. 

Amburn, W. W.: Standardized Timber Bridge for Logging Railroads. 

The Timberman, Fel:)ruary, 1919. 
Amburn, W. W.: Three-purpose Pile Driver. The Timberman, Aug., 

1920, p. 48A. 
Amburn, W. W.: The Value of Drainage. The Timberman, Sept., 1920, 
p. 60. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 461 

Amburn, W. W.: Location and Construction of Branch Lines. The 
Timberman, Oct., 1920, pp. 58-59. 

Anonymous: The Use of Explosives in Blowing Stumps. The Timber- 
man, Dec, 1921, p. 128. 

Byrkit, G. M.: Machme for Picking up Railroad Track. The Timber- 
man, Portland, Oregon, August, 1912, p. 48. 

Byrne, Austin T.: Highway Construction. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 
New York, 1901. 

Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army: Military Railways. Professional 
Papers, No. 32, Washington, 1917. 

Cowling, H. G.: Standard Frame Trestles for Logging Railroad. The 
Timberman, July, 1921, p. 34. 

Crosby, Lloyd R. : Construction of Logging Railroad Tunnels. The Tim- 
berman, March, 1923, pp. 34-35. 

Davis, Minot: Steam Shovel in Logging Railroad Construction. The Tim- 
berman, Nov., 1921, pp. 66-67. 

Engineers' Hand Book: Useful Information for Practical Men. Com- 
piled for E. I. duPont deNemours Powder Company, Wilmington, Dela- 
ware, 1908. 

Fish, J. L. C: Earthwork Haul and Overhaul. John Wiley and Sons, 
Inc., New York, 1913. 

Gillette, H. P.: Handbook of Rock Excavation. McGraw Hill Book 
Co., New York, 1916. 

Gillette, H. P.: Earthwork and its Cost. McGraw-Hill Book Co., 
New York, 1912. 

Gillette, H. P.: Hand Book of Cost Data. Myron C. Clark Pub. Co., 
Chicago, 1910. 

Johnson, J. B.: Theory and Practi.se of Surveying. John Wiley and 
Sons, Inc., New York, 1901. 

Kindelan, J. : The Trackman's Helper. Clark Book Co., New York, 1900. 

Kline, C. W. : Logging Railroad Maintenance. The Timberman, March. 
1923. 

Lamb, Frank H.: Steam Shovel in Logging Railroad Construction. The 
Timberman, Oct., 1920. 

Martin, C. S.: Steam Shovel in Logging Road Construction. The Tim 
berman, Dec, 1919, pp. 65-66. 

NoRBY, J. E.: The Norby Track-laying and Lifting Machine. The Tim 
berman, Oct., 1919, p. 41. 

O'Neil, W. J.: Logging Railroad Bridges. The Timberman, May, 1921, 
pp. 93-94. 

Pope, C. R.: Constructing a High Pile Bridge. The Timberman, Feb., 
1915. 

Powers, Fred W.: Preventing Track Creeping on Grades. The Timber- 
man, Oct., 1919. 

Somerville, S. S.: Building Logging Railroads with a Pile-driver. The 
Timberman, August, 1909, pp. 37-38. 

Stamm, Samuel A. : A Unique Logging Railroad Bridge. The Timberman. 
July, 1916. 



462 APPENDIX 

Stewart, D. E.: Combination Crane and Shovel in Road Work. The 
Timberman, May, 1920, p. 37. 

Inclines. 

Clark, A. W.: Overcoming Grades too Steep for Geared Locomotives. 
The Timberman, Portland, Oregon, August, 1909, p. 33. 

Jackson, Thos. B.: Log Lowering Systems in the Inland Empire. The 
Timberman, July, 1923, pp. 36-37. 

MacLafferty, T. H.: Handling Logging Trains on Excessive Grades. 
The Timberman, July, 1911, p. 44. 

Potter, E. O.: Utilization of the Cable Locomotive. The Timberman, 
August, 1909, p. 34. 

Wentworth, G. K.: Lowering Logs on a 3200-foot Incline. The Timber- 
man, August, 1909, p. 34. 

Williams, Asa S. : Logging by Steam. Forestry Quarterly, Vol. VI, pp. 
19-21. 

Loading and unloading log cars. 

Anonymous: Swinging "Gill-poke" Unloader. The Timberman, Port- 
land, Oregon, Oct., 1909, p. 23. 

EvBNSON, O. J.: An Improved Log-loading System. The Timberman, 
August, 1912, p. 52. 

Gibbons, W. H.: Logging in the Douglas Fir Region. U. S. Dept. of 
Agriculture, Bui. 711. Washington, 1918, pp. 229-238. 

O'Gorman, J. S.: Unloading Log Cars with a Stationary Rig. The Tim- 
berman, August, 1909, p. 48. 

O'Hearne, James: Tilting Log Dumps. The Timberman, August, 1912, 
pp. 68-69. 

Van Orsdel, John T.: Cableway Loading System. The Timberman, 
July, 1911, p. 46. 



Ellis, L. R.: Necessity for an Accurate Topographic Map in Logging 

Operations. Timberman, July, 1911, pp. 49-53. 
Henry, H. P.: Advantages of Topographic Surveys and Logging Plans. 

The Timberman, August, 1912, pp. 65-67. 
Peed, W. W.: Necessity for the Logging Engineer in Modern Logging 

Operations. The Timberman, August, 1910, pp. 47-49. 
Rankin, R. L.: Practical Topographical Surveys for Building Logging 

Roads. The Timberman, March, 1912, p. 27. 
Van Orsdel, John P.: Topographic Survey and its Economic value in 

Logging Operations. The Timberman, August, 1910, p. 64. 
Van Orsdel, John P.: How to Obtain the Highest Practical Efficiency in 

Woods Operations. The Timberman, Sept., 1910, pp. 48-51. 
Wood, A. B. : Accunite Topographic Map is a Good Investment in Log- 
ging Operations. The Timberman, August, 1912, p. 67. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 463 

Motive power and rolling stock. 

Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army: Military Railways. Professional 

Papers, No. 32, Washington, 1917. 
Earle, Robert T.: Adaptability of the Gyp.s\- Locomotive for Logging 

Purposes. The Timberman, August, 1910, pp. 34-35. 
Evans, W. P. : The Mallet Locomotive in the Field of Logging Operations. 

The Tunberman, August, 1910, pp. 61-64. 
Harp, C. A.: The Gasoline Locomotive and its Availability for Logging 

Roads. The Timberman, August, 1910, pp. 57-58. 
Ives, J. F.: Utilization of Compressed Air on Logging Trucks. The 

Timberman, August, 1910, p. 60. 
Ives, J. F. : Fuel Oil as a Substitute for Wood and Coal in Logging. The 

Timberman, August, 1909, p. 39. 
Russell, C. W. : Utihzation of Air on Logging Trucks. The Timberman, 

August, 1910, p. 58. 
Tate, M. K.: Locomotive Maintenance. American Lumberman, Julv 

15, 1922. 
Turney, Harry: Adjustable Air-brake Equipment for the Control of 

Detached Trucks. The Timberman, August, 1912, p. 54. 

POWER LOGGING 

Barton, W. L. : The Barton Skyline Logging System. The Timberman, 
Oct. 1921, p. 44, and Nov., 1921, pp. 59-60. 

Berry, E. J.: Advantages Accruing to the Adoption of Electricity in 
Logging. The Timberman, August, 1912, pp. 32-33. 

Bourns, R. T.: Lawson Overhead Yarding and Loading System. The 
Timberman, Oct., 1920, pp. 55-58. 

Cole, C. O. : Difficulties Confronting Electric Log Haulage. The Timber- 
man, August, 1912, pp. 36-37. 

Dickinson, M. H.: Single Main Cable Logging. The Timberman, Nov. 
1921, p. 96C. 

Forest Service, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture: High-lead Logging in Cali- 
fornia Pine. The Timberman, Jan., 1922, pp. 38-39. 

Frink, Francis G. : Washington High-lead. The Timberman, Sept., 1915. 

Gaskill, E. a.: Power Logging Equipment and Methods. American 
Lumberman, May 7, 1921, pp. 73-74. 

Grammer, E. S.: Evolution of the Logging Donkey. The Timberman, 
Nov., 1921, pp. 57-58. 

Gray, R. E.: Electricity in the Lumber and Logging Industries. The 
Timberman, Oct., 1920, pp. 63-64. 

Gr.\y, R. E.: Progress in Electric Logging. The Timberman, Nov., 1921, 
pp. 62-64. 

HiNE, Thomas W.: Utility of the Duplex Logging Engine and the Duple.x 
System of Yarding. The Timberman, August, 1910, pp. 36-37. 

Kalb, Henry A. : Utilization of Compressed Air for Snubbing Logs. The 
Timberman, August, 1912, p. 53. 



464 APPENDIX 

McGiFFERT, J. R. : Development of Cableway Skidder. American Lum- 
berman, Oct. 22, 1921, p. 56. 

Mereen, J. D.: Substitution of Electricit}' for Steam in Modern Logging 
Operations. The Timberman, August, 1912, pp. 29-30. 

Murray, L. T. : Changes in Tj'pes of Donkey Engines. The Timberman, 
Nov. 1922, pp. 50-52. 

Powers, F. W. : Utilizing One Spar Tree for Two Skylines. The Timber- 
man, Nov., 1921, p. 34. 

Stimson, Chas. W.: Adoption of the Lidgerwood Skidder System (cable- 
way) in Logging Fir Timber. The Timberman, August, 1909, pp. 
5&-57. 

Taylor, W. S. : Different Stages in the Evolution of Overhead System of 
Logging. The Timberman, Jan., 1914, pp. 30-31. 

Thompson, Jas. R. : Use of Electricity on Logging Operations. The Tim- 
berman, August, 1910, p. 64L. 

ViNNEDGE, R. W.: A Composite Flying Machine. The Timberman, Oct., 
1913, pp. 33-36. 

ViNNEDGE, R. W.: Overhead Logging Systems. The Timberman, Nov., 
1922, pp. 45 to 49. 

Williams, A.sa S.: Logging by Steam. Forestry Quarterly, Vol. VI, No. 
1, pp. 1-33. 

Wirkkala, Oscar: The Wirkkala Slack Line System. The Timberman, 
Nov., 1921, pp. 58-59. 

SLIDES 

Fankhauser, Dr.: Rieswege in dem Ostalpen. Schweizerische Zeitschrift 
fur Forstwesen, March and April, 1906, pp. 69-77 and 113-122. 

Forster, G. R.: Das Forsthche Transportwesen. Verlag von Moritz 
Perles, Wien, 1888, pp. 45-68. 

Gayer, Karl: Forest Utilization (Schlich's Manual of Forestry, Vol. V; 
trans, by W. R. Fisher). Bradbury, Agnew and Company, Ltd., Lon- 
don, 1908, pp. 316-322. 

Ktxbelka, August: Der Riesweg als Holzbringungsanstalt des Hochge- 
birges. Centralblatt fiir das gesamte Forstwesen. Wien, Aug.-Sept., 
1903, pp. 325-377. 

Schonwiese, Heinrich: Die Wegrie.sen im Reichforste Cadino. Central- 
blatt fur das gesamte Forstwesen, Aug.-Sept., 1903, pp. 377-387. 

Stoddard, E. I.: Chute Logging in Eastern Oregon. The Timberman, 
July, 1920, p. 35. 

Von Almburg, Dr. F. Angerholzer: Beitrag zur Kenntnis der dynamischen 
Vorgange beim Abriesen des Holzes in Holzriesen. Centralljlatt fur das 
gesamte Forstwesen, April, 1911, pp. 161-179. 

STANDING TIMBER IN THE UNITED STATES 

Bradfield, Wesley: Standing Timber in Wood Lots. Report of the 
National Conservation Commission, Senate Document No. 676, 60th 
Congress, 2nd Se.ssion, Vol. II, 1909, pp. 181-187. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 465 

Forest Service, U. S. Dept. of AcnacuLTURE: Timber Depletion, Lum- 
ber Prices, Lumber Exports and Concentration of Timber Ownership. 
Report on Senate Resolution 311. Washington, 1920. 

HoMAN.s, G. M.: Standing Timber in Posses.sion of the Federal Govern- 
ment. Report of the National Conservation Commission, Sen. Doc. 
No. 676, Vol. II, 1909, pp. 192-195. 

Kellogg, R. S. : Original Forests. Report of National Conservation Com- 
mission, Sen. Doc. 676, 60th Congress, Vol II, 1909, pp. 179-180. 

Peters, J. Girvin: Standing Timber OwTied by the States. Report 
National Conservation Commission, Senate Document 676, Vol. II, 1909, 
p. 191. 

Smith, Herbert Knox: Stand of Timber. Report of National Conservation 
Commission, Sen. Doc. 676, Vol. II, 1909, pp. 188-190. 

The Lumber Industry: Part I, Standing Timber. Bureau of Corpor- 
ations, Dept. of Commerce and Labor, 1913. 

ZoN, Raphael and Sparhawk, W. N.: Forest Resources of the World. 
McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York, 1923. 



WASTE IN LOGGING 

Bryant, R. C: The Close Utilization of Timber. Bui. 2, Part 2, Yale 

Forest School, New Haven, Conn., 1913. 
Gary, Austin: Practical Forestry on a Spruce Tract in Maine. Cir. 131, 

U. S. For. Service, pp. 5-6. 
Clapp, Earle H.: Conservative Logging. Report of the National Con- 
servation Commission, Senate Document No. 676, 60th Congress, 2nd 

.session, 1909, pp. 512-546. 
Lauderburn, D. E.: Elimination of Waste in Logging. Paper Trade 

Journal, New York, February 20, 1913, pp. 189-199. 
Peters, J. Girvin: Waste in Logging Southern YeUow Pine. Yearbook, 

U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1905, pp. 483-494. 
Recknagel, a. B.: Waste in Hardwood Logging. Journal, New York 

State Forestry As.so., Vol. 3. Jan., 1916, pp. 10-11. 
Upson, A. T.: Waste in Logging and Milling in Colorado. The Forest 

Club Annual, 1910, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, pp.- 66-77. 



WATER TRANSPORT 
Flumes. 

Martin, J. P.: The Design of Log Flumes. Engineering News, Nov. 14, 

1912, pp. 908-913. 
Robertson, J. E.: The Log Flume as a Means of Transporting Logs. 

The Timberman, August, 1909, pp. 4.5-46. 
Starbird, W. D.: Flumes. The Timberman, August, 1912, pp. 42-44. 
Steel, Francis R.: Lumber Flumes. Bulletin of the Harvard Forest 

Club, Vol. I, 1911 



466 APPENDIX 

Streams. 

Anonymous: Davis Ocean-going Log Raft. West Coast Lumberman, 

Dec. 15, 1917, pp. 28 and 29. 
Barrows, H. K. and Babb, C. C: Log Driving and Lumbering. Water 

Resources of the Penobscot River, Maine. Water Supply Paper 279, 

U. S. Geological Survey, Washington, 1912, pp. 211-220. 
Bridges, J. B.: Definition of the Law Governing the Use of Driving 

Streams. The Timberman, August, 1910, i)p. 64F and 64G. 
Bridges, J. B. : Laws Governing the Use of Streams for Logging Purposes 

(Pacific Coast). The Timberman, August, 1909, pp. 49-51. 
Fastabend, John A.: Ocean Log Rafting. The Timberman, August, 

1909, pp. 38-39. 



TERMS USED IN LOGGING 



TERMS USED IN LOGGING ^ 

(Letters in parentheses following definitions indicate the forest regions (see Fig. 1) in which 
the terms as defined are used. 

(Gen.) = General = In all forest regions of the United States. 
(C. H. F.) = Central Hardwood Forest. 
(N. F.) = Northern Forest. 
(App.) = Appalachian Forest. 
(L. S.) = Lake States Forest. 
(N. W.) = North Woods. 
(S. F.) = Southern Forest. 
(R. M. F.) = Rocky Mountain Forest. 
(P. C. F.) = Pacific Coast Forest. 
(E. C.) = Eastern Canada. 
(Cal.) = California. 
In a few instances very local terms are ascribed to a State instead of to a forest region.] 

Acid wood. Wood suitable for the manufacture of wood alcohol and other 

products of distillation. (N. F., App.) 
Aerial line. See Skyline. 
Aerial skidder. See Cableway skidder. 
Alder grab. The stem of an alder, or other small tree, which is bent over and 

plugged into a hole bored in a boom stick, or secured in some other way, 

to hold a boom or logs inshore. (N. F.) 
Alley, n. See Dingle. 
Alligator, n. LA boat u.sed in handling floating logs. It can be moved 

overland from one body of water to another by its own power, usually ap- 
plied through drum and cable. (N. W., L. S.) 
2. 5ee Go-devil. 
Anchor line. A hne attached to a small buoy and to one fluke of an anchor 

used in towing a raft of logs. It is employed to free the anchor when fast 

to rocks or snags. (N. F.) 
Angle bar. A steel plate «nth a flange base, having from four to six holes, 

through which bolts may be inserted. Two angle bars are used to hold 

steel rails together at the joints, one angle bar being placed against each 

side of the web and both bolted to it. (Gen.) 
Apron, n. 1. A platform projecting domistream from the sluiceway of a 

dam to launch well into the stream logs which pass through the sluiceway. 

(Gen.) 
2. A platform built of timbers at the foot of a slide, which guides in the 

desired direction logs leaving the slide. (Gen.) 
Ark, n. See Wanigan. 
At the base. When referring to the diameter of standing timber, a term used 

in timber contracts, meaning at the ground as contrasted with the usual 

' From Forest Terminology, Part II. Terms used in the Lumber In- 
dustry. Prepared by the Author as Chairman of a Committee of the Society 
of American Foresters. 

469 



470 APPENDIX 

custom of measuring at the stump. (Supreiiic Court of North Carohna, 
54 Southeastern Reporter, 8-44.) 

Backbone, ?i. A triangular piece of wood which is placed in the apex of a 
V-box flume. (Gen.) 

Backing chain. A chain used to prevent logging trucks from shding under 
the logs. It is used chiefly on long trains where there is a great strain. 
(P. C. F.) 

Back line. See Haul back. 

Back-spiker, n. One of the members of a crew which completes the spiking of 
rails to crossties after the track has been laid by the steel gang. (Gen.) 

Bag boom. An open " limber" boom used to impound logs at the mouth of 
a stream emptying into a lake or similar body of water. The ends of the 
boom are made fast to the shore below the mouth of the stream, and when 
the boom is filled the ends are brought together and closed, forming a round 
boom. (L. S.) *S'ee Round boom. 

Ballhooter, n. One who rolls or slides logs down a hillside. (App.) 

Bank, v. See Bank up, to. 

Bank, n. 1. See Landing. 

2. The logs cut or skidded in one day above the required amount and 
held over by the saw crew or skidders, to be reported when the required 
daily number is not reached. (N. F.) 

Banking ground. See Landing. 

Bank up, to. To pile up logs on a landing. (Gen.) 
Syn.: bank, roll up. 

Baptist cone. .See Cap. 

Barge boom. A boom, the upstream end of which is attached to a barge 
anchored in the stream. It is used on navigable streams (on which per- 
manent works are not permitted) in combination with a fin boom to divert 
logs from one side of a stream to the other. (S. F.) 

Bark dray. See Ranking jumper. 

Barker, n. 1. One who peels bark in gathering tanbark. (Gen.) 
Syn.: peeler, spudder. 

2. A machine used to remove bark from pulpwood. 

3. See Rosser, 1. 
Barking iron. See Spud. 

Bark ladder. A platform mounted on a wagon or sled and used in hauling 
tanbark. (N. F.) 

Bark mark. A symbol chopped into the side of a log to indicate its owner- 
ship; when used with the end mark it serves as an additional means of 
identification. (Gen.) See Mark. 

Syn.: catch mark (L. S.), side mark (N. F.), contramarque (E. C). 

Bark marker. One who cuts the bark mark on logs. (Gen.) 

Bark rack. A frame used to hold bark on a sled. (N. W.) 

Bark slide. A V-shaped trough used on steep hillsides to slide tanbark down 
to the roads. (N. F.) 

Barn boss. One who has charge of the stables in a logging camp. (Gen.) 
Syn.: feeder. (N. W.) 

Barndoor gate. In a logging dam sluiceway, a swinging door attached by 



TERMS USED IN LOGGING 471 

hinges to the .side of the sluice .so that it can be swung across the opening 

to prevent the outflow of water. (Gen.) 
Batch, n. A raft of lumber composed of a number of units. (S. F.) 
Batten, n. A log less than 11 inches in diameter, inside bark, at the small 

end. (Maine.) 
Battery, n. Two or more road engines for dragging logs, set at intervals on 

a long skid road. A " side " may include a " battery," which in turn may 

include a roader, a " half-breed " and a yarding donkey. The term is not 

commonly used. (P. C. F.) 
Bean house. The foreman's office at a depot camp. (E. C.) 
Beaver, n. See Swamper; Woodpecker. 
Becket, n. 1. A large hook formerly used in loading logs on cars by means 

of tackle. It is now .seldom used. (P. C. F.) 

2. An eye or grommet in a rope through which another rope or cable may 

play. (Gen.) 
Bed a tree, to. To level up the path in which a tree is to fall, so that it may 

not be shattered. (P. C. F.) 
Bicycle, n. See Trolley. 
Bigness scale. See Full .scale. 
Big wheels. See Logging wheels. 
Billet, n. A short, round .section of a log. (Gen.) 
Binder, n. A springy pole used to tighten a binding chain. (Gen.) 

Syn.: jim binder. 
Binding chain. A chain used to bind together a load of logs. (Gen.) 

Syn.: wrapper chain. (N. F.) 
Binding logs. Logs placed on the top of the chain binding a load, in order to 

take up the slack. (Gen.) 
Birl, V. To cau.se a floating log to rotate rapidly by treading upon it. (Gen.) 
Bitch chain. 1. A short, heavy chain with hook and ring, used to fasten the 

lower end of a gin pole to a sled or car when loading logs. (N. F.) 

2. A short, heavy chain connecting the main Une and the haul back line 

of a yarding donkey, also serving as a point of attachment for the tackle 

fastened to the logs. When a cable is used instead of a chain, it is knowTi 

as a bitch line. 

Syn.: butt chain, butt hne. (P. C. F.) 
Bitch line. See Bitch chain, 2. 
Black cypress. A term used by woodsmen to denote cypress timber of heavy 

weight. (S. F.) 
Blaze, V. To mark, by cutting into trees, the course of a boundary, road, 

trail or the Uke. (Gen.) 
Syn.: .spot. (N. W.) 
Block, n. 1. A pulley of several types used in power logging to change the 

direction of haul, or to increase the pulling power. (P. C. F.) 
2. See Brail. 
Block-and-whip. Xn arrangement of a cable and block, to secure added 

power for moving logs. The free end of the main cable, bearing a .swamp 

hook, is pas.sed through a block fastened to the log to be moved, and then 

attached to a stump. When a log has been pulled ahead as far as practic- 



472 APPENDIX 

able, the cable and swamp hook are moved forward to another stump. 
(P. ('. F.) See Block hold. 

Block hold. An .arrangement of cables and blocks to secure added power for 
moving logs. The free end of the main cable is passed through a block 
attached to the log to be moved, and then fastened to some stationary ob- 
ject. Power is then applied to the opposite end of the cable. Two blocks 
and three blocks respectively are attached to the object to be moved. 
(P. C. F.) See Block-and-whip. 
Syn. : one-block hold. 

Block tender. See Chaser. 

Blow, n. A break in a dam, usually at the base, due to the lack of proper 
toe piling. (N. W.) 

Blow down. See Windfall. 

Blue jay. See Road monkey. 

Bluing, n. The result of fungus attack, which turns the sapwood of certain 
trees blue. (Gen.) 

Board foot. A unit of measure in the lumber trade. It is a section 12 by 
12 inches in size and 1 inch thick, or its equivalent. (Gen.) 

Board up, to. To place a spring board in position. (P. C. F.) 

Bob, 71. A single pair of sled runners on which the forward ends of logs are 
loaded. (L. S., N. W.) 
Syn.: sloop. (E. C.) 

Bobber, n. See Deadhead. 

Bob logs, to. To transport logs on a bob or dray. (N. F.) 

Body wood. Cord wood cut from those portions of the stems of trees which 
are clear of branches. (N. F.) 

Bolster, n. See Bunk. 

Bolt, n. A segment sawed or split from a short log. A term usually applied 
to blocks from which shingles, staves and vehicle stock are manufactured. 
(Gen.) 

Syn. : shingle bolt, stave bolt, spoke bolt. 

Boom, n. Logs or timbers fastened together end to end and used to hold 
floating logs. The term sometimes includes the logs inclosed, as a boom 
of logs. (Gen.) 

Boomage, n. Toll for use of a boom. (Gen.) 

Boom buoy. See Boom stay. 

Boom chain. A short chain which fastens boom sticks end to end. (Gen.) 

Boom Company. A corporation engaged in handling floating logs, and 
owning booms and booming privileges. (N. F.) 

Boom pin. A wooden plug used to fasten to boom sticks the chain, rope, or 
withe which holds them together. (Gen.) 

Boom rat. One who works on a boom. (N. F.) 

Boom stay. A heavy weight used to anchor booms in deep water; its po- 
sition is indicated by a pole or float attached to it. (N. F.) 
Syn.: boom buoy. 

Boom stick. A timber which forms part of a boom. (Gen.) 

Bottle butted. See Swell butted. 



TERMS USED IN LOGGING 473 

Bottom, n. The lower tier or layer of logs in a joint, usually fastened to- 
gether by boom poles and pins. (E. C.) 
Bottom loader. See Ground loader. 
Bottom sill. See Mudsill. 

Bow man. A log driver who sits in the forward end of a bateau. 
Box, V. See Notch. 
Box, n. See Undercut. 

Bracket boom. A stiff boom, three or four logs wide, the logs being fastened 
together by short boards placed crosswise and spiked, or by transverse 
poles fastened with wooden pins, withes, chains, or spikes. (Gen.) 
Bracket gate. See Needle gate. 
Brail, v. To fasten logs in brails. 
Brail, n. A section of a log raft, six of which make an average tow. (L. S.) 

Syn.: block. (S. F.) 
Brake sled. A logging sled so constructed that, when the pole team holds 
back, a heavy iron on the side of each runner of the forward sled is forced 
into the roadbed. (N. F.) 
Brand, n. See Mark. 
Break in a landing, to. To roll logs from the landing into a stream. 

(R. M. F.) 
Break out, to. 1. To start a sled whose runners are frozen to the ground. 
(N. W., L. S.) 
2. To open a logging road after heavy snowfall. (N. W., L. S.) 
Breastwork log. See Fender skid. 
Briar, n. A cross-cut saw. (Gen.) 

Bridle, n. 1. A device for controlhng the speed of logs on a skid road. It 
consists of a short rope with two hooks at one end, which are driven into 
the first log of the turn; at the other end is a clamp which runs over the 
cable. (P. C. F.) 

2. A device for controlhng the speed of logging sleds. It is a chain 

or clevis placed around the forward end of the rear sled runners. (N. W.) 

Bridle man. One who follows a turn of logs down the skid road and tends 

the " bridle." (P. C. F.) 
Broadleaf, a. See Hardwood. 
Brow, ti. See Landing. 

Brow skid. 1. The chief beam in a frame to which tackle for loading logs on 
cars is fastened when a gin-pole is not used. (P. C. F.) 
Syn. : draw skid, lead log. 

2. A large log, placed parallel with the railroad track, which forms the 
front part of a landing used for loading logs upon cars. (P. C. F.) 
Brush. See Slash. 
Brush a road, to. To cover with brush the mudholes and swampy places in 

a logging road, to make it sohd. (N. F.) 
Brusher, n. On an operation where stave bolts are being made, one who 

cuts and piles Umbs from felled trees. (S. F.) 
Brush out, to. To clear away the brush from a survey line, gutter road or 
other logging road. (Gen.) 
Syn.: bush out, to. 



474 APPENDIX 

Brush snow fence. A snowbreak to protect a logging road; used most 
commonly on wide marshes. It consists of brush which is set upright in 
the ground before it freezes. (N. F.) 

Brutting crew. A crew wliich rolls logs down slopes too steep for teams. 
(App.) 

Buck, n. See Chore boy. 

Buck, V. 1. To saw felled trees into logs. (P. C. F.) 

2. To bring or carry, as to buck water or wood. (Gen.) 

3. In hewing half-moon crossties, the stick of timber is hewed to a proper 
size and then " bucked " or split into two pieces. (S. F.) 

Bucker, n. 1. One who saws felled trees into logs. (P. C. F.) Syn.: cross 

cutter (P. C. F.), log maker (S. F.). 

2. One who brings or carries. See Buck. 
Bucking board. A spring board used in bucking large timber. (P. C. F.) 

See Spring board. 
Bucking chute. A short pole chute at a landing, in which long logs are 

bucked before loading. (Cal.) 
Buck swamper. See Iving swamper. 
Buckwheat, v. See Hang up, to. 
Buckwheater, n. A novice at lumbering. (Gen.) 
Buggy, )i. See Trolley. 
Bull block. A large yarding block having a throat of sufficient width to 

allow a choker and butt chain to pass through it. (P. C. F.) 
Syn.: butt chain block, jumbo, lead block, Tommy Moore. 
Bull bucker. See Saw boss. 
Bull chain. A chain wrapped around the first log of a turn in order to check 

the speed. (App.) 
Bull cook. See Chore boy. 
Bull donkey. See Reader. 

Bull load. A turn of logs ready for hauling with a road engine. (P. C. F.) 
Bully, n. See Camp foreman. 
Bummer, n. A small truck with two low wheels and a short pole, used in 

skidding logs. (N. F., S. F.) 

Syn.: dolly (L. S., R. M. F.), drag cart, self-loading skidder, skidder. 
Bunch, V. To skid logs together at some convenient point for wagon or 

cart hauHng. (Gen.) 
Bunch load, to. To encircle several logs with a chain and load them at once, 

by steam or hor.se power. (N. F.) 
Bunch logs, to. To collect logs in one place for loading. (Gen.) 
Bunch team. A team used to bunch logs. (Gen.) 
Bunk, V. To place upon the bunks, as to " bunk a log." (Gen.) 
Bunk, n. 1. The heavy timber upon which the logs rest on a logging sled. 

(N. F.) 
Syn.: bolster. 

2. The cross beam on a log car or truck, on which the logs rest. (Gen.) 

3. A log or truck. (S. F., P. C. F.) 

4. A logger's bed in a lumber camp. (Gen.) 
Bunk chain. See Toggle chain. 



TERMS USED IN LOGGING 475 

Bunk hook. The hook attached to the end of the bunk on a logging car, 

which may be raised to hold the logs in place or lowered to release them. 

(Gen.) 
Bunkhouse, n. The sleeping quarters of a logging crew. (Gen.) 
Bunk load. A load of logs not over one log deep; i.e., in which every log 

rests on the bunks. (Gen.) 
Bunk spikes. Sharp spikes set upright in the bunks of a logging sled to hold 

the logs in place. (N. F.) 
Burton, n. In logging, a tackle composed of two or more blocks which is 

used to increase the hauling power of the puUing line. The log is attached 

to a block in the bight of the running part. (P. C. F.) 
Bush a road, to. To mark the route of a logging road across a marsh or the 

ice by setting up bushes. (N. F.) 
Busher, n. See Swamper. 
Bush monkey. One who piles tanbark. (Cal.) 
Bush out, to. See Brush out, to. 

Butt, n. The base of a tree, or the big end of a log. (Gen.) 
Butt chain. See Bitch chain. 
Butt chain block. See Bull block. 
Butt cut. 1. The first log above the stump. (Gen.) 
Syn.: butt log. (Gen.) 
2. In gathering tanbark, the section of bark taken from the butt of a 

tree before felling it for further peeling. (N. F.) 
Butt hook. The hook by which the cable is attached to the tackle on the 

logs. (P. C. F.) 
Butt line. See Bitch chain. 
Butt log. See Butt cut. 
Butt off, to. 1. To cut a piece from the end of a log on account of a defect. 

(Gen.) 
Syn.: long butt, to. (P. C F., App., N. W.) 
2. To square the end of a log. (N. F.) 
Buttress, n. A wall or abutment built along a stream to prevent the logs in 

a drive from cutting the bank or jamming. (Gen.) 
Syn.: crib. (App.) 
Butt team. See Wheelers; Snub-yoke. 
Cableway skidder. A power skidding device, a distinguishing feature of 

which is a main cable, suspended between a head spar tree and a tail tree, 

on which the trolley travels which wholly or partially elevates the logs from 

the ground. (Gen.) 

Syn.: aerial skidder, flying machine. (P. C. F.) 
Cache, n. A storehouse for logging camp supplies. (E. C.) See Head- 
quarters. 
Camboose, n. A fireplace in the center of the early logging camps of Eastern 

Canada, which served both for cooking and for heating purposes. (E. C.) 
Camp car. A flat car equipped with seats and used to haul loggers back and 

forth between camp and the logging operation. (P. C. F.) 
Syn.: cattle car, mulligan car. (P. C. F.) 



476 APPENDIX 

Camp foreman. One who has charge of a logging camp and the logging op- 
erations conducted from that camp. (Gen.) 

Syn : bully (N. F.), push (P. C. F.), twister (App.), shanty boss (E C). 

Camp inspector. A lazy lumberjack, who goes from one logging camp to 
another, working only a short time in each. (N. F.) See Pouch. 
Syn.: rodeur (E. C.) 

Canary, n. An iron rod about 6 feet long with a hook on one end and a handle 
on the other. It is used to pull the binding (-hain under a bundle of logs 
that are to be loaded on logging wheels. (L. S.) 

Cannon a log, to. In loading logs by steam or horse power, to send up a log 
so that it swings crosswise, instead of parallel to the load. (N. F.) 
Syn.: gun a log, to. (R. M. F.) 

Cant dog. A short handled peavey. (Gen.) 

Cant hook. A tool like a peavey, but having a toe ring and lip at the end in- 
stead of a pike. See Peavey. (Gen.) 

Cap, n. A cone of sheet iron or steel, with a hole in the end through which a 
chain passes, which is fitted over the end of a log before snaking it, to 
prevent catching on stumps, roots or other obstacles, in steam skidding. 
(S. F.) 
Syn.: Baptist cone. 

Captain, n. A term applied by negro workmen to the foreman of any crew. 
(S. F.) See Saw boss; Team bo.ss. 

Catamaran, n. A small raft carrying a windlass and grapple, used to re- 
cover sunken logs. (Gen.) 

Syn.: sinker boat (Gen.), gunboat, monitor, pontoon (P. C. F.) 

Catch boom. A boom fastened across a stream to catch and hold floating 
logs. (Gen.) 

Syn.: trap boom. 

Catch mark. See Bark mark. 

Caterpillar, n. See Log hauler. 

Catface, n. A partly healed fire scar on the stem of a tree. (P. C. F.) 

Catpiece, n. A small stick in which holes are made at regular intervals, 
placed on the top of uprights firmly set in floating booms. The uprights 
are fitted to enter the holes in the catpiece, so as to narrow or widen the 
space between the booms at the entrance to a sluiceway or sorting jack. 
The catpiece is held by the uprights high enough above water to allow 
logs to float freely under it. (N. W., L. S.) 

Cattle car. See Camp car. 

Cattyman, n. An expert river driver. (N. F.) 

Center jam. A jam formed on an obstacle in the middle of a stream, and 
which does not reach either shore. (Gen.) 
Syn.: stream jam. 

Chainer, n. See Sled tender. 

Chain grapples. See Grapples. 

Chain tender. See Sled tender. 

Chance, n. 1. A term used to define the ea.se or difficulty with which a 
particular logging operation or part of an operation can be conducted. 



TERMS USED IN LOGGING 477 

A good " chance " is one where coinlitions are favorable for easy logging. 
(N. F.) 
Syn.: show (P. C. F.) 
2. A logging unit. (Gen.) 
Chaser, n. 1. A member of the hauling crew on a skidroad who accompanies 
the turn of the logs to the landing, unhooks the grabs, and sees that they 
are returned to the yarding engine. (P. C. F., R. M. F.) 
Syn.: frogger, sled tender (Cal.), pigman (P. C. F.) 
2. A member of the yarding crew who tends a bull block, unhooks the 
choker at the landing, and sees that it is returned to the woods. (P. C. F.) 
Syn.: block tender. (Cal.) 
Check, n. A longitudinal crack in timber caused by too rapid seasoning. 
(Gen.) 
Syn.: season check. 
Check scaler. One who re-scales logs in order to detect errors on the part 

of a scaler. (Gen.) 
Cheese block. See Chock block. 
Chickadee, n. See Road monkey. 

Chink, V. To close the crevices between the logs in a logging camp with 
wood or moss. (N. W.) 

Syn.: moss (N. F.), stog (E. C). See Daub; Mud. 
Chipper and notcher. The chief of several saw crews. He notches the timber 
and keeps a tally of the number of logs cut by each saw crew. (S. F.) 
Chock block. 1. A small wedge or block used to prevent a log from rolling. 
(Gen.) 
Syn.: cheese block. (P. C. F.) 

2. A device used on patent log car bunks to prevent logs from rolling off. 
(P. C. F.) 
Choker, n. A noose of wire rope by which a log is dragged. The rope is 
from 20 to 50 feet in length and has a choker hook on one end and a braided 
eye on the other. (P. C. F.) 
Choker-hole digger. See Gopher. 

Choker hook. A hook fastened to one end of a choker. The cable is caught 
in the hook when the choker is adjusted around the log in the form of a 
noose. (Gen.) 
Choker man. The member of a yarding crew who fastens the chokers on the 

logs. (P. C. F., R. M. F.) 
Chopper, n. See Faller. 
Chopping board. .See Spring board. 

Chore boy. One who cleans the sleeping quarters and stable in a logging 
camp, cuts firewood, builds fires and carries water. (Gen.) 

Syn.: lobby hog (App.), shanty boss, swamper (N. W.), buck, bull cook, 
flunky, greaser. 
Chuck up, to. See Chunk up, to. 
Chunk, v. To clear the ground, with engine or horses, of obstructions which 

can not be removed by hand. (P. C. F.) 
Chunk backer. One who, in advance of felling, bucks up merchantable 



478 APPENDIX 

windfalls and also other down timber which ina\- interfere with yarding. 

(P. C. F.) 
Chunk up, to. 1. To collect and pile for burning the slash left after logging. 

(N. W., L. S.) 
2. In burning brush, to throw upon the fire the unburned pieces around 

the edge of the pile. (P. C. F.) 
Syn.: chuck up. to. 
Chum butted. See Swell butted. 
Chute, n. A trough built of round timbers in which logs are transported up 

or down a grade, either by animal power or by gravity. (E. C, P. C. F.) 
Syn.: slide, flume. 
Chute boat. See Rigging sled. 
Chute grease. A heavy oil applied to .skids to lessen the frictional resistance 

of logs dragged over them. (P. C. F.) 
Syn. : skid grease. 
Chute greaser. See Greaser. 
Cinch line. See Swifter. 

Coal off, to. To cut a forest clean for charcoal wood. (N. F.) 
Coffee mill. See corkscrew. 
Commissary, n. A general store for supplying lumbermen. (App., S. F.) 

See Van. 
Conk, n. 1. The decay in the wood of trees caused by a fungus. (N. F., 

P. C. F.) 

2. The visible fruiting organ of a tree fungus. (N. F., P. C. F.) 
Conky, a. Affected by conk. (N. F , P. C. F.) 
Connected truck. See Skeleton log car. 
Contramarque. See Bark mark. 
Cook camp. The building used as kitchen and dining room in a logging 

camp. (Gen.) 

Syn. : cook house, cook shanty. 
Cookee, n. A cook's helper and a dishwasher in a logging camp. (Gen.) 

See Flunky. 
Cook house. See Cook camp. 
Cook shanty. See Cook camp. 
Corduroy, v. To build a corduroy road. (Gen.) 
Corduroy road. A roadway having logs laid side by side across it, as in marshy 

places. (Gen.) 
Corkscrew, n. A geared logging locomotive. (P. C. F.) 

Syn.: coffee mill (N. W.), stem winder, thousand legs (App.). 
Corner, v. In felling timber, to cut through the sapwood on all sides to pre- 
vent the latter from splitting. (App.) 
Corner binds. Four stout chains, used on logging sleds, to bind the two 

outside logs of the lower tier to the bunks, and thus give a firm bottom 

to the load. (N. F.) 
Comer man. In building a camp or barn of logs, one who notches the logs 

so that (hoy will fit closely and make a square corner. (N. F.) 
Coupling grab. See Grapi)lcs. 
Cover up logs, to. To fell trees on top of those already cut. (N. F.) 



TERMS USED IN LOGGING 479 

Crab, n. See Headworks. 

Cradle, n. A framework of timbers in which ocean-going log rafts are built. 

(P. C. F.) 
Cradle knolls. 1. Small knolls which require grading in the construction of 

logging roads. (N. W., L. S.) 

2. Small knolls which must be avoided in pointing a tree for felling. 

(P. C. F.) 
Crazy chain. The short chain used to hold up that tongue of a sprinkler 

sled which is not in use. (N. F.) 
Crazy dray. See Go-devil. 
Creek. See Float road. 
Crib, n. 1. Specifically, a raft of logs; loosely applied to a boom of logs. 

(N. F.) 

2. See Buttress. 

3. One of the supports under a logging bridge, flume, or railroad built of 
round logs laid crib fashion. (Gen.) 

Crib dam. A dam built with cribs of logs, filled with stones, and planked 

on the up-stream face. (Gen.) 
Crib logs, to. To surround floating logs with a boom and draw them by a 
windlass on a raft (a crab), or to tow them w^th a steamboat. (N. W., 
L. S.) 
Cross chains. Chains connecting the front and rear sleds of a logging sled. 
(N. F.) 
Syn.: lead chains, tag chains (N. W.). 
Cross-cut saw. A saw which cuts the wood fibres on the cross section. (Gen.) 
Cross cutter. See Bucker. 

Crosshaul. The cleared space in which a team moves in crosshauling. 
(N. F.) 
2. See Crotch chain. 
Crosshaul, to. To load cars or sleds with logs by horse power and crotch 

or loading chain. (Gen.) 
Crotch, V. To cut notches on opposite sides of a log near the end, into which 

dogs are fastened. (P. C. F.) 
Crotch, n. See Go-devil. 

Crotch chain. A tackle for loading logs on .sleds, wagons, cars, or skidways 
by crosshauling. (Gen.) 

Syn.: crosshaul (S. F.), parbuckle (N. W.). 
See Loading chain. 
Crotch tongue. Two pieces of wood, in the form of a V, joining the front 

and rear sleds of a logging sled. (N. W., L. S.) 
Cruise, v. To estimate the amount and value of standing timber. (Gen.) 

Syn.: estimate, value. 
Cruiser, n. One who cruises. (Gen.) 

Syn.: estimator, land looker, valuer. 
Cull, n. 1. Logs which are rejected, or parts of logs deducted in measure- 
ment on account of defects. (Gen.) 
2. A crosstie which does not meet specifications. (Gen.) 
Cull, V. See Scale. 



480 APPENDIX 

Culler, n. See Scaler. 

Cut, n. A season's output of logs. (Gen.) 

Cut a log, to. To move one end of a log forward or backward, so that the 

log will roll in the desired direction. (Gen.) 
Cutaway dam. See Splash dam. 
Cut-off. An artificial channel by which the course of a stream is straightened 

to faciUtate log driving. (N. F.) 
Cutter, n. See Faller. 
Daub, V. See Mud. 
Deacon seat. The bench in front of the sleeping bunks in a logging camp. 

(N. F.) 
Syn. : dog seat. 
Dead and down. Dead timber which is either standing or down. (Gen.) 
Deadener, n. A heavA^ log or timber, ■nnth spikes set in the butt end, so 

fastened in a log slide that the logs passing under it come in contact with 

the spikes and have their speed retarded. (Gen.) 
Deadhead, n. A sunken or partly sunken log. (Gen.) 

Syn.: sinker (Gen.), bobber (N. F.), jil-poke (N. W.) 
Deadman, n. 1. A fallen tree on the shore, or a timber to which the hawser 

of a boom is attached. (X. F., P. C. F.) 

2. A log buried in the ground to which a guy line or an anchor line is 
attached. (Gen.) 

3. See Widow maker. 
Deadwater. See Stillwater. 

Decker. One who rolls logs upon a skidway or log deck. (Gen.) 

Decking chain. See Loading chain. 

Decking hook. A light peavey used by a top loader. (App.) 

Deck up, to. To pile logs upon a skidway. (Gen.) 

Deer foot. A V-shaped iron catch on the side of a logging car, in which the 

binding chain is fastened. (Gen.) 
Dehorn, v. To saw off the ends of logs bearing the o\\Tier's mark and put on 

a new mark. (Kentucky.) 
Depot, n. The headquarters of a logging operation. (E. C.) 
Depot camp. A logging camp comprising several buildings which are to be 

used for more than one year. (E. C.) 
Dhobie tongs. Skidding tongs used ^-ith bummers. (S. F.) 
Dingle, n. The roofed-over space between the kitchen and the sleeping 

quarters in a logging camp, commonly used as a .store-room. (N. W., L. S.) 
Syn.: aUey (N. W.) 
Dinkey, n. A small logging locomotive. (App., S. F.) 
Dog, n. A short, heavy piece of steel, bent and pointed at one end with an 

eye or ring at the other. It is used for many purpo.ses in logging, and is 

sometimes so shaped that a blow directly against the line of draft will 

loosen it. (Gen.) 
See Rafting dog. 
Syn.: tail hook. fP. C. F.) 
Dog boat. See Rigging sled. 



TERMS USED IN LOGGING 481 

Dogger, n. One who attaches the dogs or hooks to a log before it is power 
skidded. (S. F., P. C. F.) 

Dog hook. 1. The hook on the end of a dogwarp. (N. F.) 

2. In yarding with a hne horse, a liook on the end of a haul-up chain of 
a size to permit its being hooked into a link of the chain when the latter is 
looped around a log or other object. (P. C. F.) 

Dog room. The lounging room in a logging camp. (N. W.) 

Dogs, n. See Skidding tongs. 

Dog seat. See Deacon seat. 

Dogwarp, n. A rope with a strong hook on the end which is used in break- 
ing dangerous jams on falls and rapids and in moving logs from other diffi- 
cult positions. (N. F.) 

Syn.: hand dog (N. F.), hand grab (E. C). 

Dog wedge. An iron wedge with a ring in the butt, which is driven into the 
end of a log and a chain hitched in the ring for skidding the log by horse 
power; also used in gathering up logs on a drive by running a rope through 
the rings and puUing a number of logs at a time through marshes or par- 
tially submerged meadows to the channel. (N. F.) 

Dolbeer. See Spool donkey. 

Dolly, n. See Fairleader; Load roller; Bummer. 

Dolphin, n. A cluster of piles to which a boom is secured. (P. C. F.) 

Donkey, n. A portable steam engine, equipped with drums and cable, used 
in steam logging. See Half-breed; Roader; Spool donkey; Yarding don- 
key. (P. C. F.) 

Donkey doctor. In a logging camp, one who repairs donkey engines. (P. 
C. F.) 

Donkey logging. Yarding on the ground with a donkey engine, as contrasted 
with animal logging, or other power logging methods. (P. C. F.) 

Donkey sled. The heavy sled-like frame upon which a donkey engine is 
mounted. (P. C. F.) 

Dote, n. The general term used by lumbermen to denote decay or rot in 
timber. (Gen.) 

Doty, a. Decayed. (Gen.) 
Syn.: dozy. 

Double couplers. Two couphng grabs joined by a short cable, used for 
fastening logs together. (P. C. F.) 
Syn.: four paws. 

Double dray. See Jumbo. 

Double header. A place from which it is possible to haul a full load of logs 
to the landing, and where partial loads are topped out or finished to the 
full hauling capacity of teams. (N. W., L. S.) 

Down-hill clevis. A brake on a logging sled, consisting of a clevis encircling 
the runner, to the bottom of which a heavy square piece of iron is welded. 
(N. F.) 

Dozy, a. See Doty. 

Drag cart. See Bummer. 

Drag in, to. See Dray in, to. 



482 APPENDIX 

Drag road. 1. A road over which skidding teams return to the woods after 

having delivered their load at the landing. (R. M. F.) See Dray road; 

Gutter road. 
Drag sled. See Dray. 
Draw hook. See Gooseneck. 
Draw skid. See Brow skid. 
Dray, n. A single sled used in dragging logs. One end of the log rests upon 

the sled. (N. F.) 

Syn. : drag sled, hzard, scoot, skidding sled, yarding sled. 
Dray dog, to. To seize the rear end of a ranking jumper with a peavey and 

turn it around. 
Dray in, to. To drag logs from the place where they are cut directly to the 

skidway or landing. (N. F.) 
Syn.: drag in, to. 
Dray road. A narrow road, cut wide enough to allow the passage of a team 

and dray. (N. F.) 
Syn. : drag road. 
Drive, v. To float logs or timbers from the forest to the mill or shipping 

point. (Gen.) 
Syn. : float. 
Drive, n. LA body of logs or timbers in process of being floated from the 

forest to the mill or shipping point. (Gen.) 

2. That part of logging which consists in floating logs or timbers. (Gen.) 
Driving road. See Float road. 
Drum logs, to. To haul logs by drum and cable out of a hollow or cove. 

(App.) 
Dry-ki, n. Trees killed by flooding. (N. F.) 
Dry pick, to. As applied to a jam, to remove logs singly while the water is 

cut off-. (N. F.) 
Dry roll, to. In sacking the rear, to roll stranded logs into the bed of the 

stream from which the water has been cut off preparatory to flooding. 

(N. F.) 
Dry rot. Decay in timber without apparent moisture. (Gen.) 
Dry slide. See Slide. 
Dry sloop, to. To sloop logs on bare ground when the slope is so steep that 

it would be dangerous to sloop on snow. (N. F.) 
Dudler, n. See Dudley. 
Dudley, n. An engine for hauling logs, which propels itself and drags its 

load by revolving a large spool around which are several turns of a cable 

fixed at each end of the track. (P. C. F.) 
Syn.: dudler. 
Duffle, n. The personal belongings of a woodsman or lumberjack which he 

takes into the woods. (Gen.) 
Syn.: dunnage. (N. W.) 
Duffle bag. A canvas sack used to carry the clothing and personal belongings 

of wood workers. 
Syn. : dunnage bag. 
See Turkey 



TERMS USED IN LOGGING 483 

Dump hook. A levered chain grab hook attached to the evener to which a 
team is hitched in loading logs. A movement of the lever releases the 
hook from the logging chain without stopping the team. (N. F.) 

Dump logs, to. To roll logs over a bluff, or from a logging car or sled into 
the water. (Gen.) 

Dunnage, n. 1. Sawmill refuse, used to ballast logging railroad spurs in a 
cypress swamp. (S. F.) 
Syn. : dust. 
2. See Duffle. 

Dunnage bag. See Duffle bag. 

Dust, n. See Dunnage. 

Dust a dam, to. To fill with earth or gravel the cracks or small holes 
between planks in the gate of a splash dam. (N. W.) 

Duster, n. A dead standing yellow-pine tree with a sound heart. (S. F.) 

Dutchman, n. A short stick placed transversely between the outer logs of 
a load to divert the load toward the middle and so keep any logs from 
falUng off. (N. F.) 

Earth slide. A furrow in the earth in which logs are dragged. This is some- 
times iced in winter to facihtate skidding. (App.) See Gutter road. 

End mark. See Mark. 

Estimate, v. See Cruise. 

Estimator, n. See Cruiser. 

Face log. See Head log. 

Fairleader. A device consisting of four rollers or sheave wheels arranged in 
pairs, the axes of each pair being at right angles to each other. It is placed 
on a support on the front end of a donkey sled and gives the cable a straight 
lead onto the drum. (P. C. F.) 
Syn.: dolly. (P. C. F.) 

Faller, n. One who fells trees. (Gen.) See Head faller; Second faller. 
Syn.: chopper (App.), sa\vyer (Gen.), cutter, flathead (S. F.) 

Falling ax. .An ax with a long helve and a long, narrow bit, designed espe- 
cially for felling trees. (Gen.) 

Falling crew. A crew of two or three fallers. (Cal.) 
Syn.: falUng set, pair of fallers (P. C. F.) 

Falling irons. See Fafling plates. 

Falling plates. Thin, wide plates of iron which are placed above and below 
falhng wedges when the wood is so soft that the wedges cut into it. (P. C. F.) 
Syn. : falling irons. 

Falling set. See Falling crew. 

Falling wedge. A wedge used to throw a tree in the desired direction, by 
driving it into the saw kerf. (Gen.) 

Fantail, v. To lay out radial runs for pullboat logging, each main run having 
one or more branches. (S. F.) 

Fatwood. See Lightwood. 

Feeder, n. See Barn boss. 

Fence boom. A patent log-towing boom used at one time on the Great Lakes. 
(E. C.) 

Fender boom. See Sheer boom. 



484 APPENDIX 

Fender skid. A skid placed on the lower side of a skidding trail on a slope 
to hokl tlie log on the trail while being skidded. (Gen.) 
8yn.: breastwork log, glancer, sheer skid. 
Fiddle butts. Large spruce butt logs suitable for the manufacture of musical 

instruments. (N. W.) 
Fid hook. A slender, flat hook used to keep another hook from sHpping on a 

chain. (N. W., L. S.) 
File a saw, to. See Fit a saw, to. 
Filer, n. One who files the cross-cut saws in the woods. (Gen.) 

Sj^n. : saw fitter. 
Fin boom. A form of boom used on navigable streams (where permanent 
booms are not allowed) to direct logs from one side of the stream to the 
other. By changing the angle between the fins attached on the down- 
stream face of the boom and the boom itself the latter may be thrown 
across the stream at any angle less than 90 degrees. (Gen.) 
Syn.: rudder boom. (P. C. F.) 
Firm red heart. Firm heartwood which has a reddish color due to decayed 
wood adjacent to it. It is an incipient stage of red rot. (S. F.) 
Syn.: red heart. 
Fish plate. A narrow bar of steel having from four to six holes through which 
bolts may be inserted. Two fish plates are used to join steel rails at the 
joints, one plate being placed against each side of the web and both bolted 
to it. (Gen.) 
Fit, V. 1. To notch a tree for falling and after it is felled to mark it into 
the log lengths into which it is to be cut. (N. F.) 
2. To ring, spUt, and peel tanbark. (N. F.) 
Fit a saw, to. To put it into proper condition for sawing. (Gen.) 

Syn.: file a saw, to. 
Fitter, n. 1. One who notches the tree for felling and after it is felled marks 
the log lengths into which it is to be cut. (N. F.) 

2. One who cuts hmbs from felled trees and rings and sUts the bark pre- 
paratory to peeling tanbark. (N. F.) 
Syn. : preparer. 
Flagman, n. One who transmits orders from the tong hooker to the steam 

skidder leverman. (S. F.) 
Flathead. See Faller. 
Float, V. See Drive. 

Float road. A channel cleared in a swamp and used to float cypress logs from 
the woods to the boom at the river or mill. (S. F.) 
Syn. : creek, driving road. 
Flood, V. See Splash. 
Flood dam. See Splash dam. 
Flume, V. To transport logs or timbers by a flume. (Gen.) 

Syn.: .sluice. 
Flume, n. A trough in which water runs, used in transporting logs, lumber 
or timbers. (Gen.) 

Syn.: chute (E. C), sluice, water slide, wet slide. 



TERMS USED IN LOGGING 485 

Flunkey, n. 1. An assistant to the cook in a logging camp. (P. C. F.) 

2. See Cookee; Chore boy. 
Flying drive. A drive the main portion of which is put through with the 

utmost dispatch, without stopping to pick rear. (N. F.) 
Flying machine. Sec Cableway skidder. 
Fly road. See Tote road. 
Flying machine. See Cableway skidder. 
Fly rollway. A skidway or landing on a steoj) slope, from which the logs are 

released at once by removing the brace wliich holds them. (N. F.) 
Fore-and-aft road. A skid road made of logs placed parallel to its direction, 

making the road resemble a chute. (P. C. F.) 
Syn.: pole chute, stringer road. 
Four paws. See Double couplers. 
Free, n. 1. A steel blade, 6 or 7 inches long, with a wooden handle at right 

angles to the blade. It is used to rive shakes and split staves from bolts. 

(Gen.) 

2. An iron wedge used in splitting logs. (Gen.) 

3. A contemptuous term applied to a dull a.x. (App.) 

Frog, 11. 1. The junction of two branches of a flume. (P. C. F.) 

2. The junction of two branches of a chute; also any place where an 
opening is made in a chute to permit the yarding of logs into it. (Cal.) 

3. A timber placed at the mouth of a slide to direct the discharge of the 
logs. (Gen.) 

Syn. : throw out. 
Frogger, n. See Sled tender. 
Frog shoveler. A member of a chute crew or a yarding crew who cleans out 

dirt and bark at frogs. (Cal.) 
Front, n. The point at which logging on a particular operation is being 

conducted. (Texas.) 
Full scale. Measurement of logs, in which no reduction is made for defects. 

(Gen.) 
Syn.: bigness scale. (N. F.) 
Gaff, n. The steel point of a pike pole, consisting of a screw point and a 

spur. (Gen.) 
Gangway, n. The inclined plane up wliich logs are moved from the water 

into a sawTTiill. (Gen.) 

Syn. : jack ladder, log jack, log way, slip. 
Gap stick. The pole placed across the entrance of a sorting jack to close it, 

when not in use. (Gen.) 
Gee throw. A heavy, wooden lever, with a curved iron point, used to break 

out logging sleds. (N. F.) 
Syn.: starting bar. 
Gill-poke. A swinging-arm type of log car unloader. (P. C. F.) 
Gin pole. A pole secured by guy ropes, to the top of which tackle for loading 

logs is fastened. (Gen.) 
Glancer, n. See Fender skid. 
Glancing boom. See Sheer boona. 



486 APPENDIX 

Glisse skids. FreslJy peeled skids up which log8 are shd instead of rolled 
when being loaded. (N. F.) 
Syn.: shp skids. 
Glut, n. A wooden wedge used in tie making. (S. F.) 

Go-back road. A road upon wliich empty logging sleds can return to the 
skidways for reloading, \vithout meeting the loaded sleds en route to the 
landing. (N. F.) 
Syn. : short road. 
Go-devil, A small sled, without a tongue, often made from the natural fork 
of a tree and used as an aid in skidding logs on stony or bare ground. 
(L. S., N. F.) 
Syn.: alUgator, crazy dray (S. F.), crotch, travois (L. S., N. F.) 
Gooseneck, n. 1. A wooden bar used to couple two logging trucks. (Gen.) 
Syn.: rooster (P. C. F.) 

2. The point of draft on a logging sled; it consists of a curved iron hook 
bolted to the roll. (N. F.) 

Syn. : draw hook. 

3. A V-shaped pair of tliiUs joining the forward and rear sets of runners 
of a logging .sled. (N. W.) 

4. A curved iron driven into the bottom of a shde to check the speed of 
descending logs. (App., R. M. F.) 

Syn.: scotch, sprag. (App.) 

5. See Yoke. 

Goosepen. A large hole burned in a standing tree. (P. C. F.) 
Gopher, n. 1. One who makes a hole under a load of logs so that the chains 
on a pair of logging wheels can be placed around it. (Cal.) 

2. In power logging, one who digs holes under the log so that a choker 
can be adjusted on it. (Cal.) 

Syn.: choker-hole digger, swamper. 
Grab-driver. One who attaches coupling grabs to a turn of logs. (App.) 
Grab hook. A hook having a narrow tlu-oat, adapted to grasp any link of 

a chain. (Gen.) 
Grab link. See Slip grab. 
Grabs, n. See Skidding tongs. 
Grab setter. One who attaches the grabs when logs are transported on 

logging wheels. (S. F.) 
Grab skipper. A short iron pry or hammer, used to remove the skidding 

tongs from a log. (App., S. F.) 
Grapples, n. 1. Two small iron dogs joined by a short chain, and used to 
couple logs end to end when skidding on mountains, so that several logs 
may be skidded by one horse at the same time. (N. F.) 

Sj^n.: chain grapples, couphng grab (P. C. F.), trail dog (R. M. F.). 
2. See Skidding tongs. 
Grass line. See Straw hne. 
Gravel a dam, to. To cover with gravel or earth the upstream side of the 

timber work of a dam, to make it water tight. (N. F.) 
Greaser, n. 1. One who applies skid grease to a chute. (P. C. F., R. M. F.) 
Syn. : chute greaser, skid greaser. 
2. See Chore boy. 



TERMS U^SED IN LOGGING 487 

Grips, n. See Skidding tongs. 
Groiind hog. See Ground skidder. 

Ground loader. That member of a loading crew who attaches the tongs or 
loading hooks to the log, or who guides the logs up the skids. (Gen.) 

Syn.: bottom loader, hooker, hooker-on, send-up man (Gen.), hookman, 
tong puller (S. F.), tong hooker (App.), sender (E. C.). 
Ground skidder. A power skidder which skids logs on the ground. (Gen.) 

Syn.: groundhog. (App.). 

Grouser, n. A large and long stick of squared timber sharpened at the lower 

end and placed in the bow of a steam logging boat; it takes the place of 

an anchor in shallow water, and can be raised or lowered by steam power. 

(N. W., L. S.) 

Guard a hill, to. To keep a logging road on a steep dechne in condition for 

use. (N. F.) 
Gun, V. 1. To aim a tree in felling it. In case of very large, brittle trees, 
such as redwood, a sighting device is used. (Cal.) 
Syn.: point, swing. 
2. See Cannon a log, to. 
Gun, n. A device which is inserted into an undercut to determine the di- 
rection of fall of the tree. (P. C. F.) 

Syn. : gimning stick, shot-gun, timber compass. 
Gun a log, to. See Cannon a log, to. 
Gun boat. -See Catamaran. 
Gunning stick. See Gun. 
Gutterman. See Swamper. 
Gutter road. The path followed in skidding logs. (Gen.) 

Syn.: drag road, earth slide, runway, skidding trail, snaking trail. 
Guy line. 1. Lines used to hold raft timbers together. (N. W.) 

2. Lines which support a gin-pole, or spar and tail trees. (Gen.) 
Gypo, n. A logging crew usually of from four to eight men who work on a 

contract basis. (R. M. F.) 
Gypsy yarder. See Spool donkey. 

Hack, V. To hew. Usually appUed only to the hewing of crossties. (Gen.) 
Half-breed, n. A donkey engine designed for long distance yarding or for 
use as a roader on short distance hauling. (P. C. F.) See Yarding donkey. 
Syn. : donkey. 
Half-moon tie. A tie made from a stick of timber yielding two ties. (S. F.) 
Hand-bag. See Hand-bank. 

Hand-bank, v. To haul to the banking ground, with hand sleds, ties or other 
timbers that are to be floated. (R. M. F.) 
Syn.: hand-bag. 
Hand-banker. One who hauls ties on a hand sled from the stump to the 

landing. (R. M. F.) 
Handbarrow. Two strong, hght poles held in position by rungs, upon which 
bark or wood is carried by two men. (N. W., L. S.) 
Syn : ranking bar. 
Hand dog. See Dogwarp. 
Hand grab. See Dogwarp. 



488 APPENDIX 

Hand log, to. To move timber without the aid of animal or mechanical draft. 

(Gen.j 
Hand logger. Formerly one who logged without the use of animals or power. 

Tlie term is now sometimes applied to loggers in the Northwest who use 

animals instead of power skidders. (P. C. F., R. M. F., S. F.). 
Hand pike. A piked lever, usually from 6 to 8 feet long, for handhng floating 

logs. (Gen.) 

Sjm.: pike lever. (N. W.) 
Hand skid, to. To move timber by hand to a point where it can be reached 

l)y horse or any other form of transport. (R. M. F.) 
Hand skidder. One who accompanies a log as it is being dragged and places 

sliort skids beneath it. (P. C. F.) 
Hand sluice, to. To shoot logs down steep slopes on a crude shde made by 

felling timber down the slope, cutting off the tops and arranging the boles 

so that a rough trough results. Snow greatly facilitates hand sluicing. 

(E. C.) 
Hang an ax, to, v. To fit a handle to an a.x. (Gen.) 
Hang the boom, to. To put the boom in place. (Gen.) 
Hang up, to. 1. To fell a tree so that it catches against another instead of 

faUing to the ground. (Gen.) 

Sj'n.: lodge (Gen.), buckwheat (App.) 

2. In hauhng with a team, to get the load stuck either in the mud or 
behind a stump. 

3. As applied to river driving, to discontinue; thus a drive may be 
" hung up " for lack of water or for some other reason. 

Hardwood, a. As appUed to trees and logs, broadleaved, belonging to the 
dicotyledons (Gen.) 
Syn.: broadleaf. 

Hardwood, n. A broadleaved, or dicotyledonous, tree. (Gen.) 

Haul, V. As applied to a skidway of logs that is being broken into, to shp 
or sUde. (N. W.) 

Haul, n. In logging, the distance and route over which teams must go 
between two given points, as between the yard or skidway and the land- 
ing. (Gen.) 

Haul back. A small wire rope, traveling between the power skidder and a 
pulley set near the logs to be dragged, used to return the main cable with 
tongs, chokers, or hooks to the next log. (P. C. F., R. M. F., S. F.) 

Haul back. A small wire rope, traveling between the donkey engine and a 
pulley set near the logs to be dragged, used to return the cable. (P. C. F.) 
Syn.: back line, pull back, trip Une. 

Haul back block. The block used on the haul back Hne. (P. C. F.) 

Haul up. A light chain and hook by which a horse may be hitched to a 
cable in order to move it where desired. (P. C. F.) 

Hay road. See Tote road. 

Hay wire outfit. A contemi)tuous term for poor logging equipment. (N. F.) 

Head block. The log placed under the front end of the skids in a skidway 
to raise them to the desired height. (N. F.) 

Head bucker. See Saw boss. 

Head chopper. The foreman of a yarding crew. (N. W.) 



TERMS USED IN LOGGING 489 

Head driver. An expert river driver who, during the drive, is stationed at 
a point where a jam is feared. Head drivers usually work in pairs. (N. F.) 
Syn.: log watch (N. F.), jam c-racker (P. C. F.) 

Head fallen The chief of a crew of fallers. (P. C. F., R. M. F.) See 
Second faller. 

Head grabs. The grabs, on the first log of a turn, to which the draft power is 
attached. (App.) See Skidding tongs. 

Head hooker. The cliief of a puUboat skidding crew. (S. F.) 

Head loader. When two men are engaged in loading logs on trucks or cars, 
one is termed head loader and the other second loader. (P. C. F., R. M. F.) 
See Top loader. 

Head log. 1. The front bottom log on a skidway. (N. F.) 
Syn.: face log. 

2. The front log in a turn. (P. C. F.) 
Syn.: lead log. 

Head push. .See Straw bo.ss. 

Headquarters, n. In logging, the distributing point for supplies, equipment 
and mail; not usually the executive or administrative center. (Gen.) 

Head-spar tree. In steam skidding, the tree near the railroad to which one 
end of the cable upon which the trolley runs is attached. (Gen.) 
Syn. : head tree, spar tree. 

Head tree. See Head-spar tree. 

Headworks, n. A platform or raft, with windlass or capstan, which is at- 
tached to the front of a log raft or boom of logs for warping, kedging, or 
winding it through lakes and still water, by hand or horsepower. (N. W., 
L. S.) 

Syn.: crab. (N. F., S. F.) 

Helper, n. See Second faUer. 

Herder, n. One who patrols a lumber or log flume to prevent jams. (Cal.) 

High-lead logging. A modification of donkey yarding, the main cable rig- 
ging at the railroad being suspended on a head-spar similar to that used 
in cableway logging. (P. C. F.) 

Hoist, n. See IncUne; Loading tripod. 

Hold, n. The attachment of tackle to a log or other object to be moved. 
(P. C. F.) 

Holding boom. See Storage boom. 

Hookaroon, n. A recurved pike, or a pike and a hook fitted to a handle from 
36 to 38 inches long. Used in handUng crossties, lumber, poles, posts, 
staves, timber, and like products. (Gen.) 
Syn.: pickaroon. 

Hooker, n. 1. One who works with a teamster in bunching logs. (Cal.) 

2. See Ground loader. 

3. See Hook tender. 
Hooker-on. See Ground loader. 

Hookman. 1. One who works with a cant hook or peavey. (L. S., R. M. F.) 

2. .See Ground loader. 
Hook tender. The foreman of a yarding crew; specifically, one who directs 
the attaching of the cable to a turn of logs. (P. C. F.) 

Syn.: hooker (P. C. F.), logger (Cal.), yarding hook tender (R. M. F.). 



490 APPENDIX 

Horse dam. A temporary dam made by placing large logs across a stream, 

in order to raise the water behind it, so as to float the rear. (N. F.) 
Horse logs, to. In river driving, to drag stranded logs back to the stream 

by the use of peaveys. (N. F.) 
Hot logging. A logging operation in which logs go forward from stump to 

inill without pause. (Gen.) 
Hot skidway. A skidway from which logs are immediately loaded. (N. W.) 
Hovel, n. A stable for logging teams. (N. W., L. S.) 
Ice a road, to. To sprinkle water on a logging road so that a coating of ice 

may form, thus facihtating the hauling of logs. (N. F.) 
Ice box. See Sprinkler. 
Ice guards. Heavy timbers fastened fan shaped about a cluster of boom 

piles at an angle of approximately 30 degrees to the surface of the water. 

They prevent the destruction of the boom by ice, through forcing it to 

mount the guards and be broken up. (N. E.) 
Incline, n. A portion of a logging railroad, the grade of which is too steep 

for the operation of locomotives, and up or dowTi which the log cars are 

raised or lowered by means of a cable and power. When logs are hauled 

up grade the incline is sometimes called a hoist. (Gen ) 
Jack, n. 1. A type of jack screw sometimes used for rolling logs off from the 

right of way, where railroad grading is being done by hand. The jack 

screw was formerly used to shift logs on a landing when cars were being 

loaded by hand. (P. C. F.) 

2. In aerial logging, a shoe which rests on a guy line and supports the 

loading block. (P. C. F.) 
Jack chain. An endless spiked chain which moves logs from one point to 

another, usually from the mill pond into the sawmill. (Gen.) 

Syn.: jacker chain (Gen.), bull chain, log haul chain (P. C. F.). 
Jackpot, n. 1. A contemptuous expression applied to an unskillful piece of 

work in logging. (N. F.) 

2. An irregular pile of logs. (App.) 
. 3. A bad slash. (N. W.) 

4. Lodgement of one or more trees in another in felling. 
Syn.: siwash. (P. C. F.) 
Jack works. See Loading jack. 

Jam, V. To form an obstruction of logs in a stream. (N. F., E. C.) 
Jam, n. A stoppage or congestion of logs in a stream, due to an obstruction 

or to low water. (Gen.) 
Jam cracker. See Head driver. 
Jam hook. See Swamp hook. 
Jammer, n. 1. An improved form of gin, mounted on a movable framework, 

and used to load logs on sleds and cars by horse power. (N. F.) 
2. A power log loader, usually of the McGiffert type. (Cal.) 
Jam, to break a. To start in motion logs which have jammed. (Gen.) 
Jay hawk, to. To strip one 4-foot length of bark from a tanbark oak, leaving 

the tree standing. (P. C. F., N. W.) 
Jay hole. On steep skidding roads, a place of refuge for the team when the 

turn of logs has attained high speed. (App.) 



TERMS USED IN LOGGING 491 

J-hook, n. A hook, with a recurved head, to each end of which a grab is 
attached by a short chain. Tlie J-hook is fastened to the top of the for- 
ward log of a turn on a skipper road and serves as the point of attachment 
for the draft. If the logs start to run, the draft animals can be automat- 
ically freed by turning them at right angles to the road. (App.) 
Jiboo, V. To remove a dog from a log. (N. W., L. S.) 
Jig, V. See Jigger. 
Jigger, V. To pull a log by horse power over a level place in a slide. (Gen.) 

Syn.: jig, lazy haul, to (Gen.), trail (R. M. F.). 
Jig team. A team of horses used to jigger logs. (App.) 
Jil-poke, V. To obstruct or hang up temporarily, a log drive. (N. W.) 
Jil-poke, n. See Deadhead. 
Jim binder. See Binder. 
Jim crow. A type of rail bender used for bending or straightening steel rails. 

(Gen.) 
Jim crow loads. A logging car or truck loaded with a log so large that one 

constitutes a load. (P. C. F.) 
Jobber, n. A logging contractor or subcontractor. (Gen.) 
Jobber's sun. A term applied to the moon in a jobber's or contractor's 
logging camp, on account of the early and late hours of commencing and 
ending work. (N. W., L. S.) 
Joint, n. A section of a raft. (E. C.) 
Juggler. See Log roller. 

Jumbo, n. \. A. type of tongueless double sled used for short-distance haul- 
ing. (L. S.) 

Syn.: double dray. 
2. See Bull block. 
Jumper, n. A sled made wholly of wood, used for hauling supplies over 
bare ground into a logging camp. (N. F., E. C.) 
See Mudboat; Whip-poor-will. 
Syn.: tote sled. 
Katydid, n. See Logging wheels. 
Kedge. See Warp. 
Key log. In river driving, a log which is so caught or wedged that a jam is 

formed and held. (Gen.) 
Kilhig, n. A short, stout pole used as a lever or brace to direct the fall of a 

tree. (N. W.) 
King swamper, n. A head swamper. (S. F., App.) 

Syn. : buck swamper. 
Knot, V. See Limb. 
Knot bumper. See Limber. 
Knotter, n. See Limber. 

Laker, n. A log driver expert at handling logs on lakes. (N. F.) 
Landing, n. 1. A place to which logs are hauled or skidded preparatory to 
transportation by water or rail. A rough-and-tumble landing is one in 
which no attempt is made to pile the logs regularly. (Gen.) 
Syn.: bank, banking ground, brow, log dump, roUway, yard. 
2. A platform, usually at the foot of a skid road, where logs are collected 



492 APPENDIX 

and loaded on cars. A lightning landing is one having such an inchne that 
the logs may roll upon the cars without assistance. (Gen.) 

3. A cribwork of logs, constituting a platform alongside the railroad 
track, upon which logs are hauled by a donke\-, ready for loading upon 
cars or trucks. (P. C. F.) 
Syn.: roll way. 

Landing crew. A crew that constructs landings. (P. C. F.) 

Landing man. One who unloads logging sleds at the landing. (N. F.) 

Landing, to break a. To roll a pile of logs from a landing or bank into the 
water. (Gen.) 

Land looker. See Cruiser. 

Lap, n. Tops left in the woods in logging. (Gen.) 
Syn.: lap wood. 

Lapwood, n. See Lap. 

Lash pole. A cross pole which holds logs together in a raft. (Gen.) 

Lazy haul, to. See Jigger. 

Lead, n. A block or roller attached to a stationary object which guides the 
pull of a cable. (P. C. F.) 

Lead block. See Bull block. 

Lead chains. See Cross chains. 

Leaders, n. In an ox or horse team, the forward pair. (Gen.) 

Lead log. See Brow skid; Head log. 

Lead strap. A wire rope, with an eye at each end, used to anchor the block 
in .setting a lead. (P. C. F.) 

L-hook, n. An L-shaped hook vAath a long cable, chain, or rope attached. 
The hook is fastened to the rear of a turn of logs in the trailing portion of a 
slide and the draft animals to the cable. When the turn starts to run on 
a steep portion of the slide the hook is automatically released and pre- 
vents the logs from dragging the draft animals. (App.) 

Lift gate. In a logging dam sluiceway, a gate which may be moved up or 
down in vertical slides or grooves, fastened to the sides of the sluiceway. 
(Gen.) 

Lightning landing. See Landing, 2. 

Lightwood, n. Pine wood which is heavily impregnated with a resinous 
substance. (S. F.) 
Syn.: fatwood. 

Limb, V. To remove the limbs from a felled tree. 
Syn.: knot. (P. C. F.) 

Limber, n. One who cuts the limbs from felled trees. (Gen.) 
Syn.: knot bumper (App.) knotter. (P. C. F., R. M. F.) 

Limber boom. A flexible boom, the sticks of which are usually joined to each 
other by means of short chains or short pieces of manila rope or wire cable. 

Lineman, ?i. One in charge of hauling logs in a chute. (S. F.) 

Line horse. 1. The horse which drags the cable from the yarding engine or 
skidder to the log to which the cable is to be attached. (S. F.) 

2. A horse used to aid the rigging crew in changing lines. Formerly, the 
animal used to haul out the cable from the yarding engine to the log. 
(P. C. F.) 



TERMS USED IN LOGGING 493 

Lizard, n. A crude sled made from the crotch of a tree, used in skidding logs 

in muddy places. The forward end of the log rests on the sled. (S. F.) 

See Dray. 
Loader, n. 1. One who loads logs on sleds or cars. (Gen.) 

2. See Steam loader. 
Loader leverman. One who operates the levers controlling the drums on a 

power loading device. (S. F.) 
Loaderman. See Loader. 
Loading chain. A long chain used in loading or piling logs with horses. 

(N. F.) 
Syn.: decking chain, loading line, rolling chain. 
See Crotch chain. 
Loading dock. See Loading jack. 
Loading jack. A platformed framework upon which logs are hoisted from 

the water for loading upon cars. (N. F.) 

Syn.: jack works (N. F.), loading dock. (L. S.) 
Loading line. 1. The cable on a power skidding device used for loading logs 

on cars. (Gen.) 

2. See Loading chain. 
Loading tripod. Three long timbers joined at their tops in the shape of a 

tripod, for holding a pulley block in proper position to load logs on cars 

from a lake or stream. (L. S.) 
Syn.: hoist. 
Lobby, n. In a logging camp, a room in which the men wash and wait for 

meal-time. Generally found in two-storied camps which have the sleeping 

quarters on the second floor. (App.) 
Lobby hog. See Chore boy. 
Lock down. A strip of tough wood, with holes in the ends, which is laid 

across a raft of logs. Rafting pins are driven through the holes into the 

logs, thus holding the raft together. (N. F.) 
Lodge, to. See Hang up, to. 
Logan, n. See Pokelogan. 
Log boat. A -short, tongueless sled with wood runners, used to haul logs to a 

portable mill operation. (N. F.) 
Log chute. 1. A trough made of timbers and used for sliding logs down hill, 

either dry or by aid of water. (E. C.) 
Log deck. The platform upon a loading jack. (Gen.) 
Log dump. See Landing. 
Log fixer. See Rosser. 
Logger, n. 1. One engaged in logging. 
Syn.: lumber jack. 
2. See Hook tender. 
Logging sled. The heavy double sled used to haul logs from the skidway or 

yard to the landing. (N. F.) 

Syn.: sleigh, twin sleds, two sleds, wagon sled. 
Logging-sled road. A road leading from the skidway to the landing. (N. F.) 
Logging truck. A four-wheeled logging railroad truck with a bunk on which 



494 APPENDIX 

is carried one end of a load of logs. The opposite ends of the logs are sup- 
ported on a similar truck, a gooseneck often being omitted. (P. C. F.) 
Syn.: truck. 
Logging wheels. A pair of wheels from 7 to 12 feet in diameter, for trans- 
porting logs. (Gen.) 

Sj'n.: katydid, shp-tongue cart, sulky, timber wheels (Gen.), big wheels. 
(Cal.) 
Log hauler. A steam or gasoHne power engine with a special traction device 
which is used in place of horses to haul logging sleds. (N. F.) 
Syn.: caterpillar. (E. C.) 
Log maker. See Bucker. 

Log scale. The contents of a log, or of a number of logs considered collec- 
tively. (Gen.) 
Log sorter. See Mark caller. 
Log spur. See Spur. 
Log stamp. See Marking hammer. 
Log, to. To cut logs and deliver them at a place from which they can be 

transported by water or rail, to the mill. (Gen.) 
Log watch. See Head driver. 
Long butt, to. See Butt off, to. 
Lookout. See Signal man. 
Loose-tongued sloop. See Swing dingle. 
Lop, V. To cut the limbs from a felled tree. (Gen.) 

Syn.: top-lop. (E. C.) 
Lot, n. A piece of standing timber, small in area. (N. F.) 
Lubber lift, to. To raise the end of a log by means of a pry, and through the 

use of weight instead of strength. (N. F.) 
Lug hooks. A pair of tongs attached to the middle of a short bar, and used 
by two men to carry small logs. (Gen.) 
Syn.: timber carrier, timber grapple. 
Lumber, v. To log or to manufacture logs into lumber, or both. (Gen.) 
Lumberjack, n. One who works in a logging camp. (Gen.) 

Syn.: timber beast, woodhick (App., N. W.), logger (P. C. F.), shanty 
man. (E. C.) 
Lumberman, n. One engaged in lumbering. (Gen.) 
Main line. See Skyline. 

Mark, n. A letter or .sign indicating ownership, which is stamped on the 
ends of logs. (Gen.) See Bark mark. 
Syn.: brand, end mark. 
Mark caller. In sorting logs, one who stands at the lower end of the sorting 
jack and calls the different marks, so that the logs may be guided into the 
proper channels or pockets. (Gen.) 
Syn.: log sorter. (N. W.) 
Marker, n. 1 One who puts the mark on the ends of logs. (Gen.) 

2. One who marks boles into log lengths for buckers. (Cal.) 
Market, n. A log 19 inches in diameter at the small end and 13 feet long. 
(New York.) See Quebec standard. 
Syn.: standard. 



TERMS USED IN LOGGING 495 

Marking hammer. A hammer bearing a raised device which is stamped on 
logs to indicate ownership. (Gen.) 

Syn. : marking iron (Gen.), log stamp, stamping hammer. (E. C.) 

Marking iron. See Marking hammer. 

Match, V. See Mate. 

Mate, v. To place together in a raft logs of similar size. (Gen.) 
Syn.: match. 

Merchantable log. A log that will make lumber of a quahty and in sufficient 
amount to make it profitable to take it to a mill and have it sawed. (Su- 
preme Court of Michigan, 82 Northwest Reporter, 230.) 

Merchantable timber. Usually interpreted to mean timber that can be manu- 
factured and .sold at not less than cost. The purpose for which the timber 
is to be used and local customs are factors which influence the degree of 
utiUzation. 

Messenger. See Haul back. 

Mill pond. The pond near a sawmill in which logs to be sawn are held. 
(Gen.) 

Mill scale. The scale of logs made at the rafting boom or at the sawmill. 
(Gen.) 

Mine prop. A small stull. (R. M. F.) 

Monitor. See Catamaran. 

Moss, V. See Chink. 

Mud, V. To fill with soft clay or mortar the crevices between the logs in a 
logging camp. It u.sually is preceded by chinking. (N. E.) See Chink. 
S\Ti.: daub. (R. M. F.) 

Mudboat, n. A low sled with wide runners, u.sed for hauUng logs in swamps. 
(S. F., N. F.) 
Syn.: jumper. (N. W.) 

Mudsill, n. 1. The bed piece or bottom timber of a dam which is placed 
across the stream, usually resting on rocks or in the mud. (Gen.) 
Syn.: bottom sill. 

2. Short pieces of timber placed crosswise imdemeath the main sill of 
each bent in a railroad bridge. (Gen.) 

Mule cart. A 4-wheeled vehicle used in the Coastal Plain region for hauling 
logs. The logs are suspended under the axle of the rear wheels. (S. F.) 

Mulligan car. See Camp car. 

Needle gate. In a logging dam .sluiceway, narrow timbers or poles with two 
or more squared faces which are placed in contact across the opening of the 
.sluice to prevent the outflow of water. One or more " needles " may be 
removed without disturbing the remainder. (Gen.) 
Syn.: bracket gate. 

Nick, n. See Undercut. 

Nipper, n. A member of the steel crew, who by means of a crow-bar and a 
block used as a fulcrum holds the end of the crosstie against the base of 
the rail while the spikes are being driven. (Gen.) 

North Carolina pine. Pine timber cut in the Coastal Plain region of Vir- 
ginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina. (S. F.) 



496 APPENDIX 

Nose, r. To round off the end of a log in order to make it drag or slip more 

easily. (Gen.) 
Syn.: snipe. 
Notch, I'. To make an midercut in a tree preparatory to felling it. (Gen.) 

Syn.: box, undercut. 
Notch, n. See Undercut. 
One-block hold. See Block hold. 
Overrun, n. The difference between the mill cut of merchantable lumber 

and the log scale. U.sually calculated as a per cent of 1000 feet log scale. 

(Gen.) 
Pair of fallers. See FalUng crew. 
Parbuckle, n. See Crotch chain. 

Park, r. To collect crossties along a strip road, u-sually by hand. (R. M. F.) 
Peaker, n. 1. A load of logs narrowing sharply toward the top and thus 

shaped like an inverted V. (Gen.) 
Syn. : wind splitter. 
2. The top log of a load. (Gen.) 
Peavey, n. A stout lever from 5 to 7 feet long, fitted at the larger end with 

a metal socket and spike and a curved steel hook which works on a bolt; 

used in handhng logs, especially in driving. A peavey differs from a cant 

hook in having a pike instead of a toe ring and Up at the end. (Gen.) 

See Cant dog; Cant hook. 
Pecky, a. A term applied to a defect common in bald cypress. (S. F.) 

Syn.: peggy. 
Peeler, n. See Barker. 
Peggy, a. See Pecky. 
Pickaroon, n. A piked pole fitted with a curved hook, used in holding boats 

to jams in driving, and for puUing logs from brush and eddies out into the 

current. (Gen.) 
Pick the rear, to. See Sack the rear, to. 
Pier dam. A pier built from the shore, usually slanting downstream, to 

narrow and deepen the channel, to guide logs past an obstruction, or to 

throw all the water on one side of an island. (N.F.) 
Syn.: side pier, wing dam. 
Pig, n. See Rigging sled. 
Pigman, n. See Chaser. 
Pig tail. An iron device driven into trees or stumps to support a wire or 

small rope. (P. C. F.) 
Pike lever. See Hand pike. 
Pike pole. A piked pole from 12 to 20 feet long, wath or without a hook, 

used in holding boats to jams in driving and for pidling logs from brush and 

eddies out into the current. (Gen.) 
Syn.: gaff. (E. C.) 
Pile dam. A dam formed by a double row of piles between which are placed 

stones, gravel, and fine material to prevent the passage of water. (L. S.) 
Pin dote. Small rotten spots on the ends of logs. (Gen.) 
Pine sawyer. A beetle of the genus Monohammus which attacks the sap- 
wood of pine logs. (S. F.) 



TERMS USED IN LOGGING 497 

Pin worm holes. Small holes in timl)er and lumber made by the larvae of 

certain beetles. (Gen.) 
Pit, n. A skidway elevated so that its base is level with the logging car bunks. 

(App.) 
Pitch pocket. In coniferous woods, an opening between the annual growth 
rings containing pitch. (Gen.) 
Syn.: pitch seam. (P. C. F.) 
Pitch seam. See Pitch pocket. 
Pitch streak. In coniferous woods, a well-defined accumulation of pitch at 

one point. (Gen.) 
Plug, n. A steel pin about 2 inches in diameter and 18 inches long. Two of 
the plugs are joined together by chains which are attached to a large ring. 
They are used on puUboat operations in a cypress swamp in place of skid- 
ding tongs. (S. F.) 
Syn. : puppy. 
Plug and knock down. A. device for fastening boom sticks together, in the 
absence of chains. It consists of a withe secured by wooden plugs in 
holes bored in the booms. (N. F.) 
Pocket boom. A boom in which logs are held after they are sorted. (Gen.) 
Point, V. See Gun. 

Pokelogan, n. A bay or pocket into which logs may float during a drive. 
(N. W., L. S.) 
Syn.: logan, set-back. 
Pole chute. See Fore-and-aft road. 

Pole tie. A tie made from a stick of timber yielding only one tie. (Gen.) 
Pole tram road. A logging road, the rails of which are round poles. (App., 

S. F.) 
Pontoon. See Catamaran. 

Potter, n. A round stick, 3 or 4 inches in diameter and 2| or 3 feet long, 
around the center of which is fitted an iron clasp to which is fastened a 
short piece of chain with a hook on the free end. It is used when loading 
logging sleds to prevent logs from rolhng off the far side of the load until 
binding chains are placed in position. (N. W.) 
Pouch, n. A French term apphed derisively by lumber jacks to woods 

workers who shift from camp to camp. (N. W.) See Camp inspector. 
Preparer, n. See Fitter. 

Prime log. In the export market, one that is free from defects. (Gen.) 
Prize logs. Logs which come to the .sorting jack without marks denoting 

ownership. (N. F.) See Stray. 
Prop, n. In mining, a round, squared, or split timber which supports the cap 
and lagging or which is placed directly under the roof to support the same 
witliout a cap or lagging. (Gen.) 
Pull back. See Haul back. 
Pullboat A flatboat, carrying a .steam skidder or a donkey, used in logging 

cypress. (S. F.) 
Pull the briar, to. To use a cros.s-cut saw. (N. F.) 
Puppy, n. See Plug. 
Push. See Camp foreman. 



498 APPENDIX 

Put in, to. In logging, to deliver logs at the landing. (Gen.) 

Quarter tie. A tie made from a stick of timber yielding four or more ties- 
(S. F.) 

Quebec deal. See Deal. 

Quebec standard. A white pine log 22 inches in diameter, inside bark, at 
the small end and 12 feet long. A spruce or balsam log 14 inches in diam- 
eter inside bark at small end and 12 feet long. (E. C.) See Market. 

Quickwater, n. That part of a stream which has fall enough to create a 
decided current. (Gen.) 

Sj^n.: white water. (N. W.) 
Ant. : Stillwater. 

Raft bundle. Logs bound together into a circular unit for towing. (S. F.) 

Rafter dam. A dam in which long timbers are set on the upstream side at 
an angle of from 20 to 40 degrees to the water surface. The pressure 
of the water against the timbers holds the dam solidly against the stream 
bed. (N. F.) 

Syn.: self-loading dam, slant dam. 

Rafting dog. A wedge-shaped piece of metal with a ring or e^^e in the blunt 
end. Dogs are driven into boom sticks and often into the timbers being 
rafted, the raft members being held together by chains, cables, or rope, 
passed through the rings or eyes. 

Rafting pin. A round or wedge-shaped wooden pin used to wedge cable in 
the rafting pin holes on a raft. (Gen.) 

Rag a wedge, to. To roughen the surface of a wooden wedge with an ax to 
prevent it from jumping out of the saw cut in frozen timber. (E. C.) 

Ram pike. A tree broken off by wind and with a splintered end on the 
portion left standing. N. F.) 

Rank, v. To haul and pile regularly, as, to rank bark or cord wood. (Gen.) 

Ranking bar. See Handbarrow. 

Ranking jumper. A wood-shod sled upon which tanbark is hauled. (N. F.) 
Syn.: bark dray. (App.) 

Ratline, n. A rope through which at intervals small pins are driven into the 
logs which are to compose a raft joint. Its purpose is to hold the logs 
together until the boom poles can be adjusted. (E. C.) 
Syn. : rattling line. 

Rattling line. See Ratline. 

Rave, n. A piece of iron or wood which secures the beam to the runners of 
a logging sled. (N. W., L. S.) 

Rawhide, v. To carry on one's back. Usually applied to the carrying of 
tanbark. (App.) 

Rear, n. The up-stream end of a drive; the logs may be either stranded or 
floating. " Floating rear " comprises those logs which may be floated 
back into the current; " dry rear," those which must be dragged or rolled 
back. (Gen.) 

Syn.: tail end. (N. W.) 

Receiving boom. See Storage boom. 

Red heart. See Firm red heart. 



TERMS USED IN LOGGING 499 

Refuse, n. That portion of a tree which cannot be removed profitably from 

the forest or utiUzed profitabh^ at the manufacturing plant. (Gen.) 
Return line. See Haul back. 
Rick, n. A pile of cordwood, stave bolts, or other material split from short 

logs. (Gen.) 
2. A pile of firewood 8 feet long, 4 feet high, and of a width equal to the 

length of one stick. (C. H. F.) 
Ride, n. The side of a log upon which it rests when being dragged. (Gen.) 
Ride a log, to. To stand on a floating log. (Gen.) 
Ridge runner. A farmer who is an intermittent logger. (App.) 
Rigger. See Rigging slinger. 
Rigging, n. The cables, blocks and hooks used in skidding logs by steam 

power. (Gen.) 
Rigging sled. A sled used to haul hooks and blocks on a skid road. (P. C. F.) 

Syn. : chute boat, dog boat, pig. 
Rigging slinger. 1. A member of a yarding crew, whose chief duty is to 

place chokers or grabs on logs. (P. C. F.) 

2. One who attaches the rigging to trees, in steam skidding. (S. F.) 
Syn.: rigger. 
Ring, n. A section of tanbark, usually 4 feet long. (N. F.) 
Ring rot. Decay in a log, which follows the annual rings more or less closely. 

(Gen.) 
Rise, n. The difference in diameter, or taper, between two points on a log. 

(Gen.) 
Rive, V. To split shingles or shakes from bolts. (Gen.) 
River boss. The foreman in charge of a log drive. (N. F.) 
River driver. One who works on a log drive. (Gen.) 
River hog. See River rat. 
River pig. See River rat. 
River rat. A log driver whose work is chiefly on the river; contrasted with 

Laker. (N. F.) 

Syn.: river hog, river pig. 
Road donkey. See Roader. 
Road engine. See Roader. 
Roader, n. A donkey engine mounted on a heavy sled, which is used for 

long-distance hauling either on the ground or on a skid road. It is equipped 

with three drums — one for the pulling line, one for the haul back, and one 

for loading. (P. C. F.) See Yarding donkey. 

Syn.: bull donkey, road donkey, road engine (P. C. F.), Takoma (Cal.), 

donkey. 
Road gang. That portion of the crew of a logging camp which cuts logging 

roads and keeps them in repair. (N. F.) 
Road monkey. One whose duty is to keep a logging road in proper condition. 

(N. W., L. S., P. C. F.) 
Syn.: dolly, roller, stump roller, stump spool, upright roller, yarding 

spool. 
Road roller. A flanged roller placed upright at a bend in a skid road to 



500 APPENDIX 

direct the cable. It is sometimes used instead of a bull block in yarding 

logs. (P. C. F.) 

Sj'D.: blue jay, chickadee (N. F.), sandman. 
Road scale. The scale of logs which is taken on the landing. (P. C. F.) 
Rocker, n. The top bunk on the forward pair of runners of a logging sled. 

It i.s fastened to the lower bunk by a kingpin. (N. W.) 
Rodeur. See Camp inspector. 
Roll, n. The crossbar of a logging sled into which the tongue is set. (N. W.. 

L. S.) 

Syn.: roller. 
Roll a log, to. To so attach a choker to a log that the latter roUs sidewise 

when power is apphed to a cable. (P. C. F.) 
Roll bark. Hemlock tanbark that has not been carefuUy dried and hence is 

of inferior quahty. (N. F.) 
Roll-down man. See Tailer-in. 
Roller, n. See Roll; Road roUer. 
Rolling chain. See Loading chain. 
Rolling dam. A dam for raising the water in a shallow stream. It has no 

sluiceways, but a smooth top of timber over which, under a sufficient head 

of water, logs may sUde or roll. (Gen.) 
Roll logs, to. To turn over the logs on a landing so that the bark marks can 

be inspected by the scaler. (E. C.) 
Roll the boom, to. To roU a boom of logs along the shore of a lake against 

which it is held by wind, by the use of a cable operated by a steamboat or 

kedge. The cable is attached to the outer side of the boom, hauled up, 

then attached again, thus propeUing the boom by revolving it against 

the shore when it woidd be impossible to tow it. (N. W., L. S.) 
Roll up. See Bank up. 
Rollway, n. See Landing. 
Rooster, n. See Gooseneck. 
Rosser, n. 1. One who barks and smooths the ride of a log in order that it 

may shde more easily. (N. F.) 

Syn.: log fixer, rosser (P. C. F.), scalper, slipper. (App.) 

2. One who peels pulpwood and logs. (N. W.) 

3. See Barker. 

Rossing-mill, n. A plant at which bark is removed from pulpwood by means 

of machinery. fN. W., E. C.) 
Rotten knot. A knot which is not as hard as the surrounding wood. (Gen.) 
Rough and tumble landing. See Landing. 
Round boom. A limber boom used to impound logs during towing. (L, S.) 

See Bag boom. 
Round knot. A knot that is oval or circular in form. (Gen.) 
Round timber. Timber which has not been bled for crude turpentine. (S. F.) 
Round turn. A space at the head of a logging-sled road, in which the sled 

may be turned round mthout unhitching the team. (N. F.) 
Rudder boom. See Fin boom. 
Rim, n. A narrow trail, cleared of brush and stumps, down which logs are 

puUed by a power skidder. (S. F.) 



TERMS USED IN LOGGING 501 

Run cutter. One who clears narrow trails which radiate from a puUboat or 
from a head-spar tree, down which logs are hauled by a power skidder. 
(S. F.) 

Runner chain. A chain bound loosely around the forward end of the rim- 
ners of a logging sled as a brake. (N. W., L. S.) 

Runner dog. A curved iron attached to a runner of the hind sled of a log- 
ging sled, which holds the loaded sled on steep hills by being forced into 
the bed of the road by any backward movement. (N. F.) 

Running slide. A slide on which logs run by gravity. (App.) 

Runway. See Gutter road. 

Rutter, n. A form of plow for cutting ruts in a logging road for the runners 
of the sleds to run in. (N. W., L. S.) 

Sack the rear, to. To follow a drive and roll in logs which have lodged or 
grounded. (Gen.) 

Syn.: pick the rear, to; sweep the rear, to. (E. C.) 

Sack the slide, to. To return to a sHde logs which have jumped out. (Gen.) 

Saddle, n. The depression cut in a transverse skid in a skid road to guide 
the logs which pass over it. (P. C. F.) 

Saddlebag, r. As apphed to a boom, to catch on an obstruction and double 
around it. (Gen.) 

Sampson, n. 1. An appliance for loosening or starting logs by horsepower. 
It usually consists of a strong, heavy timber and a chain terminating in a 
heavy swamp hook. The timber is placed upright beside the piece to be 
moved, the chain fastened around it, and the hook inserted low down on 
the opposite side. Leverage is then applied by a team hitched to the upper 
end of the upright timber. (N. F.) 

Sampson a tree, to. To direct the fall of a tree by means of a lever and pole. 
(N. F.) 

Sandman. See Road monkey. 

Sap stain. Discoloration of the sapwood. (Gen.) 

Satchel stick. A stick carried on the shoulder and used by a lumberjack to 
support his turkey. (App.) 

Saw boss. Foreman of the felling and log-making crews. (S. F.) 
Syn.: captain (S. F.), bull bucker, head bucker. (P. C. F.) 

Saw fitter. See Filer. 

Saw kerf. The width of cut made by a saw. (Gen.) 

Saw timber. Logs suitable in size and length for the production of mer- 
chantable lumber. 

Sawyer, n. See Faller. 

Scale, V. To measure the volume of logs. (Gen.) 
Syn.: cuU. (E. C.) 

Scale book. A book e.specially designed for recording the contents of scaled 
logs. (Gen.) 

Scaler, n. One who determines the volume of logs. (Gen.) 
.Syn.: culler. (E. C.) 

Scalper, n. See Rosser. 

Schoodic chain bind. A method of binding logs to the bunk of a dray. Two 
forms are in use, namely, the single schoodic and the double schoodic. 
(N. W.) 



502 APPENDIX 

Scoot, a. See Dray. 

Score, /'. In hewing timber, to mark with Hnes or with ax hacks the limits of 

the cut, both as to width and depth. (Gen.) 
Scotch, n. See Gooseneck. 
Scratch grade. A logging railroad grade on which only hght work has been 

done. (P. C. F., S. F.) 
Seam. See Check. 
Season check. See Check. 
Second faller. The subordinate in a crew of two fallers. (P. C. F.) See 

Head faller. 

Syn.: faller, helper. (N. F.) 
Second loader. See Head loader. 
Section, n. A portion of a log raft, separated by swifters, usually containing 

two tiers of logs. (P. C. F.) 
Self-loading dam. See Rafter dam. 
Self-loading skidder. See Bummer. 
Sender. See Ground loader. 
Send-up man. See Ground loader. 
Send up, to. In loading, to raise logs up skids with cant hooks, or by steam 

or horse power. (Gen.) 
Set back. See Pokelogan. 
Set gauge. A tool used by a cross-cut saw filer to regulate the amount of 

set given to each tooth. (Gen.) 
Syn.: spider. 
Setting, n. The temporary station of a portable sawmill, a yarding engine, 

or other machine used in logging. (Gen.) 
Syn. : set-up. 
Set-up, n. See Setting. 
Shackle. See Yoke. 
Shake, n. 1. A form of shingle split from a bolt of wood and used to cover 

both the roofs and sides of buildings. Those made of sugar pine are 32 

inches long, 5 inches wide, and ?i6 of an inch thick on the thin edge. 
Syn.: hand-made shingle, roof board. (App.) 
2. A crack in timber, due to frost or wind. (Gen.) 
Syn.: wandshake. 
Shake roof. See SpUt roof. 
Shanty boat. See Wanigan. 
Shanty boss. 1. See Camp foreman. 

2. .See Chore boy. 
Shanty man. See Lumberjack. 
Sheer boom. A boom so secured that it guides floating logs in the desired 

direction. (N. F.) 

Syn.: fender boom, glancing boom. 
Sheer skid. See Fender skid. 
Shim, n. Blocking placed under crossties to level up the track; also used to 

keep the track from .sinking into the mud. (Gen.) 
Shim up, to, V. To place shims under a railroad track. (Gen.) 



TERMS U>SED IN LOGGING 503 

Shingle bolt. A short spht section of a log from which shingles are manu- 
factured. (Gen.) See Bolt. 
Shoot a jam, to. To loosen a log jam with dynamite. (Gen.) 
Shore hold. The attachment of the hawser of a raft of logs to an object on 

the shore. (N. W., L. S.) 
Short road. See Go-back road. 
Shot-gun, n. See Gun. 

Shot holes. Holes made in wood bj- boring insects. (App.) 
Show, n. See Chance. 

Side, n. The crew of men, including faUers, buckers, rigging men, loaders, 
and all others working with a 3'arding donkey. When a roader or swing 
donkey takes logs from the yarding donkey the men operating them are 
included in the side. (P. C. F.) 
Side boss. The foreman of a " side." (P. C. F.) 

Side jam. A jam which has formed on one side of a stream, usually where 
the logs are forced to the shore at a bend by the current, or where the 
water is shallow or there are partially submerged rocks. (N. F.) 
Side line logs, to. 1. To throw the hauhng cable around a stump, out of the 
direct line of pull, in order to change the direction of travel of the log and 
thus avoid some obstruction in its path. (Gen.) 
Syn.: siwash. (P. C. F.) 

2. To draw logs up to the main hauhng cable. (S. F.) 
Side-line man. One who carries the side hnes from the main cable of a pull- 
boat and attaches them to the logs that are to be skidded. (S. F.) 
Side mark. See Bark mark. 
Side pier. See Pier dam. 
Side pole. See Sway bar. 
Side winder. A tree knocked down unexpectedly by the falhng of another. 

(Gen.) 
Signal man. One who transmits orders from the foreman of a yarding crew 
to the engineer of the yarding donkey. 
Syn.: lookout, signal punk, whistle punk. 
Signal punk. See Signal man. 
Single cord. A pile of wood, 8 feet long, 4 feet high, and 2 feet wide. 

(C. H. F.) 
Single coupler. Single couphng grabs joined by a short chain or cable, u.sed 
for fastening logs together. (App.) 
Syn.: tail grab. 
Single out, to. To float logs, usually cypress, one at a time, from the woods 

to the float road. (S. F.) 
Sinker, n. See Deadhead. 
Sinker boat. See Catamaran. 
Siwash. .See Side hne logs, to; Jackpot. 
Skeleton log car. A car having a skeleton frame. (Gen.) 

Syn.: connected truck. (P. C. F.) 
Skid, V. 1. To draw logs from the stump to the skid way, landing or miU. 
(Gen.) 



504 APPENDIX 

83-11.: snake, twitch, yard. (N. W.) 

2. As applied to a road, to reinforce by placing logs or poles across it. 
Skid, n. A log or pole, commonly used in pairs, upon which logs are han- 
dled or piled (Gen.); or the log or pole laid transversely in a skid road. 
(P. C. F.) 
Skidder, n. 1. One who skids logs. (Gen.) 

2. A steam or electrically driven device operating on or near a railroad 
track, which skids logs by means of a cable. Three general systems are in 
use; the cable- way or overhead system, the chief distinguishing feature 
of which is a cable suspended between a head-spar tree and a tail tree, on 
which travels a trolley from which cables run that wholly or partially ele- 
vate the log above the ground; the slack-rope system, a ground system in 
which the skidding cable is returned to the logs by a smaller cable called 
a haul back; the snaking system, a ground system in which the skidding 
line is pulled out by an animal. (Gen.) 

Syn.: steam skidder. 

3. The foreman of a crew which constructs skid roads. (P. C F.) 

4. See Bummer. 

Skidding chain. A heavy chain used in skidding logs. (Gen.) 
Skidding hooks. See Skidding tongs. 
Skidding sled. See Dray. 

Skidding tongs. 1. A pair of hooks attached by links to a ring and used for 
skidding logs. (Gen.) 

Syn.: dogs, grabs, grapples, grips, head grabs, skidding hooks. 
2. Tongs used in skidding logs. (Gen.) 
Skidding trail. See Gutter road. 
Skid grease. See Chute grea.se. 
Skid greaser. See Greaser. 

Skid-off, n. A launching way for lumber rafts. (S. F.) 
Skid road. 1. A road or trail leading from the stump to the skidway or 
landing. (Gen.) 
Syn.: travois road. (N. F.) 

2. A road over which logs are dragged, having heavy transverse skids 
partially sunk in the ground, usually at intervals of about 5 feet. (P. C. F.) 
Skid up, to. 1. To level or reinforce a logging road by the use of skids. 
(Gen.) 
2. To collect logs and pile them on a skidway. (Gen.) 
Skidway, n. Two skids laid parallel at right angles to a road, usually raised 
above the ground at the end nearest the road. Logs are usually piled 
upon a skidway as they are brought from the stump for loading upon 
sleds, wagons or cars. (Gen.) 
Syn.: yard. (N. W.) 
Skidway, to break a. To roll piled logs off a skidway. (Gen.) 
Skip the grabs, to. To release the skidding grabs from the log by means of a 

grab skipi)er. (App.) 
Skipper, n. 1. A sledge hammer with pointed ends which is used to pry 
skidding tongs loose from logs. (App.) See Grab skipper. 



TERMS USED IN LOGGING 505 

Skipper road. A skid road on which poles are placed zigzag across the road, 

the angle between skids being about 60 degrees; or a road on which poles 

are jilaced transversely at intervals of from 4 to 6 feet. (App.) 
Sky hooker. See Top loader. 
Skyline, n. The cable suspended between the head-spar tree and the tail 

tree in cableway logging, on which the trolley travels. (P. C. F.) 
Svn. : aerial line, main hne, standing line, track cable. 
Skyline logging. Logging with a cableway skidder. (P. C. F.) 
Slab tie. The third tie made from a stick of timber too small to make four 

ties and too large to make two ties. (S. F.) 
Slack puller. 1. A power-operated device on an overhead steam skidder 

which pulls slack out of the skidding Une when the trolley has been run out 

to the desired point in the rim. (Gen.) 

2. One who pulls slack on the skidding line of an overhead steam skidder. 

(S. F.) 
Slack-rope system. A system of power logging in which the main skidding 

calile is returned from the machine to the logs by means of a smaller cable 

knowTi as the " haul back " or messenger. (Gen.) 
Slack water. L In river driving, the temporary slackening of the current 

caused by the formation of a jam. (Gen.) 
2. Low water or dead water. (N. W.) 
Slant dam. See Rafter dam. 

Slash, n. 1. The debris left after logging, wind or fire. (Gen.) 
Syn.: slashing. 
2. Forest land which has been logged off and upon which the limbs and 

top.s remain, or which is deep in debris as the result of fire or wind. (Gen.) 
Slash boards. See Splash boards. 
Slashing, n. See Slash. 
Sled tender. 1 One who assists in loading and unloading logs or skidding 

with a dray. (N. F.) 

Syn.: chainer (L. S.), chain tender, chaser, frogger. 
Sleigh. See Logging sled. 
Slide, n. A trough built of logs or timber, used to transport logs down a 

slope. (Gen.) 

Syn.: chute, dry slide, sHp. 
Slide tender. One who keeps a sUde in repair. (Gen.) 
Slip, n. See Slide. 
Slip grab. A pear-shaped link attached by a swivel to a skidding evener or 

whifHetree, through which the skidding chain is pa.ssed. The chain runs 

freely when the shp grab is held sideways, but catches when the grab is 

straight. (N. F.) 
Syn.: grab link. 
Slip man. See Pond man. 
Slipper, n. See Rosser. 
Slip skids. See Glisse skids. 
Slip-tongue cart. A special form of logging wheels used for transporting logs. 

(S. F., P. C. F.) See Logging wheels. 



506 APPENDIX 

Sloop, /(. 1. A single pair of long sled runners, ctiuipped with a tongue and 

bunks on which short logs are loaded. Used cliicfly in farming communities. 

(N. W.) 
2. -Sec Bob. 
Sloop logs, to. To haul logs do\vn steep slopes on a dray or sloop equipped 

with a tongue. (N. F.) 
Slough pig. Usually a second-rate river driver who is assigned to picking 

logs out of sloughs in advance of the rear. (N. F.) 
Sluice, V. 1. See Flume. 

2. To float logs through the sluiceway of a splash dam. (N. F.) 

3. See Splash. 

4. See Hand sluice. 
Sluice, n. See Flume. 

Sluice gate. The gate closing a sluiceway in a splash dam. (Gen.) 

Sluiceway, n. The opening in a splash dam through which logs pass. (Gen.) 

Snag, 71. 1. A standing tree stem from which the crown has been broken. 
(Gen.) See Ram pike. 
Syn.: stub. 
2. A sunken log or a submerged stump. (Gen.) 

Snake, v. See Skid. 

Snaking system. A system of power logging in which the main cable is re- 
turned to the woods by an animal. (Gen.) 

Snaking trail. .See Gutter road. 

Snatch team. See Tow team. 

Snib, V. In river driving, to be carried away purposely, but ostensibly by 
accident, on the first portion of a jam that moves; to ride away from work 
under guise of being accidentally carried off. (N. W., L. S.) 

Snipe, V. See Nose. 

Sniper, n. One who noses logs before they are skidded. (Gen.) 

Snow a road, to. To cover bare spots in a logging road with snow, to facili- 
tate the passage of sleds. (N. F.) 

Snow slide, A temporary slide on a steep slope, made by dragging a large 
log through deep snow which is soft or thawing; when frozen solidly, it 
may be used to sUde logs to a point where they can be reached by sleds. 
(N. W.) 

Snub, V. To check, usually by means of a snub line, the speed of logging 
sleds or logs on steep slopes, or of a log raft. (Gen.) 

Snubber, n. A device consisting of a drum or drums, controlled by powerful 
hand or power brakes, or both, which is used in lowering logs or log cars on 
steep grades, by means of a cable. (P. C. F.) 

Snub line. 1. A rope or cable attached to the rear bunk of a logging sled used 
to control the speed on steep grades. (N. W.) 

2. A wire rope used with a donkev for snubbing logs, or log cars. 
(P. C. F.) 

Snub yoke. The wheelers in an ox team. (App., S. F.) See Butt team; 
^^Tleelers. 

Softwood, a. As applied to trees and logs, needle-leafed, coniferous. (Gen.) 

Softwood, n. A coniferous tree. (Gen.) 



TERMS USED IN LOGGING 507 

Solid jam. 1. In river driving, a jam formed solidly and extending from 
bank to bank of a stream. (N. ¥.) 

2. A drive is said to be " in a solid jam " when the stream is full of logs 
from the point to which the rear is cleared to the mill, sorting jack or storage 
boom. (N. F.) 
Sorting boom. A strong boom used to guide logs into the sorting jack, to 

both sides of which it is usually attached. (Gen.) 
Sorting gap. See Sorting jack. 

Sorting jack. A raft, secured in a stream, through an opening in which logs 
pass to be sorted by their marks and diverted into pocket booms or the 
downstream channel. (Gen.) 
Syn. : sorting gap. 
Sound knot. A knot which is sohd across its face, as hard as the surrounding 

wood, and so fixed that it will retain its place in the piece. (Gen.) 
Spanish windlass. A device for moving heavy objects in logging. It con- 
sists of a rope or chain, within a turn of wliich a lever is inserted and power 
gained by twisting. (N. F.) 
Syn. : twister. 
Spar tree. See Head-spar tree. 
Spider. See Set gauge. 
Spiked skid. A skid in which spikes are inserted in order to keep logs from 

shding back when being loaded or piled. (Gen.) 
Spike knot. A knot sawed in a lengthwise direction. (Gen.) 

Syn.: horn knot, mule-ear knot, .slash knot. (P. C. F.) 
Spike peddler. One who deUvers spikes to spikers in a railroad track-laying 

crew. (S. F.) 
Splash, V. To drive logs by releasing a head of water confhied by a spla.sh 
dam. (Gen.) 

Sj'n.: flood, sluice. 
Splash boards. 1. Boards placed temporarily on top of a rolling dam to 
heighten the dam, and thus to increase the head of water available for river 
driving. (N. F.) 

Syn.: slash boards. (N. W.) 

2. A false gate placed on the upstream side of a lift gate as an aid in 
raising the latter. (N. W.) 
Splash dam. A dam built to store a head of water for driving logs. (Gen.) 

Syn.: cut-away dam (E. C.), flood dam. (Gen.) 
Splicer, 7i. One who splices cables on a logging operation. (P. C. F.) 
Split roof. A roof of a logging camp or barn made by laying strips split 
from straight-grained timber. The strips run from the ridge pole to the 
eaves, and break the joints with other strips, as in a shingle roof. (N. F.) 
Spool donkey. A donkey engine equipped with a spool or capstan, instead of 
a drum. (P. C. F.) 

Syn.: dolbeer (Cal.), gypsy yarder, donkey. 
Spool tender. 1. One who guides the cable on a spool donkey. (P. C. F.) 

2. One who operates the loading drum on a donkey. (P. C. F.) 
Spot, V. 1. See Blaze. 

2. To place logging cars at a loading point or opposite a landing. (S. F., 
P. C. F.) 



508 APPENDIX 

Spotting line. A cable by which a log loader or power skidder moves itself 
for short distances; also a line used to pull emptj- log cars into position for 
loading. (S. F., P. C. F.) 

Sprag. See Gooseneck. 

Spreader, n. 1. A stout stick which holds apart the free ends of two chains 
which are attached to a large ring. The term is often appUed to the en- 
tire rig. The spreader is used in skidding on rough bottom or on steep 
grades in place of a doubletree. (Gen.) 
Syn.: equalizer, stretcher. 

2. A piece of steel rail used to separate the loading hooks in loading with 
a gin pole. (P. C. F.) 

Spring board. A short board, shod at one end with an iron calk, which is 
inserted in a notch cut in a tree, on which the faller stands while felhng 
the tree. (P. C. F.) See Bucking Board. 
Syn. : chopping board. 

Spring pole. 1. A springy pole attached to the tongue of a logging sled 
and passing over the roll and under the beam, for holding the weight of 
the tongue off the horses' necks. (N. F.) 

2. A device for steadying a cross-cut saw, so that one man can use it 
instead of two. (P. C. F.) 

Sprinkler, n. A large wooden tank from which water is sprinkled over 
logging roads during freezing weather in order to ice the surface. (N. W., 
L. S.) 

Syn. : ice box, tank, water box. 

Sprinkler sleds. The sleds upon which the sprinkler is mounted. They 
consist of two sleds whose runners turn up at each end, fastened together 
by cross chains, and each having a pole, in order that the sprinkler may 
be hauled in either direction without turning around. (N. F.) 

Spud, n. 1. A tool for removing bark. (Gen.) 
Syn. : barking iron. 
2. See Stump spud. 

Spudder, n. See Barker. 

Spur, n. A branch logging railroad. (Gen.) 

Stag, V. To cut off trousers at the knee, or boots at the ankle. (N. F., 
P. C. F.) 

Stamping hammer. See Marking hammer. 

Standard, n. See Market. 

Standard knot. 1. A knot that is sound and not over 1| inches in diameter. 
(S. F.) 
Syn.: tight knot. (P. C. F.) 

2. In hardwoods and cypress, a knot that is not more than 1^ inches in 
diameter. 

Standard lengths. Lengths into which rough lumber is cut for general use. 
The standard lengths in southern yellow pine are multiples of 2 feet, from 
4 to 24 feet inclusive. In surfaced products, such as flooring, ceiling, drop 
siding, and like material, the standard lengths range in multiples of 1 foot, 
from 4 to 20 feet inclusive. Hardwood standard lengths run from 4 to 
16 feet inclusive. In the province of Quebec, Canada, the standard lengths 
are 12 and 13 feet. 



TERMS USED IN LOGGING 509 

Standing line. See Skj'^line. 

Start, n. A pin or pins fastened to the runners of a dray and holding in place 

the upper removable bar or bunk. (N. W.) 
Starting bar. See Gee throw. 
Stay boom. A boom fastened to a main boom and attached upstream to 

the shore to give added strength to the main boom. (Gen.) 
Steam bucking saw. A portable steam-driven saw used for bucking logs at 

the landing. (Gal.) 
S3-n. : drag saw. 
Steam dago. A power-driven log bucking device. (P. C. F.) 
Steam hauler. A geared steam tractor used to haul loaded logging sleds over 

an iced road. It is equipped with a spiked metal belt wliich runs over 

sprocket wheels replacing the driving wheels, and is guided bj' a sled, turned 

by a steering wheel, upon wliich the front end rests. (N. F.) 
Steam jammer. See Steam loader. 
Steam loader. A machine operated by steam and used for loading logs upon 

cars. (Gen.) 

Syn.: loader, steam jammer. 
Steam skidder. See Skidder. 

Steel crew. The crew which lays and takes up railroad track. (Gen.) 
Stem winder. See Corkscrew. 
Still water. That part of a stream having such slight fall that no current 

is apparent. Ant.: quickwater. (Gen.) 
Syn.: deadwater. 
Stock, n. The handle of a cant hook or peavey. (App.) 
Stock logs, to. To deliver logs from stump to mill or raUroad. (S. F.) 
Stog, V. See Chink. 
Storage boom. A strong boom used to hold logs in storage at a sawmill. 

(Gen.) 
Syn. : holding boom, receiving boom. 
Stow logs, to. In rafting, to place logs together and parallel mthin boom 

sticks which mark the outside of the raft section. (P. C. F.) 
Straight line. The direct attachment of a pulling cable from a donkej' engine 

to a log without the use of block and tackle. (P. C. F.) 
Straw boss, n. A subforeman in a logging camp. (N. W., L. S.) 

Syn.: head push. 
Stray. 1. A marked log passing through the sorting gap of a boom company 

and about the disposition of which there have been no instructions given. 

(L. S.) 

2. A log which has passed the mill where it should have been taken from 
the water. (N. F., E. C.) 

3. See Prize log. 

Straw line. In power skidding, a small cable which is used in changing the 
skidding lines from one run to another. (P. C. F.) 
Syn.: gra.ss hne. 
Stream jam. See Center jam. 
Stretcher. See Spreader. 
Stringer road. 1. See Fore-and-aft road. 



510 APPENDIX 

2. A tram road with sawed wooden rails, used for hauling logs. (App.) 

Strip, V. To mark off strips for tie hackers. (R. M. F.) 

Strip, 71. An area of timber designated to be cut by a tie hacker. (R. M. F.) 

Strip road. In a crosstie operation, a road cut out by the tie hacker on a 
given strip so that the haulers can reach the ties. (R. M. F.) 

Stub. See Snag. 

Stull, 71. A timber used in a mine to support the sides and roofs of the pass- 
ages. (Gen.) See Mine prop; Prop. 

Stumpage, n. The value of timber as it stands uncut in the woods; or, in 
a general sense, the standing timber itself. (Gen.) 

Stump roller. See Road roller. 

Stump spool. See Road roller. 

Stump spud. A tool with a crowbar point on one end and a small spoon-like 
shovel on the other end, used in digging holes under stumps, preparatory 
to placing a blasting charge. (P. C. F.) 
Syn.: spud. 

Sulky. See Logging wheels. 

Swamp, V. To clear the ground of underbrush, fallen trees, and other ob- 
structions preparatory to constructing a logging road, opening out a gutter 
road, skidding with animals, or yarding with a donkey engine. (Gen.) 

Swamper, n. 1. One who swamps. (Gen.) 
Syn.: beaver, busher, gutterman. (N. F.) 

2. One who walks behind a horse truck loaded with logs and applies the 
brake. (Cal.) 

3. See Gopher. 

4. See Chore boy. 

Swamp hook. A large, single hook on the end of a chain, used in handling 
logs, in skidding and in loading with a crosshaul. (Gen.) 
S.vn.: jam hook. (N. W.) 
Sway bar. 1. A strong bar or pole, two of which couple and hold in position 
the front and rear bunks of a logging sled. They are provided with a 
knuckle joint which permits the bunks to be jackknifed when the sleds are 
travehng empty. (N. F.) 
Syn.: side pole. 

2. The bar used to couple together two logging cars. (Gen.) 
Sweep, n. The natural crook in a log. (Gen.) 

Sweeps, n. Trees overhanging a stream which impede log driving. (E. C.) 
Sweep the rear, to. See Sack the rear, to. 
Swell butted. As applied to a tree, greatly enlarged at the base. (Gen.) 

Syn.: bottle butted, churn butted. 
Swifter, n. 1. Logs which are placed across the end of a raft section in order 
to prevent the logs in the raft from having too much play. (P. C. F.) 

2. A rope or cable placed across the end of the first tier of each raft 
section in order to hold the boom sticks in position. Swifters are un- 
necessary where there are permanent booms to hold the raft sticks in place. 
(P. C. F.) 
Syn.: cinch line. 
Swing, V. See Gun. 



TERMS USED IN LOGGING 511 

Swing dingle. A single sled with wood-shod runners and a tongue with 
lateral play, used in hauUng logs down steep slopes on bare ground. (N. F.) 
Syn.: loose-tongued sloop. 

Swing donkey. A donkey engine stationed between the yarding engine and 
the road engine or railroad. (P. C. F.) 

Swing team. In a logging team of six, the pair between the leaders and the 
butt team. (Gen.) 

Swing yoke. In an ox team of three or more yokes, the pairs between the 
leaders and the wheelers. (App., S. F.) See Swing team. 

Tag chain. See Cross chain. 

Tag line. In yarding with a donkey engine, an extra cable used for various 
I)urposes. It may serve as an extension to the main cable in order to reach 
logs beyond the range of the pulling line; also it may be used to attach a 
block to a log or serve some similar purpose. (P. C. F.) 

Tail chain. A brake consisting of a heavy chain bound around the traihng 
end of logs, used to check the speed of sleds on steep slopes. (N. W.) 

Tail-down, to. To roll logs on a skidway to a point on the skids where they 
can be easily reached by the loading crew. (N. F.) 
Syn.: tail-in. (S. F.) 

Tail end. See Rear. 

Tailer-in, n. One who tails down for a loading crew. (S. F.) 
Syn.: roll-down man. (S. F.) 

Tail grab. See Single coupler. 

Tail hold. 1. A means of obtaining increased power in moving a log by 
tackle. The cable is passed through a block attached to the log and the 
end fastened to a stationary object, so that hauling on the other end gives 
twice the power which would be attained by direct attachment of the 
cable to the log. (P. C. F.) 

2. The attachment of the rear end of a donkey .sled, usually to a tree 
or .stump. (P. C. F.) 

Tail hook. See Dog. 

Tail-in, to. See Tail-down, to. 

Tail tree. In power skidding, a tree at the end of a nm to which the tackle 
is fastened. (S. F., P. C. F.) 

Takoma. See Roader. 

Tally board. A thin, smooth board used by a scaler to record the number 
or volume of logs. (Gen.) 

Tally man. One who records or talhes the measurements of logs as they 
are called by the scaler. (N. F.) 

Tank, n. See Sprinkler. 

Tank conductor. One who has charge of the crew which operates a sprinkler 
or tank, and who regulates the flow of water, in icing logging roads. (N. F.) 

Tank heater. A sheet-iron cy Under extending through a tank or sprinkler, 
in which a fire is kept to prevent the water in the tank from freezing while 
icing logging roads in extremely cold weather. (N. F.) 

Tanking. The act of hauling water in a tank, to ice a logging road. (N. F.) 

Tap line. A chartered logging railroad which shares with the trunk line rail- 
roads in a divi.sion of the through lumber rate to market, on products orig- 
inating at the plant of the owners of the logging railroad. (S. F.) 



512 APPENDIX 

Team boss. One who has charge of the skidding teams in a logging operation. 
(S. F.) 
Syn.: captain. 

Tee, n. A strip of iron about 6 inches long with a hole in the center, to which 
a short chain is attached; it is passed through a hole in a gate plank, turned 
crosswise, and so used to hold the plank when tripped in a splash dam- 
(N. W.) 
Syn.: toggle. (R. M. F.) 

Thousand legs. See Corkscrew. 

Three-block hold. See Block hold. 

Throw, V. See Wedge a tree, to. 

Throw line. See Trip line. 

Throw out. See Frog. 

Tide, n. A freshet. In the Appalachian region logs are rolled into a stream 
and a " tide " awaited to carry them to the boom. (App.) 

Tie chopper. See Tie hacker. 

Tie cutter. See Tie hacker. 

Tie hack. See Tie hacker. 

Tie maker. .See Tie hacker. 

Tier, n. In rafting, the group of parallel logs which are stowed in each raft 
section. (P. C. F.) 

Tight knot. See Standard knot. 

Timber, n. 1. A term which may have any of the following meanings: 
wood suitable for building houses and ships, and for use in carpentry and 
joinery; trees cut down and squared or capable of being squared or cut into 
beams, rafters, boards, etc.; growing trees suitable for constructive pur- 
poses; trees generally; woods or a single piece of wood, whether suitable 
for use or already in construction; the body, stem, or trunk of a tree. 
The meaning to be given to the term depends upon the connection in 
which it is used and sometimes upon the occupation of the person who uses 
the term. (Supreme Court of Georgia, 52 Southeastern Reporter, 324.) 

2. A term which has a restricted meaning depending on the connection 
in which it is employed. It may refer to standing trees or stems, or trunks 
of trees cut and shaped for use in the erection of buildings or other struc- 
tures and not manufactured into lumber, within the ordinary meaning of 
" lumber." It does not ordinarily refer to the articles manufactured 
therefrom, such as shingles, lath, fence rails, railroad ties, etc. (Supreme 
Court of North Carohna, 82 Southeastern, 1036.) 

Timber beast. See Lumberjack. 

Timber carrier. .SVe Lug hooks. 

Timber compass. .See Gun. 

Timber contract. See Timber right. 

Timber grapple. See Lug hooks. 

Timber plugger. One who surreptitiously plugs knot holes and bad knots, 
especially on spar timber. (S. F.) 

Timber right. A term used to denote the purchase of standing timber, with- 
out the acquisition of title to the land (Gen.) 
Syn. : timber contract. 



TERMS USED IX LOGGING 513 

Timber wheels. See Logging wheels. 

Toe piling. Sharpened poles or timbers which are driven next to the up- 
stream face of the mudsills of a dam to prevent water from getting vmder 

the foundations. (Gen.) 
Syn : toe spihng. 
Toe ring. The heavy ring or ferrule on the end of a cant hook. It has a 

\i\) on the lower edge to prevent sUpping when a log is grasped. (Gen.) 
Toe spiling. See Toe pihng. 
Toggle, n. See Toe. 
Toggle chain. 1. A short chain with a ring at one end and a toggle hook and a 

ring at the other, fastened to the sway bar or bunk of a logging sled and used 

to regulate the length of a binding chain. (N. F.) 
Syn.: bunk chain. 
2. See Boom chain. 
Toggle hook. A grab hook with a long shank, used on a toggle chain. (N. F.) 
Tombstone, n. A slab torn from the bole, which adheres to the stump when 

a tree is felled. (S. F.) 
Tommy Moore. See Bull block. 

Tong, r. To handle logs wnth skidding tongs. (N. F.) 
Tong hooker. 1. One who places the skidding tongs or chokers on logs which 

are being skidded by power or hauled on high-wheeled carts. (S. F.) 
2. Sec Ground loader. 
Tong puller. See CJround loader. 
Tong unhook er. One stationed near the power skidder who releases the 

skidding tongs or removes the chokers from logs which have been drawn 

alongside the railroad. (S. F.) 
Top bind chains. See Top chains. 
Top chains. Chains used to secure the upper tiers of a load of logs after the 

capacity of the regular binding chains has been fUled. (Gen.) 
Syn.: top bind chains. fS. F.) 
Top load. A load of logs piled more than one tier high, as distinguished 

from a bunk load. (Gen.) 
Top loader. That member of a loading crew who stands on the top of a load 

and places logs as they are sent up. (Gen ) 
Syn.: sky hooker. (N. F.) 
Top-lop, V. See Lop. 

Tote, I'. To haul supplies to a logging camp. (N. F.) 
Tote road. A road used for hauhng supplies to a logging camp. (N. F.) 

Syn.: fly road, hay road. 
Tote sled. See Jumper. 
Tow team. An extra team stationed at an incUne in a logging road to assist 

the regular teams in ascending with loaded sleds. (N. F.) 
Syn.: .snatch team. 
Traction, n. An oil burning or a gasohne traction engine u.sed in hauling 

log trucks. (Cal.) 
Trail, v. See Jigger. 
Trail, n. 1. See Turn. 

2. The path traveled by a team when traiUng logs in a chute. (R. M. F.) 



514 APPENDIX 

Trail chute. See Trailing slide. 
Trail dogs. See Grapples. 

Trailers, n. Several logging sleds hitched one behind another and pulled by 
from 4 to 8 horses driven by one man, thus saving teamster's wages; also 
applied to sleds or wagons drawn by a steam or gasoHne log hauler. (N. F., 
E. C.) 
Trailing slide. A slide on which the grade is so low that animals are required 
to move the logs. (App.) 

Syn.: trail chute. (R. IM. F.) 
Trail slide. An earth skidding trail, reinforced on the lower side by n fender 

skid. (App.) 
Train, n. See Turn. 
Tram, n. See Tramway. 

Tramway, n. A light or temporary railroad for the transportation of logs 
often with wooden rails and operated by horse power. (Gen.) 
Syn.: tram. 
Trap boom. See Catch boom. 
Travois, n. See Go-devil. 
Travois road. See Skid road. 
Trip, ;'. See Wedge a tree, to. 
Trip, n. See Turn. 

Trip a dam, to. To remove the planks which close a splash dam. (N. F.) 
Trip line. 1. A light rope attached to a dog hook, used to free the latter 
when employed in breaking a jam, a skidway or a load. (N. F.) 
Syn.: throw hne. 
2. See Haul back. 
Tripsin, n. A timber placed across the bottom of the sluiceway in a splash 

dam, against which rest the planks by which the dam is closed. (Gen.) 
Trolley, n. A traveling block used on a skyline in steam skidding. (S. F., 
P. C. F.) 

Syn.: bicycle, carriage (S. F., P. C. F.), buggy. (Cal.) 
Trough roof. A roof on a logging camp or barn, made of small logs split 
lengthwise, hollowed into troughs and laid from ridge pole to eaves. The 
joints of the lower tier are covered by inverted troughs. (N. F.) 
Truck, n. 1. A heavy wagon used to haul logs, either Avith animal or jjower 
traction. (Gen.) 

2. See Logging truck. 
Truck driver. A teamster who skids logs with a bummer. 
Tump line. Two leather straps sewed or buckled to a leather head strap 

about four inches wide, and used to carry packs. (E. C.) 
Turkey, n. A bag containing a lumberjack's outfit. To " histe the turkey " 
is to take one's personal belongings and leave camp. (N. W., L. S.) 
See Duffle bag. 
Turn, n. 1. A single trip and return made by one team in hauling logs — 
e.g., a four-turn road is a road the length of which will permit only four 
round trips per day. (N. F.) 
Syn.: trip. (Gen.) 

2. Two or more logs coui)led together end to end for hauling. (P. C, F.) 
Syn.: trail, train. 



TERMS USED IN LOGGING 515 

Tum-around, n. A cleared area, .surrounding a bunched pile of logs, in 

which logging wheels turn. (Texas.) 
Turner. See Log roller. 
Turnout, n. A short side road from a logging-sled road, to allow loaded 

sleds to pass. (N. W., L. S.) 
Twin sled. See Logging sled. 
Twister, n. 1. See Spanish windlass. 

2. See Camp foreman. 
Twitch, V. See Skid. 
Two-block hold. See Block hold. 
Two-faced tie. A pole tie with only two hewed faces. It is made from a 

stick of timber too small to hew four sides. (S. F.) 
Two sled. See Logging sled. 
Undercut, v. See Notch. 
Undercut, n. The notch cut in a tree to determine the direction in which the 

tree is to fall, and to prevent .spUtting. (Gen.) 
Syn.: notch (Gen.), nick (S. F.), box (N. F.). 
Undercut hold. A method of arranging the choker on a log so that when a 

forward puU is exerted the log will roll backward. (P. C. F.) 
Syn.: underhold roll. 
Undercutter, n. \. A skilled woodsrhan who chops the undercut in trees so 

that they shall fall in the proper direction. (Gen.) 

2. A tool used to support the back of a cross-cut saw when a bucker is 

making a cut from the under side of a log. (P. C. F.) 
Underhold roll. See Undercut hold. 
Union drive. A drive of logs belonging to several owners, who share the 

expense pro rata. (N. F.) 
Upright roller. See Road roUer. 
Value, ('. See Cruise. 
Valuer, n. See Cruiser. 
Van, n. 1. The .small store in a logging camp in which clothing, tobacco, 

and medicine are kept to supply the crew. (N. W., L. S.) See Commissary. 
Syn.: wanigan. (N. W.) 

2. Clothing and small wares supplied to woodsmen. (E. C.) 
Wagon sled. See Logging sled. 
Wane, ??. Bark or the lack of bark or a decrease in wood from any cau.se on 

the edge of a board, plank, or timber. (Gen.) 
Wanigan, n. 1. A houseboat u.sed as .sleeping quarters or as kitchen and 

dining-room by river drivers. (N. W., L. S.) 

2. The outfit of a logging crew, especially of a log-driving crew. (N. W.) 

3. See Van. 

Warp, V. To tow a boom of logs ^\^th a headworks or alligator. 
Syn.: kedge. 

Waste, n. On a logging operation, that portion of the tree which has mer- 
chantable value, but is not utilized. The standard varies with the species, 
location of the timber, and market conditions. (Gen.) 

Water box. See Sprinkler. 

Water buck. One who packs water, either for a logging crew or for a donkey 
engine. (Cal.) 



516 APPENDIX 

Water ladder. Pole guides up and dowTi which a barrel shdes in filling a 

sprinkler b}' horse power. (X. W., L. S.) 
Water slide. See Flume. 
Water stain. Streaks or patches of red or brown discoloration in firm wood 

of hemlock. 
Water streak. A dark streak in oak lumber due to injury to the standing 

timber. (App.) 
Weaver's bind. A method of binding chain.s around logs on a dray. (N. W.) 
Wedge a tree, to. To topple over with wedges a tree that is being felled. 

(Gen.) 
Syn.: throw, trip. 
Well, n. A hole dug in the snow surrounding a tree in order that the chopper 

may cut the tree at the required height. (R. IM. F.) 
Wet slide. See Flume. 

Wheel camp. 1. An operation in which the logs are transported to the skid- 
ways on logging wheels. (Cal.) 

2. A camp, the quarters of which are mounted on railroad trucks. 

(P. C. F.) 
Wheelers, n. In a team, the pair next to the load. (App., E. C, S. F.). 

See Snub yoke. 
Syn.: butt team. 
Whiffletree neckyoke. A heavy logging neckjoke, to the ends of which 

short whiffletrees are attached by rings. From the ends of the whiffletrees 

mde straps run to the breeching, thus giving the team added power in 

holding back loads on steep .slopes. (X. F.) 
Whip-poor-will, re. A small log fastened diagonally across a log slide and 

used to shunt logs onto a dump. (App.) 
Syn.: jumper. 
Whistle boy. One who transmits orders from the foreman of a skidding crew 

to the engineer of a pullboat. (S. F.) 
Whistle punk. See Signal man. 
White water. See Quick water. 
White water man. A log driver who is expert in breaking jams on rapids or 

falls. (X. F.) 
Widow maker. 1. A broken hmb hanging loose in the top of a tree, which 

in its fall may injure a man below (X. F.); or a breaking cable (P. C. F.). 
Syn.: deadman. (X. W.) 

2. A tree which in falHng is lodged in the top of another. (App.) 
Wigwam, to make a. In felling trees, to lodge several in such a way that 

they support each other. (X. F.) 
Windfall, re. An area upon which the trees have been thrown by wind; 

also, a .single tree thrown by wind. (Gen.) 
Syn.: blow down, wind slash. 
Windshake, n. See Shake. 
Wind slash. See WindfaU. 
Wind splitter. See Peaker. 
Wing dam. See Pier dam. 
Wing jam. A jam which is formed against an obstacle in the stream and 



TERMS U.SED IN LOGGING 517 

slants upstream until the upper end rests solidly against one shore, with 
an open channel for the passage of logs on the opposite side. (N. F.) 

Woodboat, ?i. A single sled with two skids attached by their forward ends to 
the bunk, and with their rear ends dragging, which is used to haul cord- 
wood off of steep or rocky slopes. (N. W.) 

Wood buck. See Wood bucker. 

Wood bucker. One who cuts wood for a donkey, road engine, or other power 
skidding device. (P. C. F., R. M. F.) 
Syn.: wood buck. 

Woodhick. See Lumberjack. 

Wood passer. One who transports wood fuel in a flatboat from the cutting 
point to a puUboat. (S. F.) 

Woodpecker, n. A poor chopper. (Gen.) 
Syn.: beaver. (N. W.) 

Wrapper chain. See Binding chain. 

Yard, v. See Skid; Rank. 

Yard, n. See Skidway; LancUng. 

Yarding donkey. A donkey engine mounted upon a heavy sled, used in 
•arding logs by drum and cable It hauls logs from the stump to a skid- 
road or to a lancUng, for short distances only. See Half-breed; Roader; 
Donkey. 

Yarding hook tender. See Hook tender. 

Yarding sled. See Dray. 

Yarding spool. See Road roller. 

Yard tender. See Decker. 

Yoke, n. The heavy U-shaped part of a block by wliich the block is attached 
to an object. (Gen.) 
Syn.: gooseneck, shackle. 



LOGGING CAMP KITCHEN UTENSILS 



Table X 

TABLE AND COOKING UTENSILS 

Required for a Northern Camp Feeding Fifty Men ' 



Table Utensils 



Dinner Plates 50 

Soup Plates 50 

Coffee and Tea Dippers (1 pint) 50 

Forks 50 

Knives 50 

Table Spoons 50 

Tea Spoons 50 

Vegetable Dishes, 6-inch 18 

Platters, 8-inch 9 



18 



Soup Ladles 

Sugar Bowls 

Bowls for Sauce and Pickles . 

Vinegar Bottles 9 

Molasses Jugs 9 

Pepper Shakers 9 

Salt Shakers 9 

Bumpers, 2 quart 18 

Bumpers, 1 quart 9 



Cooking Utensils 
Roast Pan, 17 X 17 X 4 inches, 

heavy iron, with cover 1 

Biscuit and Cake Pans 6 

Fry Pan 1 

Bread Tins 18 



Bean Pots, large 2 

Lard Frying Kettle with Drainer 1 

Beef Boilers, heavy 2 

Coffee and Tea Boilers 2 

Kettles, enamelled 2 

Wash Boilers 1 

Pastry Board 1 

Chopping Bowl 1 

Lunch Buckets 

Fireless Cooker, complete 1 

Meat Chopper 1 

Water Pails 3 

Mixing Pans 2 

Dish Pans, large 2 

Butcher Knives 1 

1 Reported at the First Annual Conference of the Woods Department 
Berhn Mills Co., et al, Nov. 25 and 26, 1913. 

521 .» 



Chopping Knives 

Dippers, long handled 
Dipper, short handled . 

Faucets 

Nutmeg Grater 

Sieves 

Skimmers 

Mixing Spoons 

Carving Knife 

Bread Knife 

Meat Fork 

Doughnut Cutter 

Biscuit Cutter 

Rolling Pin 

Meat Cleaver 

Meat Saw 

Flour Sifter 

Grease Brush 

Can Opener 



522 



APPENDIX 



General Utensils 



Cook Stoves 2 

Brooms 

Alarm Clock 1 

Kerosene Oil Cans 2 

Hanging Lamps 12 

Hand Lamps 1 

Lanterns 2 

Matches 



Towels 

Rags 

Scrubbing Pails 2 

Mop Wringers 2 

Mop Handles 2 

Wash Basin 1 

Wash Board 1 

Pot Glove (or cleaner) 1 



Soap Brush for pots, etc. 



fB0r£K7T LIBRARY 
i. C State r liege 



n>Fi:inT LrsmAET 
N, 



ANIMAL RATIONS 



Table XI 
WOLFF-LEHMANN FEEDING STANDARDS^ 

[Showing amounts of nutrients per 1000 pounds live weight for one day's feeding.] 



Oxen:2 

At rest in stall. . 

At light work. . . 

At medium work 

At heavy work . . 
Horses 

At light work. . . 

At medium work 

At heavy work . . 



Total 

dry 

matter 


Dige 


Protein 


Pounds 


Pounds 


18 
22 

25 

28 


0.7 
1.4 
2.0 

2.8 


20 
24 
26 


1.5 
2.0 
2.5 



Digestible nutrients 



Carbohy- 
drates 



8.0 
10.0 

11.5 
13.0 

9.5 
11.0 
13.3 



0.1 
0.3 
0.5 
0.8 

0.4 
0.6 
0.8 



Calories* 

16,600 
22,500 
27,200 
32,755 

22,150 
26,700 
32,750 



> From The Feeding of Farm Animals, by E. W. Allen. Farmers' Bulletin No.'22, U. S. De- 
partment of Agriculture, Washington, D. C, 1901, p. 12. 

2 For an unworked ox of 1000 pounds weight, the standard calls for 0.78 pound of digestible pro- 
tein, 8 pounds of digestible carbohydrates, and 0.1 pound of digestible fat, which would furnish 
16,600 calories of heat and energy. When heavily worked the same ox would require, according to 
the standard, food with four times as much protein and of nearly twice the fuel value. 

' The value of food to produce heat for the body and energy for work is measured in calorics 
and is calculated from the nutrients digested. The fuel value of one pound of digestible fat is 
estimated to be 4230 calories and of one pound of digestible protein or of carbohydrates about 
1860 calories. The total value of ii feeding stuff is found by using these factors, the equivalents 
for the common foods being given on pages 134 and 135. 

* A calorie is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water about 
4 degrees. 



525 



526 



APPENDIX 



Table XII 

DRY MATTER AND DIGESTIBLE FOOD INGREDIENTS IN 100 
POUNDS OF FEEDING STUFFS^ 



Feeding stuff 



Green fodder: 

Corn fodder (average of all va- 
rieties) 

Kafir-corn fodder 

R)-e fodder 

Oat fodder 

Redtop, in bloom 

Orchard grass, in bloom 

Meadow fescue, in bloom 

Timotlw, at different stages. . . 

Kentucky blue grass 

Hungarian grass 

Red clover, at different stages. 

Crimson clover 

Alfalfa, at different stages 

Cowpea 

Soy bean 

Rape 

Corn silage (recent analyses) 

Corn fodder, field cured 

Corn stover, field cured 

Hay from — 

Barley 

Oats .' 

Orchard grass 

Redtop 

Timoth.y (all analyses) 

Kentucky blue grass 

Hungarian grass 

Meadow fescue 

Mixed grasses 

Mixed grasses and clover 

Red clover 

Alsike clover 

White clover 

Crimson clover 

Alfalfa 

Cowpea 

Soy bean 

Wheat straw 

Hye straw 

Oat straw 

Soy-bean straw 

Roots and tubers: 

Mangel-wurzels 

Turnips 

Ruta-bagas 

Carrots 



Total 

dry 

matter 



Pounds 

20.7 
27.0 
23.4 
37.8 
34.7 
27.0 
30.1 
38.4 
34.9 
28.9 
29.2 
19.3 
28.2 
16.4 
28.5 
14.3 
25.6 
57.8 
59.5 



89.4 
84.0 
90.1 
91.1 
86.8 
78.8 
92.3 
80.0 
87.1 
87.1 
84.7 
90.3 
90.3 
91.4 
91.6 
89.3 



90.4 
92.9 
90.8 
89.9 

9.1 
9.5 
11.4 
11.4 



Pounds 

1.10 
0.87 
2.05 
2.44 
2.06 
1.91 
1.49 
2.01 
2.66 
1.92 
3.07 
2.16 
3.89 
1.68 
2.79 
2.16 
1.21 
2.34 
1.98 

5.11 

4.07 

4.78 

4.82 

2.89 

4.76 

4.50 

4.20 

4.22 

6.16 

7.38 

8.15 

11.46 

10.49 

10.58 

10.79 

10.78 

0.37 

0.63 

1.20 

2.30 

1.03 
0.81 
0.88 
0.81 



Carboh\- 

dretes 



Pounds 

12.08 
13.80 
14.11 
17.99 
21.24 
15.91 
16.78 
21.22 
17.78 
15.63 
14.82 

9.31 
11.20 

8.08 
11.82 

8.65 
14.56 
32.34 
33.16 

35.94 
33.35 
41.99 
46.83 
43.72 
37.46 
51.67 
43.34 
43.26 
42.71 
38.15 
41.70 
41.82 
38.13 
37.33 
38.40 
38.72 
36.30 
40.58 
38.64 
39.98 

5.65 
6.46 
7.74 
7.83 



Pounds 

0.37 
0.43 
0.44 
0.97 
0.58 
0.58 
0.42 
0.64 
0.69 
0.36 
0.69 
0.44 
0.41 
0.25 
0.63 
0.32 
0.88 
1.15 
0.57 

1.55 
1.67 
1.40 
0.95 
1.43 
1.99 
1.34 
1.73 
1.33 
1.46 
1.81 
1.36 
1.48 
1.29 
1.38 
1.51 
1.54 
0.40 
0.38 
0.76 
1.03 

0.11 
0.11 
0.11 
0.22 



• From The Feeding of Farm Animals, by E. W. Allen. Farmers' Bulletin No. 22, U. S. De- 
partment of Agriculture, Washington, D. C, 1901, p. 8. 



ANIMAL RATIONS 



527 



Table XII 

DRY MATTER AND DIGESTIBLE FOOD INGREDIENTS IN 100 
POUNDS OF FEEDING STUFFS — Contiyiued. 



Grains and other seeds: 

Corn (average of dent and flint) 

Kafir corn 

Barley 

Oats 

Rye 

Wheat (all varieties) 

Cottonseed (whole) 

Mill products: 

Corn meal 

Corn-and-cob meal 

Barley meal 

Ground corn and oats, equal 
parts 

Pea meal 

Waste products: 

Rye bran 

Wheat bran, all analyses 

Wheat middlings 

Wheat shorts 

Buckwheat bran 

Buckwheat middlings 

Cottonseed feed 

Cottonseed meal 

Cottonseed hulls 

Linseed meal (old process) . . . . . 

Linseed meal (new process) 



Total 
dry 

matter 



Pounds 



81.1 
87.5 
89.1 
89.0 
88.4 
89.5 
89.7 



85.0 
84.9 

88.1 

88.1 
89.5 

88.2 
88.5 
84.0 
88.2 
88.5 
88.2 
92.0 
91.8 
88.9 
90.8 
9&.] 



7.14 
5.78 
8.G9 
9.25 
9.12 
10.23 
11. OS 

6.20 
4.76 
7.36 

7.01 
16.77 

11.47 
12.01 
12.79 
12.22 
19.29 
22.34 

9.65 
37.01 

1.05 
28.76 
30.59 



Carbohy- 
drate.? 



Pounds 

66.12 
53.58 
64.83 
48.34 
69.73 
69.21 
33.13 

65.26 
60.06 

62.88 

61.20 

51.78 

52.40 
41.23 
53.15 
49.98 
31.65 
36.14 
38.57 
16.52 
32.21 
32.81 
38.72 



I'ound.' 

4.97 
1.33 
1.60 
4.18 
1.36 
1.68 
18.44 

3.50 
2.94 
1.96 

3.87 
0.65 

1.79 
2.87 
3.40 
3.83 
4.56 
6.21 
3.37 
12.58 
1.S9 
7.06 
2.90 



Calories 

157,237 
116,022 
143,499 
124,757 
152,400 
154,848 
160,047 

147,797 
132,972 
138,918 

143,202 
130,246 

126,352 
111,138 
136,996 
131,855 
113,992 
134,979 
103,911 
152,653 
69,839 
144.313 
141,155 



528 



APPENDIX 



Table XIII 
RATIONS ACTUALLY FED TO HORSES AND DIGESTIBLE 
NUTRIENTS AND ENERGY IN RATIONS CALCULATED TO 
A BASIS OF 1000 POUNDS LIVE WEIGHTi 



Kind of horses 



Arm II horsr.i- 
United States: 
Cavalry 



Artillery . 
Mules . . . . 



Farm hnrses 
General average for 
moderate work. 



Farm mules, Virginia 
Station. 



Average of 6, includ- 
ing above. 



Horses with severe work. 
Truck and draft horses: 
Chicago, III., daily ra- 
tion. 
South Omaha, Neb... 



Average of 5, includ- 
ing above. 



Feeding standards and 

average rations. 
American experiments. 
Horses with light work 

Driving horses 

General average 

Horses with moderate 
work: 
Express and cab horses 

Farm horses 

General average 

Mules with moderate 

work: Farm mules. 
Horses with severe work 
Truck and draft 
horses. 



10.50 ' 
1125 ( 
1025^ 



1500. 
1500 < 



Rations 

actually 

fed " 



Oats, 12. 
Hav, 14. 
Oats, 12. 
Hav, 14. 
Oats, 9.. 
Hav, 14. 



Hav, 15 2 
Corn, 10.5. 
Corn silage 
10.5 



Oats, 7.5. 
Hay, 20. . 
Oats, 15 . . 
Hay, 12 



Nutrients in ra 

tion per 1000 

pounds live 

weight 



■ 2.14 
■2.00 
■1 
2. 38 



Digestible nu- 
trients in rations 
per 1000 pounds 
live weight 



' From Principles of Horse Feeding, by C. F. Langworthy. Farmers' Bulletin No. 170, U. S. 
Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C, 1903, p. 31. 
2 The standard salt allowance is 2 ounces weekly. 



ANIMAL RATIONS 



529 



Table XIV 
RATIONS FED BY LOGGERS 



Horses: 
Heavy work at a 
sawmill, Canada 



Maine logging oi> 
eration. 



Mules: 

Louisiana logging 
operation. 



Missouri logging 
operation. 



Oxen. 
Missis.sippi logging 
operation. 



Alabama logging 
operation. 

Louisiana logging 
operation. 



15 pounds hay. 

10 pounds ground grain. 

1 pound bran. 

8 pounds oats. 

10| pounds corn. 
12 pounds oats. 
20 pounds hay. 



13| pounds corn-alfalfa, 
5 pounds chops. 
16 pounds hay. 

S pounds oats. 

7 pounds corn. 

20 pounds hay. 



20 pounds cottonseed hulls. 
5 pounds cottonseed meal. 

10 pounds hay. 

21 pounds corn. 

Corn fodder (unlimited). 



26 pounds corn. 
14 pounds hay. 



Barley 1 to 1. 
Oats. 



Animals weighing 
about 1600 pounds 
each. 



Animals weighing 
about 1300 pounds 
each. 

Animals weighing 
from 1200 to 1300 
pounds each. 



Table XV 
WEIGHT OF FEEDING STUFFS PER QUARTi 



Feeding stuff 


Pound 


Ounces 




1 
1 
1 
1 

1 
1 

1 

1 
1 
1 


12 
8 
6 

12* 

14 

10 
8 
2 

13 

10 

11 
3 
2 
8 










Wheat, whole 


Wheat bran 


Wheat bran, coarse 

Wheat middlings 


Wheat middlings, coarse 

Rve bran 


Gluten meal 


Gluten feed . . . 


Linseed meal 


Cottonseed meal 





' From The Feeding of Farm .\nimals, by E. W. Allen. Farmers' Bulletin No. 22, U. S. De- 
partment of Agriculture, p. 19, Washington, D. C, 1901. 



nommm^f^y 



INDEX 

(Numbers refer to pages. Illustrations arc indicated by an asterisk after 
page number.) 



Abutments, for improvement of stream banks, 399, 399*. 
Acid-wood, 22. 

transport in flumes, 433, 436, 450. 
Acts, Workmen's Compensation, 57. 
Adirondack Mountain region, length of logs cut in, 110. 
log brands in, 410. 
pulpwood flume in, 434. 
skidding with animals in, 145. 
Aerial tramways, 255. 

California, 2G0. 
Idaho, 258. 
Northwest, 256. 
Tennessee, 255. 
Alabama, cars and locomotives used on an operation in, 358. 
Alder, resistance of wood in cross-cut sawing, 86. 
Alligator for log towing, 417. 
American log loader, Model C, 362*, 363. 

Model D, 363. 
Angle bar, 324, 324*, 325. 
Animal draft, 129. 

for headworks, 417. 
for power logging, 230. 
movement of earth with, 302. 
wagons, 191. 
Animals, barns for, 67. 
Animals, corrals for, 69. 

decking logs with, 138. 
"drumming" with, 149. 
feed stuffs for, 526. 
feediiiK sf,;in(l;inls, 525. 
hand logging with, 145. 
hauhng, buniiiicrs, 184. 
cars, 280, 281. 
carts, 189. 
pole roads, 280. 
sleds, 177, 178. 
snow plows, 171. 
sprinklers, 173. 
wagons, 190, 192. 
horses, 131. 

loading log cars with, 360. 
mules, 132. 

output per team, skidding, 156. 
oxen, 130. 

picking rear with, 416. 
rations for, 132, 528. 

531 



532 INDEX 

Animals, snaking logs with, 145. 
stables for, 67. 

trips, daily, with two sleds, 178. 
water for, 134. 
Appalachians, chutes in, 270. 

drumming in, 149. 
hand logging in, 144. 
log marks and brands used in, 411. 
slides in, 262. 

snaking with animals in, 146. 
stringer railroads in, 281, 282. 
Arkansas, bummers used in, 184. 

railroad spur grade in, 295, 295*. 
Arresters, spark, 251, 350. 

locomotive, 350. 

Radley-Hunter, 351, 352* 
Sequoia, 351, 351*. 
power skidder, 251. 

Boomerang, 251*, 252. 
South Bend, 251, 251*. 
Ash, 7, 20. 

buoyancy of, 413. 
lumber cut, 1919, 20. 
stand, by regions, 7. 
per acre, 20. 
United States, 7. 
Aspen, resistance of wood in cross-cut sawing, 86. 
saw timber, stand, by regions, 7. 

United States, 7. 
Assorting gap, 403*, 405, 405*, 406*. 
Assorting, log, 402, 405. 
Ax, broad, 83, 83*. 
falling, 82, 83*. 
felling timber with, 106. 
handles for, 82, 83. 
turpentine, 83, 83*. 
weight of, 82, 83, 117. 



B 



Back spiking, railroad track, 330. 

Bag boom, 420. 

Ballast, brush, for railroad track, 321. 

Balsam, buoyancy of, 413. 

Bank, breaking down a, 415. 

Banking grounds, 414. 

Baptist cone, 237. 

Barge boom, 400, 402. 

Barge, log, 430. 

Bark mark, 410. 

Bark, peeling of, 99. 

Barking or rossing, 116. 

Barn-door sluice gate, 397. 

Barnhart log loader, 361. 

Barns, board, 67. 

car, 67, 68, 68*. 

log, 63. 

size, 65, 67. 

tent, 67. 
Bars, angle, 324, 324*, 325. 



INDEX 533 



Basswood, 19. 

Iniovancy of, 412, 413. 
lumber cut, 1920, 19. 
Bateaux, 413. 

Bear-trap sluice gate, 394, 394*. 
Beech, 7, 18. 

buoyancy of, 412, 413. 

lumber cut, 1920, 18. 

resistance of wood in cross-cut sawing, 

saw timber, stand, by regions, 7. 

United States, 7. 
Bibliography, 455. 
Birch, 7, 18. 

buoyancy of, 412, 413. 
paper, 19. 

per cent of logs lost on drives, 384. 
preparation for floating, 412. 
resistance of wood in cross-cut sawing, 
stand, by regions, 7. 
per acre, 19. 
United States, 7. 
Blacksmith tools, 64. 
Blade, saw, 84, 85. 
Blasting, rock, drilling, 304. 

explosives for, 306, 310. 
loading holes, 308. 
primers and priming for, 308. 
safet.v fuse and caps, 308. 
tamping, 310. 
stumps, 311. 
Boards, spring, 92, 92*. 
Bob, 161. 

Bole, utilization of, 109, 113. 
Bolts, shingle, 22. 

stave, 22. 
Bonus, Brown's Bay System, 43, 44. 
felling and log-making, 47. 
task system, 48. 
waste elimination, 47. 
Boom, bag or sack, 420. 
barge, 400, 402. 
bracket, 400, 401. 
catch, 416. 
chain, 400, 400*. 
companies, 408. 

Canada, 408. 
liability of, 409. 
fin, 400, 401*. 
harbor, 426. 
limber, 400. 
plug, 400. 
round, 426. 
sheep-shank, 400. 
sheer, 400. 
sticks, 403. . 
stiff, 400. 
storage, 403. 
towing, 400. 
trap, 416. 
Box, flume and log sluice, 433. 



534 INDEX 

Box, flume and log sluice, square-box, 436. 

V-box, 434. 
Bracket boom, 400, 401. 

Bracket or needle gate, logging dam, 395, 397*. 
Brands, log, 409, 410*. 

dehorning, 411. 
legal status of, 411. 
recording, 411. 
validity of, Minnesota, 411. 
Breakage of bole in felling, 47, 101. 
Bridge, crib, 319, 319*. 
sled, 169. 
truss, 318. 
British Columbia, hand-logging in, 145. 
Broad gauge railroad, 285. 

cars for, 353. 

flat, 353. 

chains for, 354. 
stakes for, 353. 
skeleton, 354. 
trucks, 355. 
Brush, ballast, railroad, 321. 

disposal of, Colorado, 28. 

Nationa